2012: Testamentum Domini (Testament Of Our Lord Jesus Christ) / trans. James Cooper & Arthur John Maclean

Testamentum Domini (Testament Of Our Lord Jesus Christ)

The Testament, Or Words Which Our Lord, When He Rose From The Dead, Spake To The Holy Apostles, And Which Were Written In Eight Books By Clement Of Rome, The Disciple Of Peter

200’s AD (Per Alistair Stewart, 2011)

350 AD (Per Translators in Ante-Nicene Christian Library, 1902)

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Source: Link on Archive.org

 

200’s AD Suggested Dating

The Apocalyptic Section of Testamentum Domini: An Attempt at Dating, by Alistair C. Stewart, Journal of Theological Studies, 2011

Abstract: The Testamentum Domini begins with an apocalypse of independent origin. Should it be possible to date this apocalyptic fragment that, in turn, would provide a terminus a quo for dating the church order. Whereas this apocalypse is often dated to the fifth century, this article suggests that it reflects events in the Roman Empire around the time of the rise of the Sassanid Empire in Persia and the consequent persecution of Christians, and that the antichrist depicted is a Zoroastrian priest; this, in turn, indicates a third-century date.

Ca.  350 AD Suggested Dating

1902 Translation

The Testament Of Our Lord

Translated into English from the Syriac With Introduction and Notes

By James Cooper, D.D. &Arthur John Maclean, M.A., F.R.G.S.

 

Dating Conclusion:  In reviewing the evidence, three possible hypotheses emerge — (a) That the author was an Apollinarian writer about 400, who inserted obsolete customs and an obsolete liturgy as a forgery. Want of motive makes this unlikely ; (b) that he was an anti-Arian writer about themiddle of the fourth century, who was a precursor in his doctrinal phraseology of Apollinarius; (c) that he was an anti-Arian writer about the middle of the fourth century, but that a later editor inserted the Mystagogia, and perhaps a few other interpolations. The second of these hypotheses appears to be the most probable ; but in a case of this sort it is impossible to be dogmatic. It can only be said that a date about 350 AD seems to cover most fully all the facts.

 


The Testament Of Our Lord

Translated into English from the Syriac With Introduction and Notes

By James Cooper, D.D. &Arthur John Maclean, M.A., F.R.G.S.

English Translation, 1902

 

The Testament, Or Words Which Our Lord, When He Rose From The Dead, Spake To The Holy Apostles,

And Which Were Written In Eight Books By Clement Of Rome, The Disciple Of Peter

 

The First Book

 Appearance of Christ to Disciples in Upper Room

It came to pass, after our Lord rose from the dead, and appeared unto us, and was handled by Thomas and Matthew and John, and we were persuaded that our Master was truly risen from the dead, that falling on our faces we blessed the Father of the new world, God, Who hath saved us by Jesus Christ our Lord; and being held in very great fear, we waited prostrate as babes which speak not.  But Jesus our Lord, putting His hand on each one of us separately, lifted us up, saying:

Why hath your heart thus fallen, and are ye stricken with great astonishment? Know ye not that He who sent Me can do glorious things for the salvation of them that have from the heart believed on Him? Stand not then as [men] astonished, and staring, neither [be] slothful, but as the children of light ask of My Father which is in Heaven the Spirit of counsel and might, and He will fill you with the Holy Ghost and grant you to be with Me forever.

Chapter 1

And we returned answer, saying, Lord, what is the Holy Ghost, and what is His power, whom Thou badest us to ask for? And our Lord said unto us:

Verily I say unto you that ye shall not be the children of the light except by the Holy Ghost. And we returned answer to Him, and said, our Lord, give us this [Spirit]. And immediately Jesus breathed on us. And after we had received the Holy Ghost, He said unto us. Verily I say unto you, that ye who have been made disciples unto the Kingdom of Heaven, and who have believed in Me with undoubting heart, and have cleaved unto Me, shall be with Me; and all those who through you know and do the will of My Father, who keep My words and know My sufferings, shall be made Holy, and shall dwell in the habitations of My Father, and shall be delivered from the evil days that are about to come; and I will be with them, shewing them My ways in which they shall live.

[Signs of the End of This World]

 

Chapter 2

And Peter and John answered and said unto Him: Tell us, our Lord, the signs of the end, and all the deeds which shall then be [done] by them who live in this world, so that we also may make [them] known to them who believe in Thy Name in all the nations, that those generations may observe [them] and live. But Jesus answered and said: Did I not, before I suffered for those that dwell on the earth, tell you some things about the end? We answered and said, [Yea,] our Lord; but now we desire to know the deeds which [are] the signs of the end of this world, if our Lord hath judged that this is fitting for us to know; for us, and for those who [shall] hear.

Chapter 3

And Jesus answered and said: In the time when I was in the world, I spoke unto you before I should be glorified, of signs that the end is near, thus:  that there shall be on earth famines and pestilences, tumults, and commotions, risings of nations against nations, and those other things whereof I have told you. But I commanded you to watch and pray. And now hear, ye children of the light; for My Father who hath sent Me to His inheritance hath predetermined in His foreknowledge, that in the last days, out of the latest generation, there should be vessels [of grace] Holy, and honoured, and elect. Wherefore I make known unto you exactly [what are] the things which are about to be, and when he shall arise, that Son of Perdition, the Enemy, the Adversary, and what he is like.

Chapter 4

There shall, then, be signs when the Kingdom is approaching such as these. After the famines and pestilences and tumults among the nations, then there shall rule, and rise to power, princes who love money, who hate the truth, who kill their brethren, liars, haters of the faithful, proud, lovers of gold, allied by relationship but not allied in counsel, for they wish each to destroy the life of his fellow. But there shall be in their hosts great affliction, and flight, and bloodshed.

Chapter 5

But there shall arise also in the West a king of foreign race, a prince of great craft, godless, a homicide, a deceiver, a lover of gold, great at devices, a hater of the faithful; a persecutor; and he shall bear rule also over barbarous nations, and shall shed much blood. At that time silver shall be despised and gold be honoured; and in every city and every country there shall be spoiling and robbery, and there shall be spilling of blood.

Chapter 6

Then there shall be signs in Heaven. A bow shall be seen, and a horn, and lights; and noises out of season, and sounds, and ragings of the sea and a roaring of the earth.

Chapter 7

But on the earth shall be signs; the birth of dragons from mankind, and likewise also of wild beasts; and young women newly wedded shall bring forth babes who speak perfectly and announce the last times, and pray to be put to death. And their looks shall be the looks of [men] far advanced in years; they shall be grey-headed when they are born. Also women shall bear babes with four feet: some shall bear spirits only, and some shall bear their progeny with unclean spirits. Others [there] shall [be who] practise divination in the womb, and shall speak with familiar spirits; and there shall be many other horrible signs.

Chapter 8

But in the assemblies, and nations, and Churches, there shall be many tumults, for there shall arise evil shepherds, unjust, slothful, avaricious, lovers of pleasures, lovers of gains, lovers of money, talkative, boastful, haughty, gluttonous, perverse, rash, given to delights, vain-glorious, opposing the ways of the Gospel and fleeing from the strait gate, removing from themselves every humiliation and not sorrowing for My humiliation, rejecting all the words of truth, and despising all the ways of piety, and not mourning for their sins. Therefore there shall be shed abroad among the nations, unbelief, hatred of the brotherhood, wickedness, bitterness, slothfulness, envy, hatred, strife, theft, oppression, drunkenness, debauchery, lasciviousness, licentiousness, fornication, and all such works as are contrary to the commandments of life. For from many mourning and gentleness shall flee away, and peace and meekness, and poverty and piety, and tears, because the shepherds heard these things, and did not do them, and moreover did not shew My commandments, seeing that they [themselves] are examples of wickedness in the nation.

 But the time shall come when some of them will deny Me, and will stir up confusions in the earth, and put their trust in a corruptible king. But they who in My Name endure unto the end shall be saved. Then they shall ordain commandments for men, [commandments] unlike the book of commandments in which the Father is well pleased; and My elect and My Holy ones shall be rejected by them, and called among them, as it were, the polluted. Yet these are the upright ones, pure, sad, merciful, quiet, kind, always knowing Him who is among them at all times, and they shall be called mad for My sake, who have saved them. It shall come to pass also in those days that My Father shall gather together out of that generation the pure ones, even the pure and faithful souls, those to whom I will appear, and with whom I will make My habitation, and I will send to them the understanding of knowledge and of truth, and the understanding of holiness, and they shall not cease praising and giving thanks to their God, My Father who sent Me; and they shall speak the truth at all times, and they shall teach [others] whose spirit they have tried [and have found] that they are upright and worthy, as for the Kingdom, and shall instruct them in knowledge and strength and prudence. And those who suffer persecution because they live in piety shall receive the reward of their praise. And it shall be in those times that all the Kingdoms shall be disturbed, and all the world also [shall see] affliction and want; and all this world shall be reputed as nothing; and all its possessions shall be destroyed by many [destroyers], and there shall be great scarcity of crops, and the winter shall be very severe; and the princes shall be few in number and small, who have rule over  gold and over silver, and are rich in all those things which are in this world; and the children of this world shall hold their storerooms and barns, and shall have rule over the markets of buying and selling.  Many shall be afflicted, and on that account shall call upon their God that they may be delivered. Blessed are they who are not [alive] at that time; and [blessed] they [also] who shall be [alive indeed], but [shall] endure. For when these things shall come to pass, then soon she that travaileth is near to bring forth, for the time is fulfilled.

Chapter 9

Then shall come the Son of Perdition, the Adversary, who boasteth and exalteth himself, working many signs and miracles, that he may deceive the whole earth, and overcome the innocent, My Holy ones. Blessed are they who endure in those days. But woe to those who are deceived.

Chapter 10

But Syria shall be plundered, and shall weep for her sons. Cilicia shall lift up her neck until He who judgeth her shall appear. The daughter of Babylon shall arise from the throne of her glory, that she may drink that wine which is mixed for her. Cappadocia, Lycia, Lyconia shall bow down the back, for many multitudes shall be depraved by the corruption of their wickednesses. And then shall be opened the camps of the barbarians, for many chariots shall go forth so as to cover [the face of] the earth. In all Armenia, and in Pontus, and in Bithynia the young men shall fall by the sword, and the sons and the daughters shall be captives. [The sons and the daughters] of Lyconia shall be mingled in [their] blood. Pisidia which boasteth, and trusteth in [her] riches, shall be over-thrown [even] to the ground. The sword shall pass through Phoenicia, because [her inhabitants] are children of corruption. Judaea shall clothe herself with lamentation, and shall be made ready for the day of destruction, because of her uncleanness. Then shall she gather together the abomination of desolation. The East shall be opened by him; also the ways shall be opened by him. Sword and flame [are] in his hands: he burneth with anger and fiery indignation. This is the armour of the judgment of the corruption of them that are born in the earth; the extermination of the faithful, the way of bloodshed; for his way is in error and his power is to blaspheme, and his hand for deception, his right hand in misery, and his left hand in darkness.

Chapter 11

And these are the signs of him: his head [is] as a fiery flame: his right eye shot with blood, his left [eye] blue-black, and he hath two pupils. His eyelashes are white; and his lower lip is large; but his right thigh slender; his feet broad; his great toe is bruised and flat. This is the sickle of desolation.

After this let the prayer be completed, and let the Reader then read the Prophets and the rest; let the Presbyter or Deacon read the Gospel; and then let the Bishop or Presbyter teach those things which are convenient and profitable. After that let there be a prayer, and let the Catechumens receive a laying on of the hand.

[Reasons for Ecclesiastical Rule]

 

Chapter 12

Therefore I say unto you, [ye] children of the light, that the time is at hand, and the harvest is ripe that sinners should be harvested in judgment. And to many the Judge shall arise as one who is kind, and shall impute to them their own works. But when He shall be at hand, a sign shall be given to the elect, who keep the law of My Father.

Chapter 13

Then those who fear My words, and do them in truth and with a faithful mind, shall watch and pray without ceasing, reckoning continual supplication as a work, in nothing wandering or going about in this world, and in nothing anxious, but with an austere soul and a mind that doubteth not, daily taking on them the Cross, to do the will of My Father which is in Heaven, with a meek heart. For He who is anxious about them that trust in the truth, and careth for them, is the Lord; and He sendeth to them those things which are right and fitting — those things which He knoweth, and by the hands of them whom He knoweth.

Chapter 14

I have told you these things, therefore, that wherever ye go, ye may test the souls that are Holy, and tell them those things which are fitting and right, and those things which are about to be, and all those things which, before I was glorified, I gave you in commandment, so that believing [them] they may truly live. From henceforth shall be the beginning of travail, and the mystery of destruction.

Turning therefore to the Church, setting right, duly ordering, and arranging, and doing all things in uprightness and holiness, speak to every man as is helpful to him, so that your Father which is in Heaven may be glorified. Be ye wise, that ye may persuade those who are in captivity to error, and those who are sunk in ignorance, that coming to the knowledge of God, and living piously and purely, they may praise My Father and your God.

Chapter 15

Now after Jesus had spoken these words, Peter and John and Thomas and Matthew and Andrew and Matthias (?) and the rest said:

Our Lord, truly Thou hast spoken to us now also words of warning and of truth, and though we are not worthy Thou hast bestowed upon us many things, and hast granted also to those of future generations who are worthy, to know Thy words and to flee from the snares of the Evil One. But, our Lord, we beseech Thee, make Thy perfect light to shine upon us, and upon those who are foreordained and separated to be Thine. Because that we have many times asked Thee, we pray Thee teach us of what sort he ought to be who standeth at the head of the Church, or with what rule he should raise up and order the Church. For it is urgent that when we are sent to the nations to preach the salvation which is from Thee, it should not escape us as to how it is fitting to arrange the Mysteries of the Church. Therefore from Thy mouth, our Saviour and Perfecter, we desire to learn without omission how the Chief of the Holy things ought to please Thee, and [likewise] all those who minister in Thy Church.

Chapter 16

Then Martha and Mary, and Salome, who were with us, answered and said — Yea, O our Lord, teach us to know what we ought to do, that our souls may live unto Thee. Then Jesus answered and said unto them: I will that, persevering in supplication, ye should always serve My Gospel, and be examples of holiness, for the salvation of those who trust patiently in Me; and in all things be figures of the Kingdom of Heaven.

Chapter 17

But to us also Jesus said — Because that ye also have asked Me concerning the Rule Ecclesiastical, I deliver and make known to you how ye ought to order and commanded you.  And it shall be to him that is embittered and doeth them not, but giveth My words without profit, for the destruction of their souls.

But My Father is mediator, and all His host, that if their sins are as the sand of the sea[shore] which cannot be numbered, and any of them, understanding these words,  shall do them, these sins shall be forgiven him, and he shall live in Me.

Chapter 18

But because in the midst of the assembly of the people [there are], more and more, many carnal desires, and the labourers are feeble and few, only My perfect labourers shall know the multitude of My words, all also which at times I spake to you in private before I should suffer, and which ye know; ye both have them and understand them.

For My mysteries are given to those who are Mine, with whom I shall rejoice and be glad with My Father. When they shall be loosed from [this] life they shall come to Me.

But these remaining words, determining and appointing them, speak ye in the Churches.

But from the day that My faithful ones also have the desire to know, that they may do the things of My Father, what[soever is] in this My testament, I will be with them, and will be praised among them, and I will make My habitation with them, by power informing them of the will of My Father.

See that ye give not My holy things to the dogs, and cast not pearls before swine, as I have often commanded you.

Give not My holy things to defiled and wicked men who do not bear My cross, and are not subject [to Me]; and My commandments shall be for derision among them. And it shall be to him that is embittered  and doeth them not, but giveth My words without profit, for the destruction of their souls.

But it shall be spoken and given to those who are firm and fixed, and do not fall away, who keep My commandments and this tradition, [to the end] that they, keeping these [things], may abide holy and upright and strong in Me, fleeing from the downfall of iniquity and the death of sin; the Holy Ghost [also] bestowing upon them His grace, that they may believe uprightly, that they may in the Spirit spiritually know the things of the Spirit, and in hope endure labour, and in joy serve My Gospel, and bear the reproach of My cross, not doubting but [rather] glorying; for verily I say unto you, that such as these [men] and such as these [women] shall, after death, dwell  in the third order of My Father who hath sent Me.

[Of The Sanctuary]

 

[Chapter 19]

I tell you therefore how the Sanctuary ought to be; then I will make known the Holy rule of the Priests of the Church.

Let the Church then be thus: let it have three entrances as a type of the Trinity.

Let the Diaconicum be on the right of the right hand entrance, that the Eucharists, or offerings which are offered, may be seen. Let there be a forecourt, with a portico going round, to the Diaconicum.

Then within the forecourt let there be a place [to serve] for a baptistery, its length twenty-one cubits as a general type of the Prophets, and its width twelve cubits as a type of those who have been determined to preach the Gospel, with one entrance and three exits.

Let the Church have a house of the Catechumens, which shall be also the house of the Exorcists. Let it not be detached from the Church, but so that those who enter and are in it may hear the Lections and spiritual hymns of praise and Psalms.

Let there be a throne by the Altar; on the right and on the left [let there be] the places of the Presbyters, so that on the right may sit those who are more exalted and honoured, and those who labour in the word; but those who are of middle age on the left hand. But that place where the throne is, let it be raised three steps, for there the Altar ought to be.

Let that house have two porches, on the right and on the left, for men and for women.

Let all the places be lighted, both for a type, and also for reading.

Let the Altar have a Veil of pure linen, for it is without spot.

Also the baptistery likewise, let it be under a Veil.

Let a place be built as for commemoration, so that the Priest and Chief Deacon sitting with the Readers may write the names of those who offer the oblations, or of those for whom they have offered [them], so that when the Holy Things are offered by the Bishop, the Reader or Chief Deacon may name them by way of commemoration, which the Priests and people offer for them with supplication. For there is this type also in Heaven.

Let the place of the Presbyters be within the Veil, beside that place of commemoration.

Let the house of the offering and the treasury be quite beside the Diaconicum.

But let the place of the Lection be a little outside the Altar.

Let the house of the Bishop be beside that place which is called the fore-court.

Also that of those Widows who are called “Those That Sit In Front.”

Also let that of the Presbyters and Deacons be behind the baptistery.

Let the Deaconesses abide beside the door of the Lord’s house.

Let the Church have a house for entertaining nearby, where the Chief Deacon shall entertain strangers.

[Of The Bishop]

 

Chapter 20

Now after the house is [built] as is fitting and right, let the Bishop be appointed, being chosen by all the people according to the will of the Holy Ghost, being without fault, chaste, quiet, mild, without anxiety, watchful, not a money-lover, blameless, not quarrelsome, ready to forgive, a teacher, not given to much speaking, a lover of good things, a lover of labour, a lover of Widows, a lover of Orphans, a lover of the Poor, experienced in the Mysteries, not lax and distracted in company with this world, peaceful, and in all good things perfect, as one to whom the order and place of God is entrusted. It is good indeed that he be without a wife, but at any rate that he have been the husband of one wife only, so that he may sympathise with the weakness of Widows. Let him be appointed when he is of middle age, not a youth.

Chapter 21

Being such as this, let him receive ordination on the first day of the week, all consenting to his appointment, and bearing witness to him, with all the neighbouring Presbyters and Bishops. Let those Bishops lay hands on him, having first washed their hands, but let the Presbyters stand beside them, not speaking, in fear, lifting up their hearts in silence.

After [that], let the Bishops lay hands on him, saying:

We lay hands on the servant of God, who hath been chosen in the Spirit, for the true and pious disposing of the Church, which alone hath the principality, and which is not dissolved, of the invisible [and] living God, and for the delivering of true judgment and divine and Holy revelations, and of divine gifts and faithful doctrines of the Trinity, by the Cross, by the resurrection, by the incorruptibility, in the Holy Church of God.

After this, one Bishop, commanded by the other Bishops, shall lay hands on him, saying his calling of appointment; thus:

Prayer Of Ordination Of A Bishop

God, who hast done all things in power, and hast established them, and hast founded the inhabited world in reason, and hast adorned the crown of all these things which were made by Thee; who hast given to them to keep Thy commandments in fear; who hast bestowed upon us the understanding of the truth, and hast made known unto us that good Spirit of Thine; who didst send Thy Beloved Son, the only Saviour, without spot, for our salvation; God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, Father of mercies and God of all comfort, who in the heights dost dwell eternally, who art high and adorable, dreadful and great; who seest all things, who knowest all things before they are, with whom all things were before they were [made]; who gavest illumination to the Church by the grace of Thy Only-begotten Son, having foreordained from the beginning those who delight in just things, and do those things that are Holy, to dwell in Thy habitations; who didst choose Abraham, who pleased Thee by his faith, and didst translate Holy Enoch to the treasure-house of life; who hast ordered Princes and Priests in Thine Upper Sanctuary; Lord, who didst call [them] to praise and glorify the Name of Thee and of Thy Only-begotten in the place of Thy glory; Lord God, who before the foundation of the world didst not leave Thine Upper Sanctuary without a ministry, and also, since the foundation of the world, hast adorned and glorified Thy Sanctuaries [on earth] with faithful Princes and Priests, after the pattern of Thine [own] Heaven; Thou, Lord, even now also art well pleased to be praised, and hast vouchsafed that there should be princes for Thy people: Cause to shine forth and pour out understanding, and the grace which cometh from Thy princely Spirit, which Thou didst deliver to Thy Beloved Son Jesus Christ; give wisdom, God, [give] reasoning, strength, power, unity of spirit to do all things by Thy co-operation. Give the Spirit which is Thine, Holy God; send to Thy Holy and pure Church, and to every place which singeth to Thee “Holy,” Him who was given to Thy Holy One; and grant, Lord, that this Thy servant may please Thee for doxology, and for laud without ceasing, God, for fitting hymns of praise, and for suitable times, for acceptable prayers, for faithful asking, for an upright mind, for a meek heart, for the working of life and of meekness and of truth, for the knowledge of uprightness. Father, who knowest the hearts, [grant] to this Thy servant whom Thou hast chosen for the episcopate, to feed Thy Holy flock, and to stand at the head of the Priesthood without fault, ministering to Thee day and night; grant that Thy face may be seen by him; vouchsafe, Lord, that he may offer to Thee the offerings of Thy Holy Church carefully [and] with all fear; bestow upon him that he may have Thy powerful  Spirit to loose all bands, as Thou didst bestow them] on Thy Apostles, to please Thee in meekness; fill him full of love, knowledge, understanding, discipline, perfectness, strength, and a pure heart, when he prayeth for the people, and when he mourneth for those who commit folly and draweth them to [receive] help; when he offereth to Thee praises and thanksgivings and prayers for a sweet-smelling savour through Thy Beloved Son, our Lord Jesus Christ, by whom [are given] to Thee praise and honour and might, with the Holy Ghost, both before the worlds, and also now, and at all times, and forever and ever without end. Amen.

And let the people say: Amen. And then let them cry out: He is worthy, He is worthy, He is worthy.

After he is [ordained], let the people keep the feast three days, according to the mystery that in three days [our Lord] rose from the dead. And let everyone give him the Peace.

Chapter 22

Let him be constant at the Altar; in prayers let him be persistent day and night, especially at the obligatory times of night; at the first hour, at midnight, and at early twilight when the star of the dawn riseth. Then also in the morning, at the third, sixth, ninth [hours, and the] twelfth hour at the lamp [lighting]. If also at every hour he offer prayers without ceasing for the people and for himself, he doeth well. Let him abide in the house of the Church alone. If he have one or two likeminded with himself, it is good that he should be with them for united supplication in unison. For where two or three are gathered together in My Name, ye know that I have said unto you that I am in the midst of them. But if he cannot abide all night long, yet let him remain these hours that I have said. For then the Angels visit the Church.

Let him fast three days each [week] all the year. But for three weeks after his appointment let him maintain the fast according to the number of the eighteen Exalted Entrances by which the Only-begotten passed when He came to the passion. But on the first day of the week only let him feed on bread with oil and honey and salt, and all fruits of trees; but let him in no wise taste wine, except only the cup of the Offering. This let him use whether ill or well. For it is good that this be for the Priests only. And so after these weeks all the year, let him fast three days each [week]; and for the rest of the time let him fast according to his strength.

But in no wise let him eat meat, not because if he taste or eat [meat] he is to be blamed, but because when he loveth infirmity these strong meats are not fitting, and in order that he may watch. Let the Offering only be on Saturday, or on the first day of the week, and on a fast-day. On the eve let him instruct and teach these things in the manner of a mystery to those whom he hath tested as having ears to hear. But if he be sick in body, let him quickly take care to heal himself, feeding on fish, and constantly [taking] a little wine of the Holy thing, that the Church may not also come to an end because he is lying sick; but [that] those who learn may receive joy. But when teaching in the Church, let him speak thus carefully, as a man who knoweth that he is speaking for a testimony the doctrine of all the ministry of the Father of all, that [doctrine] which is accurately written. Let him say all these things — all those which he accurately knoweth and remembereth of old. For if he knoweth what he saith, he may have hope that his hearers also [will] have known these things. And with all his labour, let him beseech the Lord, so that his word may bring forth the fruits of the Holy Spirit in them that hear.

Let him do everything in order, and with knowledge. Let him dismiss the Catechumens after he hath admonished them with meditations and admonitions of the Prophets and Apostles, with instructive words, so that they may know Him whom they confess. But let him teach the faithful after the manner of a mystery, having first dismissed the Catechumens; and after the instruction in the Mysteries let him offer, so that knowing in what mystery they are taking part, they may offer with fear.

[Of  the Eucharist]

 

Chapter 23

Let him offer on Saturday three loaves for a complete symbol of the Trinity; but on the first day of the week let him offer four loaves for a complete symbol of the Gospel.

Because that the ancient people erred, when he offereth let the Veil in front of the door be closed, and within it let him offer with the Presbyters and Deacons and the canonical Widows, and Sub-Deacons and Deaconesses and Readers [and] those who have gifts. But let the Bishop stand first in the middle, and the Presbyters immediately behind him on either side, and the Widows immediately behind the Presbyters on the left side, and the Deacons also behind the Presbyters on the right hand side; the Readers behind them, and the sub-Deacons behind the Readers, and the Deaconesses behind the Sub-Deacons.

Let the Presbyter then place his hand on those loaves which have been set on the Altar, and let the Presbyters place their hands together with him, and let the rest stand only.

Let not the loaf of Catechumens be received; not even if he have a believing son or wife and wish to offer on their behalf; let it not be offered unless he is baptized.

Before the Bishop or Presbyter offereth, let the people give the Peace  to one another.

Then, a great silence being made, let the Deacon say thus:

Admonition Of The Deacon On The Eucharist

[Lift up] your hearts to Heaven. If any man have wrath against his companion, let him be reconciled. If any man have a conscience without faith, let him confess [it]. If any man have a thought foreign to the commandments, let him depart. If any man have fallen into sin, let him not hide himself: he may not hide himself. If any man have a disordered reason, let him not draw near. If any man be defiled, if any man be not firm, let him give place. If any man be a stranger to the commandments of Jesus, let him depart. If any man despise the Prophets, let him separate himself: from the wrath of the Only-begotten let him deliver himself. Let us not despise the Cross. Let us flee from threatening. We have our Lord as onlooker, the Father of Lights with the Son, [and] the Angels who visit [us]. See to yourselves that ye be not in anger against your neighbours. See that no man be in wrath: God seeth. [Lift] up your hearts to offer for the salvation of life and of holiness.

In the wisdom of God let us receive the grace which hath been bestowed upon us.

Then let the Bishop say, giving and rendering thanks with an awed voice: Our Lord [be] with you.

And let the people say: And with thy spirit.

Let the Bishop say: [Lift] up your hearts.

Let the people say: They are [lifted up] unto the Lord.

Let the Bishop say: Let us give thanks to the Lord.

Arid let all the people say: It is meet and right.

And let the Bishop cry: Holy things in Holy [persons].

And let the people call out: In Heaven and on earth without ceasing.

Eucharist Of Thanksgiving Over The Offering

Let the Bishop immediately say:

We render thanks to Thee, God, the Holy One, Confirmer of our souls, and Giver of our life, the Treasure of incorruptibility, and Father of the Only-begotten, our Saviour, whom in the latter times Thou didst send to us as a Saviour and Proclaimer of Thy purpose. For it is Thy purpose that we should be saved in Thee. Our heart giveth thanks unto Thee, Lord, [our] mind, [our] soul, with all [its] thinking, that Thy grace may come upon us, Lord, so that we may continually praise Thee, and Thy Only-begotten Son, and Thy Holy Ghost, now and always, and forever and ever. Amen.

Thou Power of the Father, the Grace of the nations, Knowledge, true Wisdom, the Exaltation of the meek, the Medicine of souls, the Confidence of us who believe, for Thou art the Strength of the righteous, the Hope of the persecuted, the Haven of those who are buffeted, the Illuminator of the Perfect, the Son of the living God, make to arise on us, out of Thy gift which cannot be searched into, courage, might, reliance, wisdom, strength, unlapsing faith, unshaken hope, the knowledge of Thy Spirit, meekness [and] uprightness, so that always, Lord, we Thy servants, and all the people, may praise Thee purely, may bless Thee, may give thanks unto Thee, Lord, at all times, and may beseech Thee.

And also let the Bishop say:

Thou, Lord, the Founder of the heights, and King of the treasuries of light, Visitor of the heavenly Sion, King of the Orders of Archangels, of Dominions, Praises, Thrones, Raiments, Lights, Joys, Delights, the Father of kings, who holdest all in Thy hand, and suppliest [all] by Thy reason, through Thine Only-begotten Son who was crucified for our sins: Thou, Lord, didst send Thy Word, who is of Thy counsel and covenant, by whom Thou madest all things, being well pleased with Him, into a Virgin womb; who, when He was conceived, [and] made flesh, was shown to be Thy Son, being born of the Holy Ghost and the Virgin; who, fulfilling Thy will, and preparing a Holy people, stretched forth His hands to suffering, that He might loose from sufferings and corruption and death those who have hoped in thee; who when He was betrayed to voluntary suffering that He might raise up those who had slipped, and find those who were lost, and give life to the dead, and loose [the pains of] death, and rend the bonds of the Devil, and fulfil the counsel of the Father, and tread down Sheol, and open the way of life, and guide the righteous to light, and fix the boundary, and lighten the darkness, and nurture the babes, and reveal the resurrection;

Taking bread, gave it to His disciples, saying, Take, eat, this is My Body which is broken for you for the forgiveness of sins. When ye shall do this, ye make My resurrection.

Also the cup of wine which He mixed He gave for a type of the Blood which he shed for us.

And also let him say:

Remembering therefore Thy death and resurrection, we offer to Thee bread and the cup, giving thanks to Thee who alone art God forever, and our Saviour, since Thou hast promised to us to stand before Thee and to serve Thee in Priesthood.  Therefore we render thanks to Thee, we Thy servants, Lord.

And let the people say likewise.

And also let [the Bishop] say:

We offer to Thee this thanksgiving, Eternal Trinity, Lord Jesus Christ, Lord the Father before whom all creation and every nature trembleth fleeing into itself, Lord the Holy Ghost; we have brought this drink and this food of Thy Holiness [to Thee]; Cause that it may be to us not for condemnation, not for reproach, not for destruction, but for the medicine and support of our spirit. Yea, O God, grant us that by Thy Name every thought of things displeasing to Thee may flee away. Grant, God, that every proud conception may be driven away from us by Thy Name which is written within the Veils of Thy Sanctuaries, those high ones — unbelief is cast out, disobedience is subdued, anger is appeased, envy worketh not, pride is reproved, avarice rooted out, boasting taken away, arrogance humbled, [and] every root of bitterness  destroyed.

Grant therefore, Lord, to our innermost eyes to see Thee, commemorating Thee [and] serving Thee, having a portion in Thee alone, Son and Word of God, who subduest all things.

Sustain unto the end those who have gifts of revelations.

Confirm those who have a gift of healing.

Make those courageous who have the power of tongues.

Keep those who have the word of doctrine upright.

Care for those who do Thy will always. Visit the Widows. Help the Orphans. Remember those who have fallen asleep in the faith. And grant us an inheritance with Thy Saints, and bestow [upon us] the power to please Thee as they also pleased Thee. Feed the people in uprightness: sanctify us all, God; but grant that all those who partake and receive of Thy Holy Things may be made one with Thee, so that they may be filled with the Holy Ghost, for the confirmation of the faith in truth, that they may lift up always a doxology to Thee, and to Thy Beloved Son Jesus Christ, by whom praise and might [be] unto Thee, with Thy Holy Spirit forever and ever.

Let the people say: Amen.

The Deacon: Earnestly let us beseech our Lord and our God that He may bestow upon us concord of spirit.

The Bishop: Give us concord in the Holy Spirit, and heal our souls by this offering, that we may live in Thee in all the ages of ages.

The people: Amen.

Let the people also pray in the same words,

After these things the seal of thanksgiving thus: Let the Name of the Lord be blessed forever.

The people: Amen.

The Priest: Blessed is He that hath come in the Name of the Lord. Blessed [is] the Name of His praise.

And let all the people say: So be it, so be it.

Let the Bishop say: Send the grace of the Spirit upon us.

If the Bishop be polluted, let him not offer, but let a Presbyter offer. Also let him not receive of the mystery, not as though he were defiled, but because of the honour of the Altar. But after he hath fasted and bathed in pure water, let him approach and minister. Similarly also a Presbyter. And if also a Widow he menstruous, let her not approach. Similarly if a woman or a layman or any of the company [of the clergy be polluted], let him not approach, for the honour [of the Altar] except after fasting and bathing.

Let the Priests first receive, thus: the Bishops, Presbyters, Deacons, Widows, Readers, Sub-Deacons. After these those that have gifts, those newly baptized, babes.

 The people thus: old men, Virgins, and the rest. The women [thus]: Deaconesses, and after that the rest.

Let each one when he receiveth the thanksgiving say before he partaketh: Amen. After that let him pray thus; after that he receiveth the Eucharist. let him say:

Holy, Holy, Holy, Trinity ineffable, grant me to receive unto life this Body, [and] not unto condemnation. And grant me to bring forth the fruits that are pleasing to Thee, so that when I shall be shown to be pleasing to Thee I may live in Thee, doing Thy commandments; and [that] with boldness I may call Thee Father; when I call for Thy Kingdom and Thy will [to come] to me. May Thy Name be hallowed  in me, Lord; for Thou art mighty and [to be] praised, and to Thee be praise forever and ever. Amen.

After the prayer let him receive.

When he taketh of the Cup, let him say twice Amen, for a complete symbol of the Body and Blood.

After all receive, let them pray, giving and rendering thanks for the reception, the Deacon saying:

Let us give thanks unto the Lord, receiving His Holy Things, so that the reception [of them] may be for the life and salvation of our souls. Let us beg and beseech [His grace], raising a doxology to the Lord our God.

After that let the Bishop [say]:

Lord, Giver of light eternal, the Helmsman of souls, the Guide of Saints; Give us understanding eyes which always look to Thee, and ears which hear Thee only, so that our soul may be filled with grace. Create in us a clean heart, God; so that we may alway comprehend Thy greatness. O God, Wonderful, who lovest man, make our souls better, and, by this Eucharist which we, Thy servants, who fail in much, have [now] received, form our thoughts so that they shall not swerve: for Thy Kingdom is blessed, Lord God, [who art] glorified and praised in Father and in Son and in Holy Ghost, both before the worlds, and now, and alway, and for the ages and forever and ever without end.

The people: Amen.

[Of Consecrating the Oil For Healing and for Baptism]

 

Chapter 24

If the Priest consecrate oil for the healing of those who suffer, let him say thus, quietly} placing the vessel before the Altar:

Lord God, who hast bestowed upon us the Spirit, the Paraclete, the Lord, the saving and unshaken Name, which is hidden from the foolish but revealed unto the wise; Christ, who didst sanctify us, and by Thy mercies dost make the servants whom Thou choosest wise with the wisdom that is Thine, who didst send the knowledge of Thy Spirit to us sinners by the holiness which is Thine, bestowing on us the power of the Spirit; who art the Healer of every sickness and of every suffering; who didst give the gift of healing to those who were counted worthy of this by Thee; send on this oil, which is the type of Thy fatness, the delivering [power] of Thy good compassion, that it may deliver those who labour and heal those who are sick, and sanctify those who return, when they approach to Thy faith; for Thou art mighty and [to be] praised forever and ever.

The people: Amen.

Chapter 25

Likewise, the same also over water.

[Hymn of Praise at Dawn, Including on Day of Baptism]

 

Chapter 26

At early dawn let the Bishop assemble the people, so that the service may be finished before the rising of the sun.

When he saith the First Hymn of Praise, of the Dawn, the Presbyters and Deacons and the rest, the faithful also, [standing] close by, let him say thus: Praise to the Lord.

And let the people say: It is meet and right.

Hymn Of Praise For The Dawn

The Bishop: It is meet and right that we should praise and laud and give thanks to Thee, who didst make all, ineffable God. Stretching forth our souls upward, we raise to Thee, O Lord, a hymn of praise for the morning, — to Thee who art all-wise, powerful, great in mercies, God, the Confirmer and Raiser-up of our souls; we praise Thee, the Word who before the worlds wast begotten of the Father, and restest alone with Thy Saints, who art praised with the hymns of the Archangels, — Thee the Maker, who wast not made with hands, and who makest known Holy things which are invisible, pure, and spotless, — Thee who hast made known to us the hidden Mysteries of wisdom, and didst promise to us immortal light; we lift up praise to Thee in pure holiness, we Thy servants, Lord.

And let the people say: We praise Thee, we bless Thee, we give thanks to Thee, Lord; and we beseech Thee, our God.

Also [let] the Bishop say: God, the Begetter of light, the Principle of life, the Giver of knowledge, the Gift of grace, the Maker of souls, who makest things [that are] beautiful, the Giver of the Holy Ghost, the Treasure of Wisdom, and the Maker of good things, the Lord, the Teacher of holiness, who rulest  the worlds by Thy will, the Receiver of pure prayers; we praise Thee, the Only-begotten Son, the First-born and Word of the Father, who didst bestow all Thy grace on us who call upon Thee, the Helper, and upon the Father who begat Thee; who hast an essence that cannot be injured, where neither moth nor worm  doth corrupt; who givest to all that with all their heart trust in Thee those things which the Angels have desired to behold; who art the Guardian of light eternal and [of] treasures incorruptible; who hast by the will of Thy Father shed light on the darkness which [is] in us; who from the depth hast raised us up to light; who hast given us life out of  death, and bestowed upon us freedom out of slavery; who by the Cross hast made us of the household of Thy Father, and by Thy Gospel hast guided us to the heights of Heaven, and hast comforted us by Thy Prophets; who in Thine own Person hast made us of the household of God the Father of lights; grant us, Lord, that we may praise Thee, our God, so that always with unceasing thanksgiving  we may speak praises to Thee, we Thy servants, Lord.

The people: We praise Thee, we bless Thee, we give thanks to Thee, we beseech Thee, our God.

Let the Bishop also say:

We sing to Thee with our mouths this triple hymn of praise as a figure of Thy Kingdom, Son of God, who [art] by  eternity; who [art] above all, with the Father; whom all creation praiseth, trembling with fear of Thy Spirit; at whom all nature trembleth in fear and [whom] every soul of the righteous blesseth; with whom all we have taken refuge; who hast made confusion, storms, [and] wind to cease from us; who hast been to us an haven of rest, and a place to flee unto from corruption; in whom we have hope of eternal salvation; who makest the peacefulness of fine weather lo for those who are buffeted on the seas and with the tempests; who in sicknesses art entreated and healest without price; who art with those that are shut up in prison; who hast loosed us from the bonds of death; [who art] the Comforter of the Poor, and of those who mourn, and of those who have laboured and wearied themselves with the Cross; who turnest away from us every menace; who for us hast reproved the craft of Satan; who drivest away his menaces, and givest us courage; who thrusteth away all error from those that trust in Thee; whom the Prophets and Apostles praised secretly: we praise Thee, Lord, we lift up to Thee a doxology, so that, having known Thee, we may rest in the habitations of life, doing Thy will always. And grant to us, Lord, to walk according to Thy commandments, and in mercy visit us all, both small and great, the prince and his people, the shepherd and his flock; for Thou, Lord, art our God, and blessed and praised [is] Thy Kingdom — [the Kingdom] of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost, both before the worlds, and now and always, and for the ages, and forever and ever without end.

And let the people say: Amen.

Let them sing Psalms and four hymns of praise; one by Moses, and of Solomon, and of the other Prophets. Thus: little singing-hoys; two Virgins; three Deacons; three Presbyters. And so let the hymn of praise be said by the Bishop, or by one of the Presbyters.

Let it be said thus: The grace of our Lord [be] with you all.

And let the people say: And with thy spirit.

And let the Priest say: Also let us praise our Lord.

And let the people say: Meetly and rightly.

Let the Priest say: Let your hearts be fixed.

And let the people say: We have [them fixed] with the Lord.

Hymn Of Praise Of The Seal 

Lord, the Father, the Giver of light, the Author of all power and of all spirits, the Sealer of eternal light, and the Guide of life, the Maker of felicity and immortality, who hast made us to pass through material darkness, and hast bestowed upon us  immaterial light; who hast loosed the bonds of disobedience and crowned us with the faith which is Thine; who dost not keep far off from Thy servants, but art in them always; who dost not neglect those [souls] which with labour and in Thy fear beseech Thee; who knowest all things before they are thought, and searchest out all things before they are considered, and givest what Thou wilt give before we ask Thee; who art well pleased to hear those who with heart undoubting serve Thee, King of the highest lights and the soldiery of Heaven, who hearest the Archangels when they praise Thee, and art pleased in them; Answer us, Lord, we beseech Thee. Grant us with boldness [with] unceasing voice to praise Thee, to laud Thee, to lift up to Thee a doxology; so that being guarded by Thee and guided in light, we Thy servants, Lord, may constantly praise Thee.

The people: We praise Thee, we bless Thee, we give thanks to Thee, Lord; and we beseech Thee, our God.

The Priest: Lord Jesus, hear us, Holy One, who wast the Voice of the dumb and the irrational, the Strength of the paralysed, the Giver of light to the blind, the Guide of the lame, the Cleanser of the lepers, the Curer of material fluxes, the Healer of the deaf and dumb, the Reprover of death, the Tormentor of darkness, the Ray of light, and the Lamp that is not quenched, the Sun that is not darkened [and] resteth [not]; but who always givest light unto Thy Saints; who hast established all things together for the good likeness of comeliness; who art the well-tempered Reason;  who hast plainly given light to all; who art the Saviour of the sons of men, and the Converter of souls; who art the Provider of all things as is right, the Maker of the Angels, who adornest all; the Thought of the Father; who didst found the worlds in prudence and wisdom, and didst establish them together; and wast sent from Thy eternal Father unto us; the Intelligence of the Spirit who may not be apprehended or understood, the Maker-known of things invisible; Thou art glorious, and Thy Name is Wonderful. Therefore we also, Thy servants, Lord, give praise to Thee.

The people: We praise Thee, we bless Thee, we give thanks to Thee, Lord; we beseech Thee, our Lord.

The Priest: We sing, Holy Lord, this threefold hymn of praise to Thee, who didst give us a faith in Thee which cannot be loosed, whereby Thou didst make us to conquer the bonds of death; who didst create upright minds in them that trust in Thee, that they might be Gods; who by the Spirit didst give unto us to tread under foot all the power of the enemy  that we  may not profane those things which may not be profaned; who by Thy mediation hast made friendship for us with Thy Father. Answer us Thy servants, Lord, [Thou] whom without ceasing we entreat, who at our supplication givest [us] power against the adversary; whom always we ask, as [it were], for the overthrow of the Evil one; Hear us, King Eternal; comfort the Widows, help the Orphans; pity and cleanse those who are possessed with unclean spirits, give wisdom to the unwise; convert those who go astray; deliver those who are in prison; guard us all, for Thou, Lord, art our God; blessed and glorious is Thy Kingdom.

The people: Amen.

 [Of the Eucharist]

 

Chapter 27

Chapter 28

[Of the Eucharist on the Day of Baptism]

After that let the Bishop teach the Mysteries to the people. But if he be not present, let a Presbyter speak so that the faithful may know to whom they are approaching and who is their God and Father. Then let the teaching of the Mysteries be said thus:

Initiation Into The Mysteries Which Is Said Before The Offering To The Faithful

[We confess] Him who is pre-existent, and was present, and is, and cometh; who suffered and was buried, and rose, and was glorified by the Father; who loosed our cords from death, who rose from the dead; who is not only Man  but therewith also God; who by the Holy Ghost restored the flesh of Adam with [his] soul to immortality, because He preserved  Adam by the Spirit; who clothed Himself with dead Adam and made him to live; who ascended into Heaven; under whom, after the Cross, Death fell, and was conquered, when its bonds, whereby the Devil sometimes waxed strong and prevailed against us, were dissolved; [and] through whose passion [Death] was manifested useless and weak when [Jesus] cut his cords and his power, when his snares were cut, and He struck him on his face, [even Death] who was filled with darkness and was shaken, and feared, beholding the Only-begotten Son; who in His [human] soul  descended in the Godhead into Sheol; who descended from the pure heights above the Heavens; Him [we confess] the indivisible Thought who is from the Father, and [is] of one will with Him; Him the Maker, with His Father, of Heaven; who is the Angels’ Crown, the Archangels’ Strength, the Raiment of the Hosts and the Spirit of the Dominions; Him, the Ruler of the Everlasting Kingdom, and Prince of the Saints, the unfathomable Intelligence of the Father; Him who is the Wisdom, the Power, the Lord, the Thought, Intelligence, Hand, Arm of the Father.

As we believe, we confess Him who is our Light, Salvation, Saviour, Protector, Helper, Teacher, Deliverer, Rewarder, Assister, Strength, Wall; our Shepherd, Entrance, Door, Way, Life, Medicine, Provision, Drink, [and] Judge. We confess Him passible [yet] not passible. Son [yet] not created, dead [yet] alive, the Son of the Father, incomprehensible [yet] comprehensible; who, [Himself] sinless, hath borne our sins when He left the Father’s Heaven; whose Body being broken becometh our salvation, and [His] Blood and Spirit [our] life and holiness, and the water our cleansing; who giveth light  to the hearts of those who fear Him, being with them in all things; who hath made us strangers to the whole way of the Devil; the Renewer of souls, in whom we all have put our trust.

He, being God, and before the worlds with the Father, eternal God, when He saw the world perishing in the bonds of sin, and trodden down by the power of a crafty wild beast, and made subject to death through ignorance and error, determining to heal the race of mankind, came to a Virgin womb, though hidden from all the camps of the heavenly ones, and cast into ignorance [the] opposing hosts. But when [He], the Incorruptible, clothed Himself with corruptible flesh, making flesh which was under death to be incorruptible, He thus showed in the flesh of dead Adam, wherewith He clothed Himself, an example of incorruptibility, by which example the things of corruption were abolished.

He delivered indeed Holy commandments through the Gospel, which is the fore-proclaiming of the Kingdom; by which Gospel as a figure of the Kingdom we learned to live; through which Gospel the bonds of the Devil have been cut, so that we may attain immortality instead of death, and instead of ignorance may receive [the grace] of watchfulness.

He, then, having become Man, who took [on Him] the dead race of Adam in all its kinds by emptying [Himself], He who is the First, came to birth, as Man, though He is God; He who was foreknown by the Prophets, and preached by the Apostles, and lauded by Angels, and glorified by the Father of all. He was crucified for us; and His Cross is our life, our strength, [our] salvation, for it is the Hidden Mystery, the ineffable joy, and through it the whole nature of mankind, always bearing it, is made inseparable from God, for it is the virtue benign and inseparable from God, that cannot be spoken as is meet by these lips, [and] that was hidden from the beginning; but now the Mystery which is revealed, which is for the faithful, shall be, not as it seemeth to be, but as it is.

This Cross in which we boast, so that we may be glorified, [and] the bearers whereof, the faithful and perfect, separate their souls from everything that can be felt, from everything that is seen, as from a thing which is not true — by this ask for yourselves, ye who quit you like men; make deaf your visible ears; make blind your bodily eyes; so that ye may know the will of Christ and all the Mystery of your salvation. Holy men and women, whose property it is to make your boast in the Lord, listen to the inward man.

Our Lord, when He taught us and appointed to us a covenant, and made us of [His] household, and came, after His passion, into Sheol, made captive all the earth — He who made the nature of death captive to life, and Death when it saw Him descending in His soul to Sheol, was deceived, and hoped that He was food for him, as was his custom. But when he saw in Him the beauty of the Godhead, he cried out with [his] voice, saying: Who is this that hath clothed Himself with Man who [was] under me, and hath conquered me? Who is this that snatcheth from destruction flesh which was bound by me? Who is this that hath clothed Himself with earth but [Himself] is Heaven? Who is this that was born in corruptibility, but suffereth no corruption? Who is this [that is] a stranger to my laws? Who is this that maketh captive those that are mine? Who is this that striveth with the power of burning Death, and conquereth darkness? What is this new glory which [is] in this vision that preventeth me from doing the things which I would? Who is this new dead One without sin? Who is this that by the abundance of light extinguisheth darkness, and doth not allow me to have rule over those that are mine, but draweth to Heaven the souls which were given unto me? What is this glory which preventeth the body from being corruptible? Who is this whom I cannot touch? What is this glory unsearchable to its surroundings? Woe is me! I am put to flight by Him and by those things which are His, for I cannot injure them.

He, being the Christ, who was crucified, by whom the [things] that were on the left hand were [placed] on the right hand, and those which were beneath [were] as those which [were] above, and those which [were] behind as those which [were] before, when He rose from the dead, and trod down Sheol, and by death slew Death; after He rose on the third day He gave thanks to the Father, saying: I give thanks to Thee, My Father, not with these lips which are fixed together, nor yet with a corporeal tongue through which truth and lying  go out, nor with this created and material word; but I give thanks to Thee, the King, with that Voice which through Thee understandeth all [things], which cometh not by a bodily organ, which falleth not on carnal ears, which is not in the world and is not left on earth, but with this Voice, the Spirit who is in Us, only speaking to Thee, Father, loving Thee, praising Thee, through whom also the whole choir of perfect Saints calleth Thee beloved, [calleth] Thee Father,[calleth] Thee Sustainer, [calleth] Thee Helper; for Thou art all, and all [are] in Thee; for whatever is, is Thine and not another’s, but is Thine alone, who art forever and ever. Amen;

Let the shepherd know the Mysteries of all nature. After I have prayed to the Father, as ye know and see, I am taken up, saith Jesus.

Therefore it is right that the shepherd should speak the teaching of the Initiation into the Mysteries, so that they may know of whom in the Holy things they are partaking, and what memorial they are making through the Eucharist.

And at the end, after this, let him say thus:

As then we also have taken refuge in Him, and have learnt that it is in Him alone to give, let us beg from Him those things which He said that He would give us, which eye hath not seen and ear hath not heard, and [which] have not entered into the heart of man, the things which God hath prepared for them that love Him, as Moses and some of the Saints have said. As then we have hoped in Him, let us give to Him praise; and to Him be glory and might forever and ever. Amen.

Let the people say: Amen.

After the people are taught the Initiation into the Mysteries, let the Eucharist be offered; but let not the Initiation into the Mysteries be said each time, but only at Pascha, on Saturday, and on the first day of the week, and on the days of the Epiphany and of Pentecost.

Of What Sort A Presbyter Ought To Be

 

Chapter 29

Let a Presbyter be ordained, being testified to by all the people, according to what has been said before; skilled in reading, meek, Poor, not money-loving, having laboured much in ministrations among the weak, proved to be pure, without blame; if he have been as a father to the Orphans, if he have ministered to the Poor; if he have not grown cold [in his love] for the Church; if  in all things he be pious, quiet, so that being [thus] he may in all respects be worthy to have those things that are fitting and suitable revealed to him by God, and also may be counted worthy of the gift of healing.

Chapter 30

Then let the appointment of the Presbyter be thus. All the Priestly company conducting him, the Bishop laying his hand on his head, the Presbyters touching him and holding him, let the Bishop begin, and say thus:

Prayer Of Ordination Of A Presbyter

God, the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, the Ineffable One, the Light, who hast neither beginning nor ending, the Lord, who hast ordered all things, and set bounds to [them], and by reason hast defined the order of all things by Thee created; Hear us, and look upon this Thy servant, and make him partaker of, and grant unto him, the Spirit of grace and of reason and of strength, the Spirit of the Presbyterate who doth not grow old, and is indissoluble, homogeneous, loving the faithful, rebuking, that he may help and govern Thy people by labour, by fear, by a pure heart, by holiness, by excellency, by wisdom, and by the working of the Holy Spirit, through Thy care, Lord. In like manner as when Thou didst look upon Thy People, the Chosen, Thou didst command Moses to ask for the elders. and filling [them] with Thy Spirit didst bestow Him on Thy minister, so now, Lord, bestow  on [this man] abundantly  Thy Spirit, whom Thou didst give to those who by Thyself were made disciples, and to all those who through them truly believed in Thee. And make him worthy, being filled with Thy wisdom and Thy hidden Mysteries, to feed Thy people in holiness of heart: pure, and true; praising, blessing, lauding, giving thanks, offering a doxology always, day and night, to Thy Holy and glorious Name; labouring with cheerfulness and patience to be a vessel of Thy Holy Spirit; having and bearing always the Cross of Thy Only-begotten Son, our Lord Jesus Christ, through whom [be] praise and might to Thee with the Holy Ghost forever and ever.

Let the people say: Amen.

Let both the Priests and people give him the Peace, with an Holy Kiss.

Chapter 31

After he is [ordained] let him be constant at the Altar, making prayers laboriously without ceasing. But sometimes alone in some house let him take a rest from the things which belong to the house of the Lord; but not ceasing, or diminishing [one] hour, from prayers.

Let him fast three days each [week] all the year, [on the] one [hand] that he may be perfected in intelligence; and moreover [let him fast] according to his strength, not wandering about and going hither and thither with every spirit, but doing everything with energy.

If it be revealed to a Presbyter or Bishop to speak, let him speak; but if not, let him not neglect and despise his work.

If it be revealed to a Presbyter to visit his parishes, and speak the word, let him go; but if not, let him entreat God  with supplication; and if it be revealed to him to speak to them, let him speak to them, always taking the burden and load of Him who was crucified for him, and praying for all the people.

Let not a Presbyter or Bishop be anxious about food or raiment. God taketh thought and careth for His own in the [things] which He knoweth. But if, when he receiveth from anyone food or clothing, it be said to him that he should receive also from another, let it suffice him to receive from [the first] alone, and that [only] in so far as is fitting, and as he needeth, and not to excess.

In respect of firmness of faith, let a Presbyter always be unchangeable; for it is such as these that God desireth; and let him prove the heart of each one; lest evil kept and buried within, make him a stranger to the grace of God.

Let him not allow tares to grow in the good wheat, but let him take them away from it, and cut off, those who bring [them] into it. Let not darkness cover his light. Let him teach all the faithful at all times that they accomplish their course, as it were, in the day; because the children of light walk not in darkness. Let the teaching of the Presbyter be fitting, and quiet and moderate, coupled with fear and trembling; and that of the Bishop also in like manner. And in teaching let them not speak vain things; but let him say such things as the hearers when they hear may keep [in memory]. Let the Presbyter be mindful of all the things that he teacheth. For in the day of the Lord the Word, it will be demanded [of him] that he should testify to the people the things which he spake, so that those who did not hear may be reproved. For he must stand before the glory of God, speaking those things which he hath taught. Thus, then, let him teach, that he perish not. Let him pray for those who hear, that the Lord may give them understanding of the Spirit, of knowledge, of truth; and let him not vainly cast pearls before swine; but let him search out [those] who are worthy, those who have heard and have performed; lest if the Word have not brought forth fruit in them, but have perished, he himself should prove the cause of its perishing. Let him not give the Holy things to dogs. Let him discern the signs of those who hear the word and bring forth good fruits. But in all things let him, without anxiety, keep [the matter] for the Bishop.

Let him not neglect nor despise those who do good works through teaching. But let him watch for signs in them; [and] of those [signs appearing] in them let him judge spiritually by [their] sighs, weeping, earnest conversations, silence, sadness, patience, humble bowing of the head. But that which best traineth and causeth suffering is weeping and groaning. But the work [these do] is watching, continence, fasting, quietness, unceasing prayer, meditation, faith, meekness, philanthropy, labour, weariness, love, subjection, goodness, gravity, and every [work of] light.

[On the other hand], the signs of those who do not bring forth the fruits of life are [these] — sloth, love of pleasure, eyes wandering in all directions, disobedience, complaining, restlessness, a laziness that will not move, wandering about.

But the work [these do] is gluttony, debauchery, anger, unbelief, idle and unseasonable laughter, confusion, neglect, error, disturbance, wantonness, love of gains, love of money, envy, contention, drunkenness, high-mindedness, vain talking, love of praise, and every [work of] darkness.

Let him recognise products such as these, and let him speak to those who are worthy. But let him not waste time upon those who do not receive [his teaching]. For those who sow on earth without fruits shall reap miseries.

Let  the Presbyter, as is right and fitting, go about to the houses of those who are sick with the Deacon, and visit them; let him consider and say to them those things that are fitting and proper, especially to the faithful. Let him exhort that the sick who are Poor be helped by the Church, so that they also who do [deeds] of kindness may enter into the joy of their Lord. Let  him confirm those who have newly become Catechumens with prophetical and evangelical utterances, with the word of teaching. Let him not neglect his prayers, for he is the figure of the Archangels: but let him know that God did not spare the Angels who sinned.

Let him fast; and if it is proper, let him receive of the cup. Let wine suffice him, as much as, in his judgment, profiteth and helpeth him, lest that drink which was for [his] healing he receive to [his] loss. In sickness, let him eat herbs and fish, and also that he may have care for his work. In everything let the Priest be an example to the faithful of the work of holiness.

Let the Presbyter praise and give thanks in the same way as the Bishop.

Chapter 32

Let them say the daily hymn of praise in the Church, each of them at his  own time, thus:

Daily Hymn Of Praise

The Priest: he grace of our Lord [be] with you all.

The people: And with thy spirit.

The Priest: Praise ye the Lord.

The people: It is meet and right.

The Priest: Thee, Father of incorruptibility. Deliverer of our souls, Confirmer of the thoughts, and Guardian of our hearts, who hast illumined our hearts and hast brought to an end the darkness of our intelligence, by the knowledge which is in Thee; who hast by the Cross of Thy Only-begotten brought back anew to incorruptibility the old man which was given over to corruption; who hast brought error to an end, and by Thy commandments hast made man to pass to immortality; who didst seek that which was lost, we [Thy] servants [and] also [Thy] people praise.

The people: “We praise Thee, and the rest.

The Priest: We praise Thee, Lord, whom continually the unceasing doxologies of the Archangels singing praise, and the hymns of praise of Glories, and chants of Dominions praise. We praise Thee, Lord, who didst send Thy Thought, Thy Word, Thy Wisdom, Thy Energy, [namely] Him who [is] of old, and was with Thee before the worlds, the uncreated Word of the Uncreated one, but appeared, incarnate, in the end of times, for the salvation of created man, Thy Beloved Son Jesus Christ, who made us free from the yoke of slavery. Therefore we also, as we are accustomed, [we] Thy servants, Lord [and] also [thy] people, praise Thee.

The people: We praise Thee, and the rest.

The Priest: We sing to Thee a triple hymn of praise from our hearts, Lord who givest life, to Thee who dost visit the souls of the Poor, and neglectest not the spirits of those who are afflicted, the Assister of those who are persecuted, the Helper of those who are tossed on the sea, the Deliverer of those who are buffeted, the Provider for those who are hungry, who takest vengeance for those who are wronged, the Lover of the faithful, the Companion of the Saints, the Habitation of the pure, the Dwelling-place of those who call on Thee in truth, the Protector of Widows, the Liberator of Orphans, who givest to Thy Church a right government, and hast founded in it love-feasts, ministrations, receptions of the faithful, the partaking of the Spirit, gifts of grace and powers. We praise Thee; we cease not always in our hearts picturing the image of Thy Kingdom in ourselves, for Thy sake [and] also [for the sake] of Thy Beloved Son Jesus Christ, by whom [be] praise and might to Thee with the Holy Ghost, forever and ever. Amen.

And let the people say: Amen.

But if also anyone saith prophetical words, let him say [them]; he hath a reward.

But at midnight let the sons of Priestly service, and those of the people who are more perfect, give praise by themselves. For also in that hour our Lord, rising, praised His Father.

See, Children of the light; he who believeth the words of the Lord, walketh as He walked in this world, that where He is, there he may be also.

Of Deacons

 

Chapter 33

The Deacon is appointed, chosen like the things which have before been spoken of. If he be of good conduct, if he be  pure, if he have been chosen for purity and for abstinence from distractions; if not, yet [if he] be the husband of one wife, borne witness to by all the faithful, not entangled in the businesses of the world, not knowing a handicraft, without riches, without children. But if he be married or have children, let his children be taught to work piety  and to be pure, so that they may be approved by the Church,  according to the rule of the ministry. But let the Church take care for them, so that they may persevere in the law and in the work of the ministry.

Chapter 34

But let him accomplish in the Church those things which are right. Let [his] ministry be thus. First, let him do only those things which are commanded by the Bishop as for proclamation; and let him be the counsellor of the whole clergy, and the mystery of the Church; who ministereth to the sick, who ministereth to the strangers, who helpeth the Widows, who is the father of the Orphans, who goeth about all the houses of those that are in need, lest any be in affliction or sickness or misery. Let him go about in the houses of the Catechumens, so that he may confirm those who are doubting and teach those who are unlearned.

Let him clothe those men who have departed, adorning [them]; burying the strangers; guiding those who pass from their dwelling, or go into captivity. For the help of those who are in need let him notify the Church; let him not trouble the Bishop; but only on the first day of the week let him make mention about everything, so that he may know.

Let him be watchful at the hour of the assembly, going about in the Church, and let him see that no one be [there who is] proud, or a buffoon, or a spy, or one who speaketh idle [words]. Let him rebuke [such], every one seeing and hearing, and let him thrust out him whom he hath condemned to receive punishment, so that the others also may fear. And if [the offender] persuade him to permit him to partake, let him give him comfort. But if the man persist in his transgression or disorderliness, let him take [word] about him up to the Bishop, and let him be separated seven days, and then called; so that he be not taken captive.  But if when he cometh he still continue and persist in his folly, let him be cut off until he, repenting truly, come to himself, beseeching [to be received back].

If he be in a city on the seashore, let him go quickly about the places on the seashore, lest there be anyone dead in the sea; let him clothe him and bury him. Similarly also let him search out the guest house, lest there be anyone who is staying in the place sick or in need or dead; and let him make [it] known to the Church, so that it may provide what is right for each one. Let him cause the palsied and infirm to bathe as is right, so that they may have a breathing space from their pains. Let him give through the Church to each one what is right.

In the Church let twelve Presbyters, seven Deacons, fourteen Sub-Deacons, thirteen Widows who sit in front, be known.

But of the Deacons let him who is considered among them to be most earnest, and best in governing, be chosen to be the receiver of strangers. Let him alway be in the place of the guest house which is in the Church, clothed in white garments, a stole only on his shoulder.

Chapter 35

Let him be in everything as the eye of the Church, with fear admonishing, so that he may be an example to the people of piety Let him admonish thus:

Admonition Of The Deacon [at the Beginning of the Eucharist]

Let us arise.

Let everyone know his place.

Let the Catechumens depart.

See [that] no one polluted, no one slothful [remain]. [Lift] up the eyes of your hearts. The Angels are looking on. See [that] he who trusteth not, withdraw. Let us beseech in concord. Let no fornicator, no wrathful man [remain]; if one who is a servant of evil be [here], let him withdraw. See, as children of the light, let us beg [and] beseech our Lord and our God and our Saviour Jesus Christ.

When the Presbyter or Bishop beginneth the prayer, let the people pray and kneel.

Then let the Deacon say thus:

For  the peace which is from Heaven let us beseech, that the Lord in His mercy may give us peace.

For our faith let us beseech, that the Lord may grant unto us to keep truly unto the end the faith which is in Him.

For harmony and concord let us beseech, that the Lord may keep us together in concord of the Spirit.

For patience let us beseech, that the Lord may bestow [upon us] patience unto the end in all afflictions.

For the Apostles let us beseech, that the Lord may grant to us to please Him, as they also pleased Him, and may make us worthy of their inheritance.

For the Holy Prophets let us beseech, that the Lord may number us with them.

For the Holy confessors let us beseech, that the Lord God may grant us to fulfil [our course] with the same mind [as they].

For the Bishop let us beseech, that our Lord may grant him to us for length of days in faith, rightly dividing the word of truth, and standing at the head of the Church purely and without blame.

For the Presbyterate let us beseech, that the Lord may not take away from them the spirit of the Presbyterate, but bestow on them earnestness and piety until the end.

For the Deacons let us beseech, that the Lord may grant unto them to run a perfect course, and to perfect holiness, and that He may remember their work and their love.

For the Presbyteresses let us beseech, that the Lord may hear their supplications and keep their hearts perfectly in the grace of the Spirit and help their work.

For the Sub-Deacons, Readers, Deaconesses let us beseech, that the Lord may grant to them to receive a reward in patience.

For the faithful laymen let us beseech, that the Lord may grant unto them to keep the faith perfectly.

For the Catechumens let us beseech, that the Lord may grant unto them to be counted worthy of the laver of forgiveness, and may sanctify them with the Seal of Holiness.

For the Kingdom let us beseech, that the Lord may bestow upon it tranquillity.

For the exalted powers let us beseech, that the Lord may grant to them prudence and the fear of Him.

For all the world let us beseech, that the Lord may provide for each one such things as are meet.

For those who travel by sea, and those who go on journeys let us beseech, that the Lord may guide them with the right hand of mercy.

For those who are persecuted let us beseech, that the Lord may grant to them patience and knowledge, and may bestow on them also a completed  labour.

For those who have fallen asleep from the Church let us beseech, that the Lord may bestow upon them a place of rest.

For those who have fallen let us beseech, that the Lord may not remember their follies unto them, but moderate [His] threats unto them.

And let us all also, who need prayer, beseech that the Lord may protect and keep us with the peaceful Spirit. Let us persuade and beseech the Lord, that He may receive our prayers.

After the Deacon commemorateth, let the Bishop make a sign with his hand.

Let the Deacon say:

Let us arise in the Holy Ghost, that, being made wise, we may grow in His grace, boasting in His Name; being built on the foundation of the Apostles, let us beg [and] beseech the Lord that, being persuaded, He may receive our prayers.

Then let the Bishop complete [the prayer]. And let the people say: Amen.

[End of Deacon’s Words in Eucharist]

Chapter 36

Let the Deacon be such as this, so that he may appear with fear and modesty and reverence. With regard to fervour of spirit, let him have a perfect manner of life. Let him observe and look at those who come into the House of the Sanctuary. Let him investigate who they are, so that he may know if they are lambs or wolves. And when he asketh, let him bring in him that is worthy, lest, if a spy enter, the liberty of the Church be searched out, and his sin be on his head.

If anyone come late to the [service of] praise, either when that of the dawn is being said or when the Offering is being offered, whoever he be, let him remain outside, and let not the Deacon bring him in  — for it is a type of the day of judgment which is to come  — lest by the noise of the entrance there be distraction to those who are praying. But when he cometh and findeth that the door is shut, let him not knock, because of what hath been said already.

But after the hymn of praise which is placed first is finished, let the faithful man or faithful woman enter. Let the Deacon say, either over the offering or, For the hymn of praise:

Let us beseech that the Lord may write our supplication in the book of life, and [that] God who [is] forever may remember us in His Holy habitations of light. For [this] brother who is late, let us beseech that the Lord may give him earnestness and labour, and turn away from him every bond of this world, and give him the will of affection and love and hope.

Similarly also for a sister or for a Deaconess, for those who are late or remain outside, let him admonish that all the people may beseech for them. For thus when a Deacon mentioneth and admonisheth about them, earnestness is strengthened and the bond of love is fulfilled, and the despiser and the slothful is disciplined.

Chapter 37

If any woman whatsoever suffer violence from a man, let the Deacon accurately investigate if she be faithful and have truly suffered violence; if he who treated her with violence was not her lover. And if she be accurately thus, and if she that suffered mourn about the violence that happened to her, let him take it up to the hearing of the Bishop, that she may be shewn to be in all things in communion with the Church. If he who treated her with violence be faithful, let not the Deacon bring him into the Church for partaking, even if he repent. But if he be a Catechumen and repent, let him be baptized and partake.

Let the Deacon catechise those who repent and bring them to the Presbyters or to the Bishop that they may be catechised and taught knowledge. But if [his] power suffice  to accomplish perfectly the office of the diaconate, let him abide only in prayer; and let him consider supplication and meditation, love, the  way, mourning, and [to have] fear before his eyes, as a work; and he shall be called a son of the light.

Chapter 38

Let the appointment of a Deacon be thus:

Let the Bishop alone lay a hand on him, because he is not appointed to the Priesthood, but for the service of attendance on the Bishop and the Church. Over the Deacon then, let the Bishop say thus:

Prayer Of Ordination Of A Deacon

God, who didst create all things, and didst adorn [them] by the Word; who dost rest in the pure ages; who didst minister to us eternal life by Thy Prophets; who didst enlighten us with the light of knowledge; God, who doest great things, and [art] the Maker of all glory , Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, whom Thou didst send to minister to Thy will, that all the race of mankind might be saved, and didst make known to us and didst reveal Thy Thought, Thy Wisdom, Thine Energy, Thy Beloved Son, Jesus Christ, the Lord of light, the Prince of Princes, and God of Gods; give the spirit of grace and earnestness to this Thy servant, that there may be given to him earnestness, quiet, strength, power to please Thee; give him, Lord, as a worker in the law without shame, kind, a lover of Orphans, a lover of the pious, a lover of Widows, fervent in spirit, a lover of good things; and enlighten, Lord, him whom Thou hast loved and chosen to minister to Thy Church, offering in holiness to Thy Holy place those things which are offered to Thee from the inheritance of Thy High Priesthood; so that ministering without blame and purely and holily and with a pure conscience, he may be counted worthy of this high and exalted office, by Thy good will, praising Thee continually through Thy Only-begotten Son Jesus Christ,  our Lord, by whom [be] praise and might to Thee forever and ever.

The people: Amen.

Chapter 39

If [one] be borne witness to and confess that he was in bonds and in imprisonment and in afflictions for the Name of God, a hand is not therefore laid on him for the diaconate. Similarly not for the Presbyterate. For he hath the honour of the clergy, having been protected by the hand of God, by [his] confessorship. But if he be appointed Bishop, he is also counted worthy of laying on of the hand. And [even] if he be a Confessor who hath not been judged before the power, and hath not been buffeted in bonds, but only hath confessed, he is counted worthy of laying on of the hand. For he receiveth the prayer of the clergy. But let him not pray over him repeating all these words; but when the shepherd advanceth, he will receive the effect.

Of the Widows

 

Chapter 40

Let a Widow be appointed  being chosen, if for a long time past she have abided without a husband; if though often pressed by men to be married,  because of the faith she have not been married. But if not, it is not yet right that she should be chosen; but let her be proved for a time, if she be pious, if having  children she have brought them up in holiness, if she have not taught them worldly wisdom, if she have made them examples of the Holy law and of the Church, if she have loved and honoured strangers, if she have been constant in prayers, if she have lived meekly, if she have cheerfully aided those who are afflicted, if it have been revealed to the Saints about her, if she have not neglected the Saints, if she have ministered with all her power, if she be fit to bear and endure the burden, being one who prayeth without ceasing,  being perfect in all things, being fervent in spirit, having the eyes of her heart opened in everything, being always kind, loving innocency, not possessing anything in this world, but always taking and bearing about the Cross, crucifying all evil, by night and by day  abiding by the Altar, working cheerfully and secretly. If she have one or two or three likeminded in my Name, I am among them. But let her be perfect in the Lord, as one who is visited by the Spirit.

Let her do the things which are made known to her with fear and earnestness. Let her instruct those women who do not obey; let her teach those  [women] who have not learnt; let her convert those who are foolish; let her instruct them to be grave; let her prove the Deaconesses; let her make those who enter to know of what sort and who they are; also let her instruct them that they abide. To those who hear let her patiently counsel those things which are proper. To those who are disobedient after three instructions let her not speak. Let her love those who desire to be in Virginity or in purity; those who oppose themselves let her correct modestly and quietly. With everyone let her be peaceful. Let her privately shut the mouth of those who talk much and idly; but if they do not hear, let her take with her an aged woman, or let her take [it] up to the hearing of the Bishop. But in the Church let her be silent. In prayer let her be persistent. Let her visit those [women] who are sick; on each first day of the week let her take with her one Deacon or two and help them. If she have any possession let her give it for the Poor and the faithful. But if she have nothing, let her be helped by the Church. Let her do no secular work, as it were for a trial. But let her have these works of the Spirit; let her continue in prayers and fasts; let her ask for nothing deep; let her receive those things which the Lord giveth; let her not be anxious for [her] children; let her deliver them to the Church, so that they living in the house of God may be fit for the service of the Priesthood.

Her requests to God will be acceptable; they are the sacrifice and Altar of God. For those  who have ministered well shall be praised by the Archangels. But as for them who are dissolute and raging and drunken, and babblers and curious and evil, that is, those who love pleasures much, the figures of their souls, which stand before the Father of light, perish and are carried to darkness to dwell. For their deeds which are visible, going up before the most High, drag them easily to the pit, so that after this world is changed and passeth away the figures of their souls may stand against them as witnesses, not allowing them to look up. For the figure and type of every soul standeth before God from the foundation of the world.

Therefore let her be chosen who can go to meet the Holy Phials.

Of them are the twelve Presbyters who praise My Father who is in Heaven. These who receive the prayers of every holy soul, offer [them] to the most High [as] a sweet savour.

Chapter 41

Let the appointment be thus. As she prayeth at the entrance of the Altar, and looketh down, let the Bishop say quietly, so that the Priests may hear, thus:

Prayer Of The Institution Of Widows Who Sit In Front

God, the Holy One, the Most High, who seest the [things] that are humble, who hast chosen the weak  and the mighty; the Honoured One who hast created  also those [things] which are despised; give, Lord, the spirit of power to this Thine handmaid, and strengthen her with Thy truth, so that doing Thy commandment and serving in the House of Thy Sanctuary, she may be an honoured vessel unto Thee, and may glorify [Thee] in the day when Thou wilt glorify Thy Poor, Lord. And grant to her power cheerfully to accomplish Thy teachings which Thou hast determined for a rule for Thine handmaid. Grant to her, Lord, the spirit of meekness and of power and of patience and of kindness, so that, bearing with ineffable joy Thy burden, she may endure labour. Yea, Lord God, who knowest our weakness, perfect Thine handmaid for the praise of Thine house; strengthen her for edification and a good example, sanctify [her], make [her] wise; comfort [her] God; for blessed and glorious is Thy Kingdom, God the Father. And to Thee [be] praise, and to Thine Only-begotten Son, our Lord Jesus Christ, and to the Holy Ghost [who is] good and adorable and the Maker of life, and of equal essence with Thee, now and before all the worlds and for the ages and forever and ever.

The people: Amen.

Chapter 42

After she is [appointed] thus, let her not be anxious about anything, but let her remain solitary and having leisure for supplications of piety. For the foundation of holiness and life for a Widow such as this is solitude. For she hath loved none other but the God of Gods, the Father which is in Heaven. But at fixed times let her give praise by herself, in the night [and] at dawn. If she be menstruous let her abide in the Temple and not approach the Altar, not that she is as it were polluted, but that the Altar may have honour. Afterwards, when she fasteth and batheth, let her be assiduous [at the Altar]. In the days of Pentecost, let her not fast. In the feast of Pascha, let her give of those things which she hath to the Poor, and let her bathe, and so let her pray. But when she giveth thanks or praise, if she have friends like-minded, Virgins, it is well that they pray with her for the sake of the Amen. But if not, [let her pray] alone by herself, both in the Church and in the house, especially at midnight.

The times in which she should give praise are: Saturday, the first day of the week, either Pascha or Epiphany or Pentecost. At other time[s] let her give thanks meekly with Psalms, with hymns of praise, with meditations; and thus let her labour. For the Most High will sanctify them and will forgive all [their] sins, those which were before written against them, and their error; My Father, the Heavenly One, shall strengthen them and enlighten their faces as the faces of My Sanctuaries; they shall shine in My glory in the day of recompense.

Chapter 43

 

Let her hymns of praise be said thus quietly:

Night Hymn Of Praise Of Widows

Holy, Holy, without spot, who hast Thy dwelling in the light, God of Abraham, and of Isaac, and of Jacob, God of Enoch and David, of Elijah, of Elisha, of Moses, of Joshua, and of the Prophets and of the others who in truth preached Thy Name, God of the Apostles, the God who hast guided all things by Thy reason and hast blest them who lovingly trust in Thee; my soul praiseth Thee with the power of the spirit of my power, my heart praiseth Thee, O Lord, and Thy might, always. Let all my power praise Thee, Lord, for if Thou wilt, I am Thine, God, the God of the Poor; for Thou art the Helper of them that lack, and Thou art He that looketh on the meek, and the Assister of the weak; assist me, O Lord, because by Thy grace Thou wast well pleased in me that I should be Thine handmaid, for Thou hast bestowed upon me a great name, that I should be called a Christian. Thou who hast freed me from servitude that I may serve a servitude to God, the Mighty One who [art] forever, who seest all, that I may praise Thee uncondemned. Yea, Lord God, confirm my heart in Thee until it is perfected in the Holy Ghost. Rejuvenate us for the edification of Thy Holy Church, Son and Word and Thought of the Father, the Christ who camest for the salvation of the race of man, who didst suffer and wast buried, and didst rise, [and] also wast glorified by Him who sent Thee, turn, help, Lord, set upright our thoughts by the strong faith of the Spirit. Glorify Thy Name in us.  For in Thy Father and in Thee and in the Holy Ghost is our hope forever and ever.

With those who are with her let her say: Amen.

But let her say the hymn of praise at dawn thus:

Hymns Of Praise At Dawn Of Widows Who Sit In Front

Eternal God, Guide of our souls. Maker of light, Treasure of life, who restest in the praises and prayers of the Holy ones; Lover of compassion, merciful, kind. King of all, and God, our Lord, my spirit praiseth [Thee], sending [up] to Thee the unceasing voices of Thine handmaid, Lord, who beseecheth Thee that Thou mayest perfect in Thine handmaid the spirit of reason and of piety and of right knowledge. I praise Thee, Lord, who didst take away from our poverty all disturbance and confusion (?), wrath and all contention and evil habit, who didst prepare [and] change the feelings of my understanding that I might serve Thee only, God; who hast adorned Thy Holy Church with various ministries, who drivest away from Thine handmaid all doubtfulness, fear, weakness; and boldest the thoughts of those who rightly serve Thee; I praise Thee, God, who hast enlightened me with the light of Thy knowledge, through Thine Only-begotten Son, our Lord Jesus Christ, by whom [be] praise and might to Thee forever and ever. Amen.

And with those who are with her let her say: Amen.

Of Sub-Deacons

 

Chapter 44

Similarly let a Sub-Deacon be appointed who is chaste, the Bishop praying over him. Let the Bishop say over him on the first day of the week, in the hearing of all the people, thus:

Thou, N., Minister and hear the Gospel in the fear of God. Cultivate holily the knowledge of thy soul; keep pureness; discipline thyself; observe and obey and hear meekly; neglect not prayers and fasts, so that the Lord may give thee rest and make thee worthy of a higher degree.

And let all the Priests say: So be it, so be it, so be it.

Of The Reader

 

Chapter 45

A Reader is instituted [who is] pure, quiet, meek, wise, with much experience, learned and of much learning, with a good memory, vigilant, so that he may deserve a higher degree. First let the book be given him in the sight of the people, on the first day of the week. But a hand is not laid on him. But he heareth from the Bishop [the following]:

Thou, N., whom Christ hath called to be a minister of His words, be careful, and strive that thou mayest appear approved both in this rule and in a higher degree, even by our Lord Jesus Christ; so that He in His everlasting habitations may pay thee a good reward for these things.

And let the Priests say: So be it, so be it, so be it.

Of Male And Female Virgins

 

Chapter 46

A male or female Virgin is not instituted or appointed by man, but is voluntarily separated and named [a Virgin].But a hand is not laid on him, as for Virginity. For this division is of [their] own free will. But it is right for Virgins that they be fixed and bound in the suffering of a sound body, that they be constant in fasts and in prayers, in weeping and in mourning daily; but that they always expect a departure from the flesh, and strive as at the departure. Let them not serve raging or debauchery or drunkenness or vain talking, or [be engaged] in worldly work or in distraction, but they are as one who is on the Cross; let their hearts be [lifted] up, with all meekness of thought and comeliness, with meditation on the Holy Scriptures, with faithful thoughts, with kind consolations, so that when they pray they may be answered concerning those things which they ask for the faithful who wish to provide for them. Let them not despise [these things (?)], so that through them also a portion of life may be divided to those. Let them be confirmed in love and kindness and in true and perfect grace. Let them be constant in consolation, consoling their neighbours, catechising  and teaching those who have lately been made faithful, in understanding and in knowledge and in kindness, inciting those who are very young, being examples  of holiness among them in all good things. Similarly also let the females do. But in order and in grace and in knowledge let them speak and work, that they may truly be the salt of the earth as it is called. But let females who are Virgins have their heads covered in the Church, and let them hide only their hair; but let them be counted worthy of honour from everyone, in order that the rest [of the women] who desire, may emulate them.

Of A Gift

 

Chapter 47

If anyone appear in the people to have a gift of healing or of knowledge or of tongues, a hand is not laid on him, for the work is manifest. But let them have honour.

The First Book of Clement is ended


The Second Book Of Clement

Of Laymen Thus:

 

Chapter 1

Let those who first come to hear the Word, before they enter among all the people, first come to teachers at home, and let them be examined as to all the cause [of their coming] with all accuracy, so that their teachers may know for what they have come, or with what will. And if they have come with a good will and love, let them be diligently taught. But let those who bring them be such as are well on in years, faithful who are known by the Church; and let them bear witness about them, if they are able to hear [the word]. Also let their life and conversation be asked about: if they be not contentious, if quiet, if meek, not speaking vain things or despisers or foul speakers, or buffoons or leaders astray, or ridicule mongers.

Also if any of them have a wife or not; and if of his own free will he have not [a wife], let him be instructed carefully and diligently and persuaded with all kindness to amend his failings. And let the Bishop provide for him in the Lord with prophetical instructions which lead him to purity; and if he maketh progress, also with Apostolic doctrines and then with Gospel [doctrines] and with the perfect word of doctrine; and if he be worthy, let him be baptized. And if thus he be worthy of the hidden things, let him hear [them] by himself, and also make progress in that which is hidden.

Let there be no obstacle at all to him who desireth to marry, so that he be not caught by the Evil One with fornication. But let him marry a Christian, a faithful [woman] of the race of the Christians, who is able to keep her husband in the faith; at the bidding of the Bishop, he thus providing for him.

And also let him who cometh be asked if he be a slave or free; and if the slave of one who is faithful, and if also his master permit him, let him hear. But if his master be not faithful and do not permit him, let him be persuaded to permit him. And if [his master] say truly about him that he wisheth to become a Christian because he hateth his masters, let him be cast out. But if no cause be shewn of hatred of servitude, but [if] he [really] wish to be a Christian, let him hear. But if his master be faithful and do not bear witness to him, let him be cast out. Similarly if [a woman] be the wife of a man, let the woman be taught to please her husband in the fear of God. But if both of them desire to serve purity in piety, they have a reward. Let him who is unmarried not commit fornication, but let him marry in the law. But if he desire to persevere thus, let him abide in the Lord.

If anyone be tormented with a devil, let him not hear the Word from a teacher until he be cleansed. For the intelligence, when consumed with a material spirit, doth not receive the immaterial and Holy Word. But if he be cleansed, let him be instructed in the Word.

Chapter 2

If a fornicatress, or brothel keeper, or a drunkard, or a maker of idols, or a painter, or one engaged in shows, or a charioteer, or a wrestler, or one who goeth to the contest or a combatant [in the games], or one who teacheth wrestling, or a public huntsman, or a Priest of idols, or a keeper of them, be [among those that come], let him not be received.

If any such desire to become faithful, let him cease from these [things]; and being in deed faithful, and being baptized,  let him be received and let him partake. And if he do not cease, let him be rejected.

If anyone be a teacher of boys in worldly wisdom, it is well if he cease. But if he have no other craft by which to live, let him be excused.  If anyone be a soldier or in authority, let him be taught not to oppress or to kill or to rob, or to be angry or to rage and afflict anyone. But let those rations suffice him which are given to him. But if they wish to be baptized in the Lord, let them cease from military service or from the [post of] authority, and if not let them not be received.

Let a Catechumen or a believer of the people, if he desire to be a soldier, either cease from his intention, or if not let him be rejected. For he hath despised God by his thought, and leaving the things of the Spirit, he hath perfected himself in the flesh, and hath treated the faith with contempt.

If a fornicatress or a dissolute man or a drunkard do not [these things], and desire, believing, to become Catechumens, they may [be admitted]. And if they make progress, let them be baptized; but if not let them be rejected.

If a concubine of a man be a servant, and desire to be faithful, if she educate those who are born [of her] and she separate from her master, or be joined  to him alone in marriage, let her hear; and being baptized let her partake in the Offering, but if not let her be rejected.

He who doeth things which may not be spoken of, or a diviner or a magician  or a necromancer , these are defiled and do not come to judgment. Let a charmer, or an astrologer, or an interpreter of dreams, or a sorcerer, or one who gathereth together the people, or a star-gazer, or a diviner by idols, either cease, and when he ceaseth let him be exorcised and baptized; or if not let him be rejected.

If a man have a concubine, let him divorce her and marry in the law and hear the word of instruction.

[Of Catechumens and Baptism]

 

Let him who is instructed with all care and heareth the perfectness of the Gospel, be instructed not less than three years, and if he, loving, strive to be baptized, let him [then] be baptized.

But if he be quiet and meek and earnest, and persevering and abiding with him who teacheth him, with labour, with watching, with confession, with subjection, and with prayers, and [if] he desire to be baptized sooner, let him be baptized. For it is not the time that is considered, but the will of faith.

Chapter 4

Let those who are instructed, after the teacher ceaseth, pray apart from the faithful and go out, so that the faithful may learn, when the Presbyter or Deacon readeth the New [Testament] or Gospels.

Let the faithful women stand in the Church by themselves and the female Catechumens by themselves apart from the faithful [women]. But all the [women] apart from the men; the girls also apart, each according to her order.

The men on the right and the women on the left; the faithful Virgins first, and the [women] who are being instructed to Virginity behind them.

After the prayer let the female Catechumens give the Peace to one another; also men to men; also women to women.

Let every woman cover her head with her hair also. Let the women becomingly and decorously show their modesty in their adornment, and let them not be adorned with plaited hair or with [precious] stones, lest the young men who are in the Church be caught, but with modesty and knowledge. But if not, let them be instructed by the Widows who sit in front.

But if they rebelliously resist, let the Bishop reprove them.

Chapter 5

After the Catechumens pray, let the Bishop or Presbyter, laying on them a hand, say the prayer of the laying on of the hand of Catechumens:

Prayer Of Catechumens

God, who dost send thunderings and preparest lightnings; who hast founded the Heaven and established the earth, and enlightenest the faithful and convertest them that err; who hast quickened those who were dead and hast given hope to those who [were] without hope, and hast freed the universe from error by the coming down of Thy Only-begotten Son Jesus Christ; hear us, Lord, and give to these souls intelligence, perfectness, undoubting faith, knowledge of the truth, that they may be in a degree higher than this, through the Holy Name of Thee and of Thy Beloved Son Jesus, our Lord, through whom [be] praise and might to Thee with the Holy Ghost, both now and always and forever and ever. Amen.

After this let them be dismissed.

If anyone, being a Catechumen, be apprehended for My Name and be judged with tortures, and hasten and press forward to receive the laver, let not the shepherd hesitate, but let him give [it] to him. But if he suffer violence and be killed, not having received the laver, let him not be anxious. For, having been baptized in his own blood, [he is] justified.

Chapter 6

 

But if they are severally chosen to receive the laver, let them be proved and investigated first, how they have lived while Catechumens; if they have honoured Widows, if they have visited the sick, if they have walked in all meekness and love, if they were earnest in good works. But let them be borne witness to by those who bring them.

And when they hear the Gospel, let a hand be laid on them daily.

Let them be exorcised from that day when they are chosen. And let them be baptized in the days of Pascha. And when the days approach, let the Bishop exorcise each one of them separately by himself, so that he may be persuaded that he is pure. For if there be one that is not pure, or in whom is an unclean spirit, let him be reproved  by that unclean  spirit.

If then anyone is found under any such imagination, let him be removed from the midst [of them], and let him be reproved and reproached that he hath not heard the word of the commandments and of instruction faithfully, because the evil and strange spirit abided in him.

Let those who are about to receive the laver be taught on the fifth day of the last week only, to wash and bathe their heads. But if any woman then be in the customary flux, let her also take in addition another day, washing and bathing beforehand.

Let them fast both [on] the Friday and [on] the Saturday.

Chapter 7

On the Saturday let the Bishop assemble them who receive the laver, and let him bid them to kneel while the Deacon proclaimeth. And when there is silence let him exorcise [them], laying a hand on them, and saying:

Exorcism Before The Laver

God of Heaven, God of the lights, God of the Archangels who are under Thy power, God of the Angels who are under Thy might, King of Glories and of Dominions, God of Saints, Father of our Lord Jesus Christ; who hast loosed the souls that were bound by death; who hast enlightened him that was bound in darkness and fixed firm, by the firm-fixing  of the suffering of Thy Only-begotten; who hast loosed our cords and hast loosed every weight from [off] us; who hast repelled from us every attack of the Evil One; Son and Word of God, who hast made us immortal by Thy death; who hast glorified us with Thy glory; who hast loosed all the bands of our sins by Thy passion; who hast borne the curse of our sins by Thy Cross, and by Thy resurrection hast taught [mankind] to pass from [being] sons of men to become Gods; who hast taken on Thee our humiliation; who hast trodden the way to Heaven for us; who hast changed us from corruption to incorruptibility; hear me, Lord, who cry to Thee in pain and fear, Lord God, and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, before Him before whom stand the Holy Hosts of Archangels and of Cherubim and Armies  without number, of Princes and of Seraphim; whose Veil [is] the light, and before whose face [is] fire; the throne of whose glory is ineffable; the habitations of whose delights, which Thou hast prepared for Thy Saints, are ineffable, the Raiments and Treasures of which are visible to Thee alone and to Thy Holy Angels; before whom all things tremble, giving praise; whose glance measureth the mountains, and whose Name, when uttered, cleaveth the depths; whom the Heavens which are shut up by Thy hand, hide from view; before whom the earth and the depths together tremble; before whom the sea and the dragons that [are] in it quake; of whom the wild beasts, trembling, stand in awe; through whom the mountains and the firmament of the earth melt with fear: at whose power the tempest of the winter quaketh and trembleth, and the raging whirlwind keepeth its limits; because of whom the fire of vengeance doth not overpass that which hath been prescribed to it, but abideth when reproved by Thy commandment; because of whom the whole creation travaileth, groaning with groans, being bidden to tarry till its time; from whom all nature and creation that opposeth itself fleeth; because of whom the whole army of the adversary is subdued, and the Devil is fallen, and the serpent is trodden down, and .the dragon is killed; because of whom the nations which have confessed Thee are enlightened  and strengthened in Thee, Lord; because of whom life is revealed and hope confirmed, and faith strengthened and the Gospel  preached; because of whom corruption is brought to naught and incorruptibility waxeth strong; through whom man  was fashioned from the earth, but having believed in Thee he is no longer  earth; Lord God Almighty, I exorcise these in the Name of Thee and of Thy Beloved Son Jesus Christ.

Drive away from the souls of these Thy servants every disease and illness, and every stumbling block and all unbelief, all doubt and all contempt, every unclean spirit that worketh, that is a witch, that killeth, that is under the earth, that is fiery, dark, evil-smelling, given to witchcraft, lascivious, loving gold, uplifted, money-loving, wrathful.

Yea, Lord God, overthrow from these Thy servants who have been named in Thee the weapons of the Devil, all magic, witchcraft, fear of idols, divination, astrology , necromancy, observation of the stars, astronomy, pleasure of the passions, love of disgraceful things, sadness, love of money, drunkenness, fornication, adultery, lasciviousness, contumacy, contentiousness, wrath, confusion, wickedness, evil suspicion.

Yea, Lord God, hear me, and breathe on these Thy servants the spirit of tranquillity, that, being guarded by Thee, they may bring forth in Thee fruits of faith, of virtue, of wisdom, of purity, of self-discipline, of patience, of hope, of concord, of modesty, of praise. For by Thee they have been called as servants, in the Name of Jesus Christ, being baptized in the Trinity, in the Name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Ghost, the Angels, Glories, Dominions, all the Heavenly Army being witnesses. Lord, the real essence of our life and theirs, guard their hearts, God, for Thou art mighty and glorious forever and ever.

And let all the people, also the Priests, say: Amen, So be it, so be it, so be it.

If anyone be in the endurance of anything, rise suddenly while the Bishop is saying [these words], and weep or cry out, or foam [at the mouth] or gnash with his teeth, or stare or be much uplifted or altogether run away, being quickly carried off, let such an one be put aside by the Deacons, so that there be no disturbance while the Bishop is speaking, and let such an one be exorcised by the Priests until he be cleansed, and so let him be baptized.

After the Priest exorciseth those who have drawn near, or him who is found unclean, let the Priest breathe on them and seal them between their eyes, on the nose, on the heart, on the ears; and so let him raise them up.

Chapter 8

In the forty days of Pascha, let the people abide in the Temple, keeping vigil and praying, hearing the Scriptures and hymns of praise and the books of doctrine.

But on the last Saturday let them rise early in the night, and when the Catechumens are being exorcised till the Saturday midnight.  Let those who are about to be baptized not bring anything else with them except one loaf for the Eucharist.

But let them be baptized thus. When they come to the water, let the water be pure and flowing. First the babes, then the men, then the women.

But if anyone desire to approach as it were to Virginity, let him first be baptized by the hand of the Bishop.

Let the women, when they are baptized, loose their hair. Let all the boys who can answer in baptism make the responses and answer after the Priest. But if they cannot, let their parents make the responses for them, or someone of their households.

But when they who are being baptized go down [to the water], after they make the responses and say [the answers], let the Bishop see if there be any of them — either a man having a ring of gold, or a woman having on her gold; for no one should have with him any strange thing in the water, but let him deliver it to those who are near him.

But when they are about to receive the oil for anointing, let the Bishop pray over it and give thanks, and let him exorcise another [oil] with an exorcism, the same as in the case of Catechumens. And let the Deacon hear that which is exorcised, and let the Presbyter stand by him. Let him then who standeth by that [oil] on which a giving of thanks over the oil [is said] be on the right hand; but him who standeth by that which is exorcised, on the left.

And when he taketh hold of each one, let him ask — he that is being baptized turning to the West — and let him say: Say,

I renounce thee, Satan, and all thy service, and thy shows, and thy pleasures, and all thy works.

And when he hath said these things and confessed, let him be anointed with that oil which was exorcised, he who anointeth him saying thus:

I anoint [thee] with this oil of exorcism for a deliverance from every evil and unclean spirit, and for a deliverance from every evil.

And also, turning him to the East, let him  say: [Say,]

I submit  to Thee, Father and  Son and  Holy Ghost, before whom all nature trembleth and is moved. Grant me to do all Thy will without blame.

Then after these things let him give him over to the Presbyter who baptizeth. And let them stand in the water naked.

But let the Deacon descend with him similarly. But when he who is being baptized goeth down into the water, let him that baptizeth him say, putting his hand on him, thus:

Dost thou believe in God the Father Almighty?

Let him that is being baptized say: I believe.

Let him immediately baptize him once.

Let the Priest also say:

Dost thou believe also in Christ Jesus the Son of God, who came from the Father, who is of old with the Father, who was born of Mary the Virgin by the Holy Ghost, who was crucified in the days of Pontius Pilate, and died and rose the third day, [who] came to life from the dead, and ascended into Heaven and sat down on the right hand of the Father, and cometh to judge the quick and the dead?

But when he saith: I believe, let him baptize him the second time.

And also let him say:

Dost thou believe also in the Holy Ghost, in the Holy Church?

And let him who is being baptized say: I believe;

And thus let him baptize him the third time.

Then when he cometh up let him be anointed by the Presbyter with oil over which the giving of thanks has been said, [the Presbyter] saying over him: I anoint thee with oil in the Name of Jesus Christ. But let women be anointed by Widows who sit in front, the Presbyter saying over them [the words]. And let those Widows in baptism also beneath a Veil receive them by a Veil, the Bishop saying those Confessions, and so those whom they cause them to renounce.

Chapter 9

Then let them be together in the Church, and let the Bishop lay a hand on them after baptism, saying and invoking over them thus:

Invocation Of The Holy Ghost

Lord God, who by Thy Beloved Son Jesus Christ didst fill Thy Holy Apostles with the Holy Ghost, and by the Spirit didst permit Thy blessed Prophets to speak; who didst count these Thy servants worthy to be counted worthy in Thy Christ of forgiveness of sins through the laver of the second birth, and hast cleansed them of all the mist of error and darkness of unbelief; make them worthy to be filled with Thy Holy Spirit, by Thy love of man, bestowing upon them Thy grace, so that they may serve Thee according to Thy will, truly, God, and may do Thy commandments in holiness, and cultivating always those things which are of Thy will, may enter into Thine eternal Tabernacles, through Thee and through Thy Beloved Son Jesus Christ, by whom [be] to Thee praise and might with the Holy Ghost forever and ever.

Similarly, pouring the oil, placing a hand on his head, let him say:

Anointing I anoint [thee] in God Almighty, and in Jesus Christ and in the Holy Ghost, that thou mayest be His soldier, having a perfect faith, and a vessel pleasing to Him.

And sealing him on his forehead, let him give him the Peace, and say:

The Lord God of the meek be with thee. And let him who has been sealed answer and say: And with thy spirit.

And so each one severally.

[On the First Eucharist After Baptism]

 

Chapter 10

Thenceforward let them pray together with all the people.

Let the oblation be offered by the Deacon. And so let the shepherd give thanks. But the bread is offered for a type of My body. Let the cup be mixed with wine, — mixed with wine and water, for it is a sign of blood and of the laver; so that also the inner man, that is to say, that which is of the soul, may be counted worthy of those things which are like [them], that is to say, those things of the body also. And let all the people, according to what hath been said before, receive with Amen of the Eucharist which is offered.

Let the Deacons hover over [them], as hath before been said.

Let him who giveth [the sacrament] say:

The Body of Jesus Christ, the Holy Ghost, for the healing of soul and body.

And let him who receiveth say: Amen.

He who spilleth of the cup gathereth up judgment to himself. Similarly also he who seeth and is silent and doth not reprove him, whoever he may be. Let those who take the Offering be exhorted by the Priests to be careful to do good works, to love strangers, to abound in fasting, and in every good work to engage in servitude. And let them be taught also about the resurrection of the body; before anyone receiveth baptism let no one know the word about the resurrection, for this is the new decree, which hath a new name that none knoweth but he who receiveth [it].

Note: Rev. 2:17; Entire Verse in KJV: He that hath an ear, let him hear what the Spirit saith unto the Churches; To him that overcometh will I give to eat of the hidden manna, and will give him a white stone, and in the stone a new name written, which no man knoweth saving he that receiveth [it].

The Deacon doth not give the Offering to a Presbyter. Let him open the dish or paten, and let the Presbyter receive.

Let the Deacon give [the Eucharist] to the people in their hands.  Let the Deacon, when the Presbyter is not present, of necessity baptize.

[Worship, Firstfruits and Offerings]

 

Chapter 11

If anyone receive any service to carry to a Widow or Poor woman or anyone constantly engaged in a Church work, let him give it the same day; and if not, on the morrow, let him add something to it from his own [property] and so give it. For the bread of the Poor hath been kept back in his possession. But in the last week of Pascha, on the fifth day of the week, let the bread and the cup be offered. And he who suffered for that which he hath offered, he [it is] who draweth near.

Let the lamp be offered in the Temple by the Deacon, saying: The grace of our Lord [be] with you all.

And let all the people say: And with Thy spirit.

And let the little boys say spiritual Psalms and hymns of praise by the light of the lamp. Let all the people respond Hallelujah to the psalm and to the chant sung together, with one accord, with voices in harmony; and let no one kneel until he who speaketh cease. Similarly also when a lection is read or the word of doctrine is spoken. If then the Name of the Lord be spoken, and the rest, as hath sufficiently been made known, let no one bow, having come creeping in.

Chapter 12

Let the end of Pascha be after the Saturday, at midnight.

[At] Pentecost let no one fast or kneel. For these are days of rest and joy.

Let those who bear the burdens of labour refresh themselves a little in the days of Pentecost, and on every first day of the week.

Let the Bishop, before he offereth the Offering, say what is fitting for the Offering, while those who are clothed in white receive from one another and say [to one another] Hallelujah.

Chapter 13

In the supper or feast, let those who have come together receive [a portion] thus from the shepherd, as for a blessing. But let not a Catechumen receive.

If anyone be of the household of, or related to, one who is a teacher of heathenism, let him not accord with him and give praise with him, also let him not eat with him because of relationship or for concord, lest he deliver ineffable things to a wolf and he receive judgment.

Let those who are called with the Bishop to the house of one who is faithful, eat with gravity and knowledge, not with drunkenness or to debauchery, and not so that he who is present may laugh, or so as to annoy the household of him that called him; but so let them enter that he who called [them] may pray that the Saints may enter into his house. For ye are the salt of the earth, [as] ye have heard.

Because when they eat, let them eat abundantly, [but] so that there may be left over both for you [and] also for those to whom he that called you wisheth [to] send, so that he may have them  as foods left over  by the Saints, and that he may rejoice at that which remaineth over.

Let those who come to a feast, being called, not stretch out a hand before them that are elder. But let the last eat when the first shall have done.

Let not those who eat strive in speech, but let them eat in silence; but if anyone desire, or the Bishop or Presbyter ask [a question], let him return answer.

But when the Bishop saith a word, let everyone quietly, praising [him], choose silence for himself, until he also  be asked [a question].

Chapter 14

If anyone bring forward fruits or the first produce of crops as first fruits, let him offer [them] to the Bishop.

Chapter 15

If anyone depart from the world, either a faithful man or a faithful woman, having children, let them give their possessions to the Church, so that the Church may provide for their children, and [that] from the things which they have the Poor may be given rest, that God may give mercy to their children and rest to those who have left [them] behind. But if a man have no children, let him have not much possessions, but let him give much of his possessions to the Poor and to the prisoners, and only keep what is right and sufficient for him[self]. If a man have children, and he desire to discipline himself in Virginity, let him give all his possessions to the Poor, and discipline himself and abide in the Church, being constant in prayers and thanksgivings.

Chapter 16

The fruits which are offered to the Bishop let him bless thus:

God, we give thanks to Thee always, and also in this day when we offer to Thee the first fruits of the fruits which Thou hast given us for food, having ripened them by Thy power and by Thy Word, having commanded from the beginning of the creation of the worlds that the earth should bring forth different fruits for the joy and delight of man  and of all beasts. We praise Thee, Lord, for all these things with which Thou hast benefited us, adorning for us all the earth with various fruits. Bless also this Thy servant N., and receive his earnestness and his love, through Thine Only-begotten Son Jesus Christ, through whom [be] praise and honour and might to Thee with the Holy Ghost forever and ever. Amen.

Vegetables are not blessed, but fruits of trees, flowers, and the rose and the lily.

 

Chapter 17

Of All The Faithful Who Receive And Eat

Let them give and return thanks and not eat with offence or scandal. Let no one taste that which is strangled or sacrificed to idols.

Chapter 18

On the days of Pascha, especially in the last days, on Friday and on Saturday, by night and by day, let the prayers be according to the number of the hymns of praise. But let the word be interpreted at length, and let the lections [be] various and continuous. And let the vigils and anticipations of the night be in good order.

 

Chapter 19

Let the Readers assist them; and Similarly also the Sub-Deacons. Let them not allow them to sleep. For that night is a figure of the Kingdom, and especially that of the Saturday.

Those who labour and work, let them work  till midnight.

Let the Catechumens first be dismissed, having received blessings  from the bread which is broken. When the faithful are dismissed, let them go in order and knowledge to their houses. In their feasts  let them not forget the prayers.

Let the Priests not abbreviate their ministrations.

Let the women go, each one cleaving to her husband.

Let the Widows stay till dawn in the Temple, having food there.

Let the Virgins abide together in the Temple, and let the Bishop help and provide for them, and let the Deacons minister to them.

Let the Presbyteresses stay with the Bishop till dawn, praying and resting.

Similarly also those who were lately baptized.

Let Virgins who are ready for marriage go, cleaving to their mothers. This is thus fitting.

Chapter 20

Let the Bishop command that they proclaim that no one taste anything until the Offering is completed. And the whole body of the Church shall receive a new food. Then in the evening let those who are to be baptized be baptized, after one lection.

But if anyone before he approacheth and receiveth of the Eucharist eat something else, he sinneth and his fast is not reckoned to him.

When the Catechumens are dismissed, let a hand be laid on them.

If a faithful because of sickness remain [away], let the Deacon carry the Offering to him.

If anyone be a Presbyter who cannot come, let a Presbyter carry [it] to him.

Similarly if a woman be pregnant [and] sick, and cannot fast these two days, let her fast that one day, taking on the first [day] bread and water. And if she cannot come, let a Deaconess carry [the Offering] to her.

Chapter 21

Let them take [it] up to the hearing of the Bishop, so that if it seem good  to the Bishop he may visit them; for the sick [man] is much comforted when the High Priest remembereth him, and especially when he is faithful.

Chapter 22

In answer to him who singeth the Psalms in the Church, let the Virgins and boys respond and sing. But if they sing the Psalms in a house privately, if they be two or three, let them respond to one another, singing the Psalms.

Similarly the men.

Chapter 23

If a Poor man die, let those who provide for each one, provide for his clothing. If anyone who is a stranger die and he have no place to be buried, let those who have a place give [it]. But if the Church hath [a place] let it give [it]. And if he have no covering, let the Church similarly give it. But if he has not grave clothes, let him be shrouded.

But if a man be found to have possessions, and do not leave them to the Church, let them be kept for a time; and after a year let not the Church appropriate them, but let them be given to the Poor for his soul.

But if he desire to be embalmed, let the Deacons provide for this, a Presbyter standing by.

If the Church have a graveyard, and there be one who abideth there and keepeth it, let the Bishop provide for him from the Church, so that he be no burden to those who come there.

Chapter 24

Let the people always take care about the early dawn, that arising and washing their hands they immediately pray. And so let each one go to the work which he willeth.

Let all take care to pray at the third hour with mourning and labour, either in the Church, or in the house because they cannot go (to the Church). For this is the hour of the fixing  of the Only-begotten on the Cross.

But at the sixth hour similarly let there be prayer with sorrow. For then the daylight was divided by the darkness. Let there be then that voice which is like to the Prophets, and to creation mourning.

At the ninth hour also let prayer be protracted, as with a hymn of praise that is like to the souls of those who give praise to God that lieth not, as one who hath remembered His Saints, and hath sent His Word and Wisdom to enlighten them. For in that hour life was opened to the faithful, and blood and water were shed from the side of our Lord.

But at evening, when it is the beginning of another day, shewing an image of the resurrection., He hath caused us to give praise.

But at midnight let them arise praising and lauding because of the resurrection.

But at dawn [let them arise] praising with Psalms, because after He rose He glorified the Father while they were singing Psalms. But if any have a consort or wife [not] faithful, let the husband who is faithful go and pray at these times without fail.

Let those who are chaste not lessen [them]. For the adornments of Heaven give praise, the lights, the sun, the moon, the stars, the lightnings, the thunders, the clouds, the Angels, the Archangels, the Glories, the Dominions, the whole [Heavenly] Army, the depths, the sea, the rivers, the wells, fire, dew, and all nature that produceth rain.

All the Saints also give praise and all the souls of the righteous. These, then, who pray are numbered together in the remembrance of God.

[Reasons for Ecclesiastical Rule]

 

Chapter 25

When ye the faithful accomplish these things, teach and instruct one another, causing the Catechumens to make progress, as loving all men; ye do not  perish, but will be in Me and I will be among you.

But always let the faithful take care that before he eat he partake of the Eucharist, that he may be incapable of receiving injury.

When ye teach these things and keep [them], ye shall be saved, and evil heresy shall not prevail against you.

Lo, then, I have taught you now all [things] that ye desire; and those things which I have spoken with you [of] from the beginning, and have taught and commanded you before I should suffer, ye know.

Chapter 26

And thou; especially John, and Andrew and Peter, even now ye know all [the things] which I have spoken to you while I am with you, as also that which [is] in this Testament, in order that when ye deliver [them] to the nations the will of My Father may always be accomplished, abiding firm in carefulness, so that there may be good fruits in them that hear.

Ye know that I have spoken with you that a good tree cannot bring forth evil fruit. All [things], then, that I have commanded you openly and secretly, do. And the God of tranquillity be with you.

Chapter 27

And falling down we worshipped Him, saying. Glory to Thee, Jesus, Name of light, who didst give us the teaching of Thy commandments, so that we may be like unto Thee, we and all those who hear Thee. And when He spoke to us and taught and commanded us, and showed many loosings and miracles. He was taken up from us, giving us tranquillity.

John and Peter and Matthew wrote this Testament, and sent [it] in copies from Jerusalem by Dositheus and Silas and Magnus and Aquila, whom they chose to send [them] to all dioceses. Amen.

The Second Book of Clement is ended, translated from the Greek to the Syrian language by James the Poor, in the year 998 of the Greeks.

 

End of Second Book

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2012: Didascalia Apostolorum / 230 AD anonymous Syriac Source, trans. Margaret Dunlop

230 AD Syriac Antioch

Anonymous Syriac Source

The Didascalla, Or the Catholic Teaching of the Twelve Apostles and Holy Disciples of Our Saviour
Didascalia Apostolorum In Syriac Edited From A Mesopotamian Manuscript With Various Readings And Collations Of Other Mss

By Margaret Dunlop Gibson M.R.A.S.

London  C. J. Clay And Sons

1903

 Download the document in PDF format from my Blog by clicking this link.

Entry in Wikipedia.org (2011)

Didascalia Apostolorum (or just Didascalia) is a Christian treatise which belongs to genre of the Church Orders. It presents itself as being written by the Twelve Apostles at the time of the Council of Jerusalem, however, scholars agree that it was actually a composition of the 3rd century CE, perhaps around 230 CE.[1]

The Didascalia was clearly modeled on the earlier Didache.[2] The author is unknown, but he was probably a Bishop. The provenience is usually regarded as Northern Syria, possibly near Antioch.[3]

 

230 AD Syriac Antioch

Anonymous Syriac Source

The Didascalla, Or The Catholic Teaching Of The Twelve Apostles And Holy Disciples Of Our Saviour

English Translation (1903)

In the name of the Father Almighty, and of the Eternal Word and only Son, and of the Holy Ghost, one true God. We begin to write the Book Didascalla, as the holy Apostles of our Lord appointed to us, with regard to the presiding officers of the Holy Church, and the Canons and the Laws for believers as they commanded in it.

We, then, twelve Apostles of the only Son, the Everlasting Word of God, our Lord and God and Saviour Jesus the Christ, being assembled with one accord in Jerusalem the city of the great King, and with us our brother Paul, the Apostle of the Gentiles, and James the Bishop of the above-mentioned city, have established this Didascalla, in which are included the Confession and the Creed, and we have named all the Ordinances, as the ordinances of the heavenly bodies, and thus again the Ordinances of the Holy Church. We assert that everyone shall stand and confess and believe in what has been allotted to him by God; that is to say, the Bishop as a shepherd; the Elders as teachers; the Deacons as ministers; the Sub-Deacons as helpers; the Lectors as readers; the Singers as psalmists with intelligence and with constancy; and that the rest of the populace should be hearers of the words of the Gospel according to discipline. When we had completed and confirmed these Canons, we established them in the Church. And now we have written this other Book of doctrine which will enlighten all the habitable earth, and we have sent it by the hands of Clement our comrade. This which ye hear, O Christian Nazarenes, who are beneath the sun [is] that ye may learn with diligence and care. He who hears and keeps these commandments which are written in this Didascalla, will have everlasting life, and great boldness before the judgment-seat of our Lord Jesus the Christ the Son of God, He who taught us about His great mystery. And he who is contentious, and doth not keep them, they shall put him out as an opposer and quarreller, as it is written that those who do evil things shall go to everlasting torment and those who do good things shall inherit everlasting life in the Kingdom of Heaven.

Table of Contents

In It There Are Twenty-Seven Chapters (Only 26 Here, Including Additional Different Chapter 7 Only Available In Manuscript S)

 

  • Chapter I – About the simple and natural Law
  • Chapter II – That every man should please his Wife alone, etc.
  • Chapter III – The Doctrine about Women, that they please and honour their Husbands only /  About the Ordination of Bishops / About the Election of Elders / How it is proper for the Elder to teach / About the Election of Deacons / About Catechumens / The Teaching of the Twelve Apostles /  From Paul the Apostle about the Times of prayer / Commandments from the writing of Addai the Apostle
  • Chapter IV – What sort of man ought to be chosen for the Bishopric
  • Chapter V – Doctrine and caution for the Bishop
  • Chapter VI – Also teaches the Bishop, that he judge him that sins, as God, &c
  • [Chapter VII in Manuscript S – ] The Prayer of Manasseh
  • Chapter VII – A broad doctrine about the Bishop himself, &c.
  • Chapter VIII – Teaches the same Bishop that he be not luxurious, &c.
  • Chapter IX – Exhortation to the people that they bring heave offerings of prayers and confessions to God, and that they honour the Bishop as God, &c
  • Chapter X – Admonition about false Brethren, &c
  • Chapter XI – Again, exhortation to Bishops and Deacons, that they govern justly, &c
  • Chapter XII – Commands Bishops to be quiet and humble, &c.  / The Order of the House of God, &c
  • Chapter XIII – That no Christian should neglect the assembly of the Church, &c.
  • Chapter XIV – About Widows
  • Chapter XV – How it befits Widows to conduct themselves / That it is not fitting for Widows to do anything without the commandment of the Bishop / Reproof of rebellious Widows / It is not proper to pray with one who is censured / It is not permitted to a woman to baptize / About the jealousy of false Widows towards one another / About the audacity of cursed Widows
  • Chapter XVI – Of the appointment of Deacons and Deaconesses
  • Chapter XVII – It is right that the Bishop should take care of  Orphans, &c / Those are guilty who take alms when they are not in want
  • Chapter XVIII – Exhortation to Bishops, concerning gifts / Those Bishops are culpable who take alms from the guilty
  • Chapter XIX – Exhortation to Bishops to take care of those who are persecuted
  • Chapter XX – About the Resurrection of the Dead
  • Chapter XXI – Exhorting every Christian to keep himself from all evil and frivolous conversation, &c. / About the Holy Fast / About the Passion and Crucifixion of our Lord / About the fourteenth [day] of the Passover; about the Friday of the Passion, and the Sabbath of the Annunciation and the Sunday of the Resurrection / About the mourning of the Sabbath, and the rejoicing of the Christians
  • Chapter XXII – Commandment about children
  • Chapter XXIII – About heresies and schisms
  • Chapter XXIV – That God hath left the Synagogue of the Nation, and hath come to the Church of the Gentiles; and that Satan also hath removed from the Jews, and hath come against the Church / About Simon Magus, &c / About the false Apostles
  • Chapter XXV – Teaches that the Apostles settled the disputations in the Church, &c
  • Chapter XXVI – Showeth that from the first the Apostles turned to the Churches of the Gentiles, &c


230 AD Syriac Antioch

Anonymous Syriac Source

The Didascalla, Or The Catholic Teaching Of The Twelve Apostles And Holy Disciples Of Our Saviour

 

Chapter I

Teaches all men in general about the simple and natural law, that what is hateful to thyself thou shouldest not do to thy neighbour; About the simple and natural law

The planting of God, and the holy Vine of His Catholic Church, the chosen people who trust in the simplicity of the fear of the Lord, those who by their faith inherit the eternal Kingdom, those who have received the power and communion of the Holy Ghost, with which they are armed and confirmed in His worship, those who have been partakers in the sprinkling of the pure and precious blood of the great God, Jesus the Christ; those who have received boldness to call God the Almighty Father, as heirs and partakers with His Son [and] His Beloved; hear the Teaching of God, ye who hope for and expect His promises, according as it was written by order of our Saviour, and is in accordance with His glorious commandments! Take care, ye sons of God, and do everything so as to obey God, and in all things be pleasing to the Lord our God. If any man run after iniquity, and oppose the will of God, he shall be counted by God as an heathen and an evildoer. therefore and get far from all avarice and iniquity, that ye may covet nothing from any one, for it is written in the Law, “Thou shalt not covet anything from thy neighbour, neither his field nor his house nor his servant nor his maidservant nor his ox nor his ass nor any of his goods, for all these desires are of the Evil One. For he that coveteth his neighbour’s wife or his servant or his maidservant is already a thief and an adulterer.” He is guilty of abomination, like a Sodomite, from our Lord and Teacher Jesus the Christ, to whom be glory and honour forever and ever. Amen. As also in the Gospel He reneweth and confirmeth and completcth the Ten Commandments of the Law. For it is written in the Law, Thou shalt not commit adultery. But this I say unto you, as He who spoke in the Law of Moses, thus in person I myself say unto you, that everyone who looketh at the wife of his friend to lust after her, hath already committed adultery with her in his heart. Thus he that lusteth is guilty as an adulterer. Also he that coveteth the ox or the ass of his neighbour is likely to steal it and to lead it away. Again, he that coveteth the field of his neighbour, behold, doth he not wish to narrow it at the border, and to contrive to buy it to himself for nothing? Wherefore because of this, murders and deaths and condemnations come upon them from God. But to those men who are obedient to God there is one simple and valid law, and I say that thou shalt not make questions to Christians, this, that whatever thou hatest should happen to thyself from another, thou shalt not do to another. Thou dost not wish that any one should look at thy wife in an evil manner, for her corruption? Do not thou also look at the wife of thy neighbour with an evil mind. Thou dost not wish that any one should take from thee thy garment? Do not thou also take the garment of others.

Thou dost not wish to be cursed or beaten? also do not thou do either of these things to others; but if any one curseth thee, thou shalt surely it bless him, for it is written in the hook of the Psalms, “He that blesseth shall be blessed, and he that curseth shall be cursed,” and again also in the Gospel it is written, “Bless those that curse you, and do not evil to those that do evil to you; do good to those that hate you;” be long- suffering and patient, for the Scripture saith, “Do not say, I will repay to mine enemy evil as he has done to me, but be long-suffering, and the Lord will be a helper to thee, and will bring retribution on him that hath done thee evil.” Again He saith in the Gospel, “Love them that hate you, pray for them that curse you, and no one shall be an enemy to you.”

Let us look therefore, O beloved, and understand these commandments, and keep them, so that we may be the children of light.

Chapter II

Teaches every man that he should please his wife alone, and should not adorn himself and be a stumbling-block to women; that he should not love idleness; that he should study the Scriptures of life, and keep away from the scriptures of paganism and from the bonds which are in Deuteronomy; and that in the bath wash not with women, and let him not give his sons to the wickedness of Harlots.

Let us be patient with one another, O servants and sons of God! Let not a man despise his wife, nor behave contemptuously and haughtily towards her, but let him be compassionate, and let his hand be liberal in giving. Let him please his wife alone, and soothe her with honour; let him study to be loved by her alone, and not by any other. Do not adorn thyself so as to be seen by a strange woman and that she should desire thee. If thou, for instance, art constrained by her, and sinnest with her, death by fire shall come upon thee by decree from God, even that which is everlasting in the cruel and bitter fire. Thou shalt know and understand when thou art cruelly tormented. But, if thou doest not this abomination, but removest her from thee, and refusest her, in this alone thou hast sinned, that by means of thine adornment thou hast caused a woman to be held by desire of thee; for thou hast done this to her so that it has happened thus to her because of thee, and that by means of her desire she committeth adultery. But thou art not so much under sin, because thou hast not  lusted after her. Mercy from the Lord shall be upon thee because thou hast not delivered thy soul unto her, and hast not been persuaded by her when she sent unto thee; not even in thy mind hast thou turned to this woman, who was held by desire of thee; but she suddenly met with thee, she was wounded in her mind, and she sent unto thee, but thou like a God-fearing man didst refuse her and remove thyself from her and hast not sinned with her. She in truth was struck in her heart because thou art a youth, beautiful and good, and thou didst adorn thyself and make her desire thee. And thou art found guilty, that she hath sinned in regard to thee; for because of thine adornment it hath thus happened to her. But seek from the Lord God, that no sin may be written against thee; on her account. If thou wishest to please God, and not men, and hopest for life and everlasting rest, do not adorn the beauty of thy nature which hath been given to thee by God, but with the humility of neglect, make it poor before man. Thus again also let not the hair of thy head grow, nor comb it nor dress it; but shave it, and anoint it not, that it may not attract to thee such women as snare or are snared by lust.

Also wear no beautiful garments nor even put on shoes of lustful and contemptible workmanship, nor set signet-rings encased in gold upon thy fingers, because that all these things are works of harlotry, and everything that thou doest which is beyond nature. For to thee, a man who believes in God, it is not allowed to let the hair on thy head grow, to comb it and make it even, which is this voluptuousness of desire, and thou must not put it in order and dress it, nor arrange it so as to be beautiful; nor must thou destroy the hairs of thy beard, nor the likeness of the nature of thy face, nor change it to something outside of what God has created, because thou wishest to please men. If thou doest these things, thou deprivest thyself of life, and thou art rejected from the presence of the Lord God. As a man therefore who wishes to please God, be watchful and do nothing like these things, keep away from everything which the Lord hates, and do not be wandering and turning vainly about in market-places, seeing the inane spectacles of those who behave themselves in an evil manner, but in thy craft and work be Constant and watchful, and wishful to do those things that are pleasing to God. Meditate constantly in the words of the Lord. If then thou art rich and requirest not to work for thy livelihood, be not wandering and turning inanely about, but be Constant at all times, and have intercourse with believers and those like-minded with thyself, and be instructed along with them in the words of life. But if not, then stay at home, and read in the Law, and in the Book of the Kings and in the Prophets and in the Gospel [which is] the fulness of these things. Keep far then from all the books of the heathen. For what hast thou to do with foreign words or with false laws or prophecies, which also easily cause young people to wander from the Faith. What then is wanting to thee in the Word of God that thou throwest thyself upon these myths of the heathen? If thou wishest to read the tales of the fathers, thou hast the Book of the Kings, or of wise men and philosophers, thou hast the Prophets, amongst whom thou wilt find more wisdom and scripture than [amongst] the wise men and the philosophers because they are the words of God, of one only wise God; if thou desirest songs, thou hast the Psalms of David; or if the beginning of the world, thou hast the Genesis of great Moses; if law and commandments, thou hast the Book of Exodus of the Lord our God. Therefore keep entirely away from all these foreign things which are contrary to them. But nevertheless what thou readest in the law of Deuteronomy, be heedful, that in reading thou readest only in it with simplicity. From the precepts and admonitions which are in it keep well away, lest thou lead thyself astray, and bind thyself with indissoluble heavy chains of burdens. For this reason therefore even if thou read in Deuteronomy, in this alone be intelligent to know, and glorify God, who has delivered us from all these chains. Let this also be put before thine eyes, that thou mayest distinguish and know what is the Law, and what are the chains that are in Deuteronomy; that after the Law had been given to those that were in the Law, on account of Deuteronomy they sinned all these sins in the wilderness. For the Law is in the first place that which the Lord God spake, before the people made the calf and offered the sacrifices of idols, which is the ten Commandments and Statutes; and after they had worshipped idols He justly put upon them chains as they deserved.

Thou therefore do not put them on thy heart, for our Saviour came for nothing else but to fulfil the Law, and to loosen us from the chains of Deuteronomy; for He loosened from these chains, and He called thus to those who believe in Him, and said, “Come unto me all ye who are weary and heavy laden, and I will give you rest.” Thou therefore without the weight of these burdens read the simple Law which agrees with the Gospel, and again in the Gospel and in the Prophets, also in the Book of the Kings, that thou mayest know how many Kings were righteous, and were made famous by the Lord God in this world, and rested also in the promises of everlasting life. But those Kings who turned aside from God, and worshipped idols, justly perished cruelly by a decreed judgment, and were cut off from the Kingdom of God, and instead of rest they were tormented. When therefore thou readest these things, thou shalt grow more in the faith and be increased. After these things rise and go out to the market-place, and wash in the baths for men, and not in those for women, lest, when thou hast stripped and shewn the bareness and nakedness of thy body, thou wilt either be hunted for or thou wilt constrain to fall and be hunted by thee; therefore be watchful against these things and live for God. Learn therefore what the Holy Word saith in Wisdom, “My son, keep my words, and hide my commandments within thee. My son, honour the Lord and be strong, and fear no other but Him; keep my commandments, and live well, and my law as the apples of thine eyes, bind them on thy fingers, and write them on the tables of thine heart. Say to Wisdom, Thou art my sister, and with understanding make thyself acquainted; that she may keep thee from the strange woman, and the adulteress whose words are flattering; for from the window of her house and her lattice she looketh out into the Street, and at every young man whom she seeth, those who are childish and void of understanding, who pass in the streets by the side of the corners of the paths of her house, and who talk in the dark, in the evening and in the thick darkness of the silence of the night; then the woman goeth out, and in the garb of a harlot she meeteth the young man, and she causeth the hearts of the youths to fly away. She is rebellious and insolent and prodigal, Her feet rest not in her house but she is now wandering out, and now in ambush in the Street and in the corners. She catcheth him who is likeminded and kisseth him and maketh her face bold and saith unto him, I have peace-offerings with me, this day I have paid my vows; therefore I have come out to meet thee, expecting to see thee, and I have found thee.

With a carpet have I spread my bed, and with Egyptian tapestries have I covered it; I have sprinkled saffron upon my bed, and in my house there is cinnamon. Come, let us enjoy ourselves with love till the morning, and embrace each other with desire. For my lord is not at home, he has gone a long way off. He has taken a bag of Silver in his band, and he will come to his house after many days. She causeth him to err by the multitude of her words, by the flattery of her lips and by a vile wink of her eyes she draweth him unto her. He goeth after her like an infant, and like an ox that goeth to the slaughter, and like a dog to the chain, and like a stag which an arrow pierces and he fleeth, like a bird into the snare, and he knoweth not that he is gone to the death of his soul. Wherefore hearken unto me, my son, and give ear to the words of my mouth. Incline not thy heart to her ways, and come not near to the door of her house; do not wander in her paths; for she hath cast down a multitude of slain, her victims are innumerable. The ways of her house are the ways of Sheol, which go down to the chambers of death. My son, give ear to my wisdom, power, and incline thy mind to my understanding, that my counsel may keep thee, and the knowledge of my lips, which I command thee, because that the lips of an adulteress distil honey, and with her flatteries she sweeteneth the palate; yet the latter end of them is bitterer than wormwood, and sharper than a two-edged sword; for the feet of the foolish woman bring down to the chambers of Sheol those who adhere to her, for there is nothing which goeth before her heels; she walks not into the land of life, for her paths are in error, and are not known. Therefore, my son, hearken unto me, and decline not from the words of my mouth; remove thy way from her, and come not near the door of her house, that thou  give not thy life to others, and thy years to those that have no mercy; lest strangers be satisfied with thy substance, and thy merchandise [pass] to the houses of others; and in thine old age thou repent thyself, when the flesh of thy body faileth, and thou shalt say, Why did I hate my correction and my heart reject reproof, and I did not hearken to the voice of my teachers, nor incline my ears to my monitors? I was very nearly in all evil things.”

But let us not prolong and extend the admonition of our doctrine; if we omit anything, you, like wise men, choose from what pleaseth you in the holy books, and from the Gospel of God, so that ye may be confirmed, and all these evil things may be removed and cast away from you, and ye may be found blameless in everlasting life with God.

Chapter III

The doctrine about women, that they please and honour their husbands only, actively and wisely, attending with diligence to the works of their houses, and that they wash not with the men nor adorn themselves, and become a cause of offence to men nor hunt after them; that they he chaste and quiet and not quarrel with their husbands.

 

Additional Subjects:  About the Ordination of Bishops; About the Election of Elders; How it is proper for the Elder to teach; About the Election of Deacons; About Catechumens; The Teaching of the Twelve Apostle; From Paul the Apostle about the Times of prayer; Commandments from the writing of Addai the Apostle

 

Again, let the woman be submissive to her husband, because the head of the woman is the man, and the head of the man who walks in the way of righteousness is the Christ, after the Lord Almighty our God and the Father of the worlds, of this one which exists and of that which is to come, Lord of all breathing things and of all powers, and His living and Holy Spirit, to Whom be glory and honour forever and ever. Amen. O woman I fear thy husband, and revere him, and please him alone; be ready for his service; stretch out thy hands to wool, and let thy mind be simple, as it is said in Wisdom, “Who can find a virtuous woman? she is more precious than fine stones, which are of great value. The heart of her husband doth trust in her, and treasure is not wanting to her; she is a helper of her husband in all things; there is nothing wanting to him in his dwelling. She worketh wool and linen with her clever hands; she furnisheth good things; like a merchant ship which gathereth all her

riches from afar. She riseth by night, and giveth covering to her household and work to her handmaids. She looketh to her field, and also buyeth it, and from the fruit of her hands she planteth a possession. She girdeth her loins with strength, and strengtheneth her arms. She tasteth that it is good to labour; her candle goeth not out all the night. She stretcheth out her arms with activity, and her hands to the spindle; she extendeth her right band to the poor, from her fruits she giveth to the needy. The master of the house is not anxious, because that all his household is clothed with wool above their raiment. She maketh for her husband garments of fine linen and purple. Her husband is known in the gates, when he sitteth in the seat of the Elders. She maketh linen in her house, and selleth girdles to the merchants. Strength and glory are her raiment, she shall rejoice on the last day. She openeth her mouth in wisdom. Her tongue speaketh firmly with intelligence and order; the ways of her house are strict, she eateth not bread in idleness. She openeth her mouth according to wisdom; the law of mercy is upon her tongue; her children shall arìse and grow rich, and praise her; she shall rejoice in them in the latter days; also her husband shall call her blessed. The multitude of her daughters possess great riches. She doeth great things and is exalted above all women, for the woman who feareth the Lord shall be blessed. The fear of the Lord is (her) glory. Give her of her fruits that are worthy of her lips. She shall be honoured in the gates, and in every place her husband shall be honoured. Again, a virtuous woman is a crown to her husband.”

We have learnt therefore what praises a chaste woman who loveth her husband receiveth from the Lord God, she who is found faithful and desirous of pleasing God. Therefore, thou, O chaste woman, do not adorn thyself so as to please other men, and do not plait the plaits of harlotry, nor wear the garments of lasciviousness, nor put on golden shoes, that thou mayest be like those that are such, that thou attract not to thyself those that are captivated by such things. Even if thou sinnest not by this act of abomination, nevertheless in this thou sinnest, that thou obligest and makest him to lust after thee; and if thou sinnest, thou also hast destroyed thy life from God, and thou art guilty also concerning the soul of that [man]. For again, as thou hast sinned with one, thou hast enervated thy soul, and thou wilt be going also after another, as it is said in Wisdom,

“When the wicked hath gone into the depths of evil, he despiseth and enervateth his soul; ignominy and disgrace shall come upon him.” She therefore that is thus, whose soul is completely wounded and is possessed by lust, taketh captive the souls of those who are void of understanding. But let US learn also about these things as the Holy Word unfolds them in Wisdom, for it speaks thus: “As a ring of gold in a swine’s snout, so is beauty to a woman who doeth evil;” and again, “As a worm in wood, so an evil woman destroyeth a man;” and again, “A woman void of understanding and boastful shall be in want of bread and shall not know shame. For she sitteth in the market-place, at the door of her house on a high seat, and she calleth to those who pass on the road and to those who walk in her ways, and saith, Whoso among you is simple, let him come near to me, and he who is void of understanding, and she saith to him. Come near lovingly to hidden bread and to stolen waters which are sweet; and he knoweth not that strong men have perished with her and have been brought to the depths of Sheol. But flee, and tarry not in that place; do not lift thine eyes to look at her.” And again, “It is better to sit upon a turret of the roof rather than to dwell with a woman who is garrulous and quarrelsome in the middle of the house.”

Thou therefore who art a Christian, do not be like such women, but if thou wishest to be faithful, please thy husband only, and when thou walkest in the market-place, cover thy head with thy garment, that by thy veil the greatness of thy beauty may be covered; do not adorn the face of thine eyes, but look down and walk veiled; be watchful, not to wash in the baths with men. When there are baths for women in the city or in the district, a believing woman will not wash in the baths with men; for if thou veilest thy face from strange men by a covering of chastity, how then goest thou with strange men to the baths?

But if there are no baths for women, and thou art compelled to wash in the baths for men and women, this at the least is necessary, that thou wash with chastity and modesty and bashfulness and moderation; not at every time nor every day; nor at noon, but let the time for thee to wash be known to thee, at ten o’clock; for it is required of thec, O believing woman, that by every means thou shalt flee from the multitude of vain sights of the pride of eye which is in the bath. But thy quarrel with everyone, especially that with thy husband, cut short and prevent like a believing woman, lest thy husband, if he be a heathen, should be offended because of thee, and blaspheme God, and thou shouldest receive a woe from Him, for woe to those through whom the name of God is blasphemed amongst the Gentiles. Again, if thy husband be a believer, he is constrained as one who knows the Scriptures, and he will say to thee the word from Wisdom, that “it is better to dwell on a turret of the roof rather than to dwell with a garrulous and quarrelsome woman in the middle of the house.”

For it is required of women that by a covering of modesty and humility they show the fear of God, for the conversion and growth of the faith of those who are without, of the men and of the women. If we have a little admonished and instructed you, our sisters and daughters, our members, ye likewise women, seek and choose for yourselves those things which are excellent and honoured and without rebuke in the dwelling of the world; learn and know such things by which ye can get to the Kingdom of our Lord and have rest, having already been pleasing to Him by good Works.

About the ordination of Bishops

Let a Bishop be ordained having already been chosen by all the people, according to the will of the Holy Ghost, being blameless, chaste, quiet, humble, not anxious, watchful, not loving money, without accusation, not quarrelsome, clement, who does not talk excessively, a lover of good things, a lover of work, a lover of Widows, a lover of  Orphans), a lover of the poor, expert in the mysteries, not distraught nor wandering together with the world; who is peaceable and a fulfiller of all good things, like one who is entrusted with the order and place of God. It is better that he should be and remain without a wife, and if not, that he be husband of one wife only, that he may sympathize with the infirmity of the Widows. Let him be of middle age, let him be ordained when he is not a boy. Being like this, on the Sunday let him receive the imposition of hands, all of them taking part in his ordination, and bearing witness about him with all the Elders and with all the Bishops who are near.

About the election of Elders

Let an Elder be ordained when he has the witness of all the people, like what was said before about the Bishop, wise in reading, humble, gentle, poor, not a lover of money, who has laboured much in the services of the weak, who has been proved, and is pure without a stain; if he have been a father to the  Orphans; if he have served the poor; if he have not stayed away from Church; who in everything excels in piety; as he has been, let him be worthy in all things that have been revealed to us by God, those that are useful and those that are suitable, as those [men] are also worthy of the gifts of healing.

How it is proper for the Elder to teach, also whom, and with experience. Let then the teaching of the Elder be suitable and apt, gentle and temperate, mingled with reverence and fear, in the likeness also of that of the Bishop, and in the teaching let them not talk vain things, but let the hearers when they have heard all keep all, that the Elder may say, that all the things which he has taught they remember; for in the day of the Lord the word will be required which he will testify to the people, so that those may be reproved who have not obeyed; that he may rise up before the glory of the Father. Again, when he speaks the things that he is teaching, thus therefore let him teach, so that he may not perish. Let him pray for those who hear, that the Lord may give them the sense of the Spirit of the knowledge of the truth, that he may not vainly throw pearls before swine, but may prove that they are worthy who have heard and laboured, lest when the word has not brought forth fruit in them, but has perished, he may give account of its perishing.

About the election of Deacons

Let the Deacon be ordained; when he has been elected according to what has been already said, if he be of good behaviour, if he be pure, if he have been elected on account of his purity, and because of his exemption from distractions; if not thus, even if he be in wedlock with one wife; one who is witnessed of by all the believers, who is not entangled in the merchandise of the world, who does not know a diabolical craft, who has no riches and no sons; and if he have sons, it is also fitting that they should cultivate the beauty of piety and that they be pure, that they may be of those who adorn the Church and the canon of service. Let the Church be careful about them so that some of them may abide permanently in the law and in the care of the service; should he not then fulfil in the Church the things that are suitable? Let then the service be like this: first, those things that are commanded by the Bishop, so that they only may be done at the ministration, and of all the clergy he may be the Counsellor and secret of the Church. He who ministers to the sick, he who ministers to the strangers, who helps the Widows, and goes round all the houses of those who are in want; lest there should be any one in distress or sickness or in misery he goes round to the houses.

About Catechumens

How he is to confirm those that are in doubt, and instruct those that are ignorant. Men who are dead he is to clothe, having adorned them, burying strangers, leading them from their dwellings, wayfarers or exiles. For the help of those who are in want let him have much care and let him inform the Church. How it is fitting that the children of the Church should be, Let twelve Elders be known in the Church, seven Deacons, and fourteen Sub-Deacons; and let those Widows who sit first be thirteen. Let the Deacon who is considered among them to be the one who is most diligent and most judicious; let him be chosen to be the receiver of strangers in the house which is the inn of the Church; let him be at all times clad in white garments, having only a stole upon his shoulder. In everything he is as the eye of the Church. With reverence let him make known what is to be the type of the people of piety.

The teaching of the Twelve Apostles.

Behold, ye sons and daughters of the Church, in the name of our Lord Jesus the Christ, John, Matthew, Peter, and Philip, and Andrew, and Simeon, and James, and Jude the son of James; with Nathanael, and Thomas and Bartholomew and Matthia, all of us gathered together by command of our Lord Jesus the Christ our Saviour, according as He commanded us, that before ye are ready to divide anything by lot, for eparchies, ye shall count the places of the numbers, the authorities of the Bishops, the seats of the Elders, the continual offerings of the Deacons, the admonitions of the Readers, the blamelessnesses of the Widows, and all the things that are fitting to the foundation and confirmation of the Church, according as they already know the type of heavenly things. Let them take care and keep themselves from all error, knowing that they have an account to give in the great day of judgment concerning the things that having heard they have not kept They commanded us Ho confirm’ His words in all places. It appeared to us therefore, about the reminding and admonition of the brethren, that as to each one of us our Lord revealed as the will of God by means of the Holy Ghost these words of remembrance, we should command you. John said, Men, brethren, knowing that we are about to give account concerning those things that were commanded us, do not accept one another’s persons, but if a man thinks good to say anything that is not thine, let someone speak adversely to him in opposition. It pleased them all that John should speak first

John said:

There are two ways, one of life and one of death, but the differences are many between these two ways; for the way of life is this, first, that thou shalt love God, Him who has made thee, with all thy heart, and glorify Him who has redeemed thee from death, which is the first commandment. But secondly, that thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself, which is the second commandment, those on which hang all the Law and the Prophets.

Matthew said:

 All those things that thou dost not wish to happen to thee, do not thou also do to others. That therefore which thou hatest, that shalt thou not do to others. O our brother Peter, teli thou the doctrine of these words.

Peter said:

Thou shalt not kill. Thou shalt not commit adultery. Thou shalt not commit fornication. Thou shalt not corrupt boys. Thou shalt not steal. Thou shalt not be a soothsayer. Thou shalt not use enchantments. Thou shalt not kill a child at its birth, nor after he is born shalt thou kill him. Thou shalt not covet what belongs to thy neighbours. Thou shalt not transgress oaths. Thou shalt not bear false witness. Thou shalt not say anything wickedly. Thou shalt not keep anger in thy heart Thou shalt not be double-minded, nor double-tongued, for doubleness of tongue is a snare of death. Thy word shall not be vain, nor false. Thou shalt not be avaricious nor rapacious. Thou shalt not be a respecter of persons, nor evil-minded, nor be a boaster, nor shalt thou receive evil^ about thy neighbour; neither shalt thou hate any one, but thou shalt reprove some, and have compassion on others, pray for some, love others more than thyself.

Andrew said:

My son, flee from all evil, and from all that resembles it; be not angry, for anger leads on to murder, for anger is a masculine demon.  Be not jealous, but peaceful; nor quarrelsome, nor irritable; for from these things arises murder. Philip said, My son, be not licentious, for lust leadeth to fornication, and attracts men towards it, for lust is a feminine demon. One with anger, the other with mirth, they destroy those into whom they enter; for the way of an evil spirit is a sin of the soul, and when it has got a little entrance, it enlarges it as itself, and brings that soul to all evil things, and does not allow the man to look and see the truth. Let there be a measure for your wrath, rule it for a little time and repress it, lest it throw you into an evil deed. For anger is an evil enjoyment, [such as] when they remain with a man for a long season, become demons, and when a man allows them, they swell up in his soul, and become greater and lead him to the works of iniquity, also they laugh at him and enjoy themselves in the destruction of the man.

Simon the Zealot said:

My son, be not a necromancer, for this will lead thee to the worship of idols; nor an enchanter, nor one who teaches extraneous and heathenish doctrine, nor an augur, nor even seek to know these things; from all these things Comes the worship of idols.

James said:

My son, speak not foul and silly words, for these take one far from God, and be not haughty of eye, foreveryone that is haughty of eye falleth before God. Do not covet the wife of thy friend; do not love sodomy; from these things come adulteries and the wrath of God. Nathanael said, My son, be not false, for falsehood leads to theft, nor be a lover of money, nor vainglorious; from all these things come thefts. My son, be not a murmurer, for murmuring  brings blasphemy, and be not proud^ nor arrogant, nor a contriver of evil things, for from all these things come blasphemies. Therefore be meek and humble, for the meek and humble shall inherit the Kingdom of Heaven; but be long suffering and merciful, a peace-maker, pure in heart from all evil, innocent, quiet, and gentle; it is good that thou shouldest attend and tremble at the words which thou hast heard. Do not exalt thyself, nor set thyself with the proud, but with the righteous, and have intercourse with the poor; and the events that happen to thee receive as good things, knowing that without God nothing happens.

Thomas said:

My son, he who speaks the Word of God, and is the cause of life to thee, and gives thee the seal that is in the Christ; love him as the apple of the eye; remember him then by night and by day; honour him moreover as of God, for where the Godhead is spoken of, there is the Lord. Thou shalt seek then his face daily; also the other Saints, that thou mayest be soothed by their words; for thou being joined to the Saints, art sanctified. Thou shalt honour him then as thou art able, by thy sweat and by the labour of thy hands. For if through him the Lord has honoured thee by giving thee spiritual food and the water of everlasting life, much more must thou offer him perishable and temporal food, for the labourer ìs worthy of his hire. The ox that grinds thou shalt not muzzle; and no one planteth a vineyard, and eateth not of its fruit.

Jude the son of James said:

My son, do not make schisms; cairn those who are quarrelling, and judge righteously. Be no respecter of persons in reproving a man who is in fault, for riches can have no power with the Lord, nor does the Lord give more honour to dignities, nor has beauty any advantage, but there is equality of all these things with Him. In thy prayer do not doubt which of them shall be yea, or nay. Let it not be that thou shouldest stretch out thine hand in order to receive, whilst the hand that giveth thou contractest. If there be [aught] in thy hands, give the redemption of thy sins, and do not hesitate to give, nor when thou givest murmur and tell. Know then who is the good payer of thy reward. Turn not thy face from the needy; share with thy brother in all things, and say not that they are thine own, for if ye are sharers in immortal things how much more in those that are perishable?

 Bartholomew said:

 We then persuade you, my brethren, that while it is yet time, and whilst ye have among you some of the things by which ye work, ye should not spare yourselves in anything whatever of what ye have, for the day of the Lord is at hand in which all these things will be destroyed together with the Wicked One. For our Lord shall come, and His reward with Him. To yourselves then be lawgivers; be good counsellors of yourselves, taught of God. Keep these things that thou hast received, not adding to them, and also not diminishing from them.

Matthias said about the Readers:

Let a Reader be appointed, having first been proved by many probations, not a talkative man, not a drunkard, not a speaker of laughable things; of good manner, of good disposition, persuadable, of good will; who in the Lord’s congregations on Sundays runs first, good at hearing, and as a maker of narratives; who knows that he takes the place of an Evangelist.

Peter said:

Brethren, other things concerning admonition the Scriptures teach, but let us command and teach the things that we have been commanded.

All of them said, Let Peter speak.

Peter said:

If there be (few people in a place,) and not many such as can make choice about a Bishop, nearly twelve men, let them write to those Churches that are near, where there is a Church founded, so that from thence may come three chosen and tried men, to prove him who is worthy; if he be a man who has a good report from the Gentiles; if he be without sin, if he be not irascible, if he be a lover of the poor, if he be chaste, if he be not a drunkard, nor a fornicator, not avaricious, nor a calumniator, nor a respecter of persons, nor anything like these. It is a good thing if he have no wife, or if not, that he have one wife; who is a sharer in discipline, who is able to explain the Scriptures, but if he know not letters, let him be meek and humble, and in love to all men let him abound, lest he be reproved about anything by the masses, let him be a Bishop.

John said:

Let the Bishop who is appointed, knowing the diligence and the love of God, and those who are with him, appoint two Elders, those whom he has proven.

All of them objected to this, and said:

Not two, but three, for there are twenty-four Elders, twelve on the right band and twelve on the left.

John said:

Well do ye remember, my Brethren, for those on the right band are those who having received (M. the vials) from the Archangels instead of a reward, which they offer to the Lord, but those on the left rule over many Angels. It is right that there should be Elders, those who formerly were for some time removed from the world, and in some way removed from intercourse with women, good at giving to the brethren, who do not accept any man’s person, sons of the Mystery of the Bishop, and his assistants in gathering the people together, who act promptly with the Pastor and serve him. Let the Elders who are on the right have the care of those who labour at the altar, so that they may give honour and blame, and may reprove in what is necessary. But let the Elders who are at the left have the care of the multitude of the people, so that there be good administration without tumult, they having leamt beforehand to conduct themselves with all submission. But if a man, having been admonished, give an answer (M. rebelliously), those who are at the altar, being of one opinion, shall judge him that is such with one mind, as he deserves, so that the others also may fear, lest they accept one another’s persona, and many think evil with the evildoers, and the evil spread like a gangrene, and all be taken captive.

James said (as Matthew on p. 15):

He that fills the ears of him that is ignorant of what is written is considered before God.

Matthew said:

Let three Deacons be appointed, for it is written that in the mouth of two or three every word of the Lord shall be established. Let them be those who are proved in all their service, that they may have witness from strangers and from the congregation, that they are [but once] married, and that their children are chaste, gentle, peaceable, not grumblers, not double-tongued, not wrathful, for wrath destroyeth a wise man; not respecters of the persons of the rich, nor oppressing the poor; not using much wine, very laborious and inventive in works that are hidden and good; inciters, obliging and constraining those of the brethren who have aught to stretch out their hands to give, and let them also be good givers, and communicators, that they may be honoured by the people with all possible honour and reverence, watching carefully for those who walk disorderly, dealing tenderly with some of them, and persuading others, inciting others with reproof, and others, who show complete contempt, excommunicating, knowing that those who are quarrelsome and contemptuous, and calumniators, are depraved, opposing themselves to the Christ.

Cephas said:

Let three Widows be appointed, two who shall be continually in prayer for all those who are in temptation and in regard to revelations and signs, for what is necessary, but one to he continually with the women who are tried by sickness, who is good at service, watchful to make known what is required to the Elders. [Let them] not be lovers of filthy lucre, not accustomed to much wine, so that they may be able to be watchful in the night services of the sick, and in any other good works that any one wishes to do, for these things are the first good treasures that are desirable.

Andrew said:

Let Deacons, doers of good works, go round to every place by night and by day, that they may not neglect the poor, nor accept the persons of the rich; let them recognize him who is in straits, and deprive him not of the blessings. Let them constrain those who are able to lay up for themselves treasures in good works, looking forward to the words of our Teacher, that ye saw Me hungry, and fed Me not; for those who have served Him well and blamelessly, prepare for themselves a large place.

Philip said:

The laymen shall obey the commands for laymen, being submissive to those who serve continually at the altar. Everyone in his place shall please the Lord, not shewing enmity to one another concerning those things that are appointed, everyone in that wherein he has been called of God. Let not one persuade to the course of another, for the Angels also, beyond what is appointed to them, do no other things.

Andrew said:

It would be very good, my brethren, that we should appoint women as Deaconesses.

Peter said:

As we have commanded and appointed all these things, and arrived at this point, let us in truth make known accurately about the offerings of the Body and Blood.

John said:

It has escaped you, my brethren, that when our Teacher asked for the Bread and the Cup, and blessed them saying, This is my Body and my Blood, He did not allow these to remain with us.

Martha said about Mary:

I saw her laughing between her teeth joyfully.

Mary said:

I did not surely laugh, but I remembered the words of our Lord, and I rejoiced, for ye know that He said to us before, when He was teaching. He that is weak shall be saved by means of the strong.

Cephas said:

We ought to remember the single things, for it is not fitting for women to take the communion with heads uncovered, but having covered their heads.

James said:

How then can we define any service for the women, except only some service of strengthening and helping those women who are in want?

Philip said:

Now, my brethren, let us say this to you, in regard to the participation in gifts. He that doeth good works, lays up and prepares good treasures for himself, for he who lays up for himself treasures in the Kingdom shall be counted as a workman (it is written) before God.

Peter said:

These things, my brother, we do not command as necessary from the power that we have over men, but as we have a commandment from the Lord, our Lord, we persuade you to keep the commandments, not diminishing aught from them nor adding aught.

In the name of our Lord Jesus the Christ, to whom be glory forever and ever.

Amen.

The teaching of the Twelve holy Apostles is finished by the hands of Baltous, an odious and lazy servant of the Christ, son of George Moses of the tribe of the household of John, from the village of the fortress of the woman, which is beside the Convent of Kourkama, an (episcopal) see of Western Syria, between the city of Mardin and the above-mentioned Convent in the year 1896 in the month of July, and to Him be glory, may His mercies be over us forever.

From Paul the Apostle about the Times of Prayer:

Institute prayer in the morning and at the third hour, and at the sixth hour, and at the ninth hour, and in the evening, and when ye go to sleep, that for protection, and at the cockcrow: in the morning thanking God who has given us light, having made the night to pass and brought the day; at the third hour because at it our Lord suffered judgment from Pilate; in that of the sixth hour because in it the Christ was crucified, all created things were shaken, trembling at the daring deed which the wicked Jews did; He was pierced in His side by a lance, and shed forth blood and water; in that of the ninth hour because when our Lord was crucified the sun was darkened at mid-day, and the dead arose from their graves; created things could not bear to see the ignominy of our Lord; also He gave up His Spirit into the hands of His Father; in that of the evening thanking God, who gave us the night for rest from the labours of the day; in that for protection while ye now slumber the sleep of rest from work; but pray that in sleep and in rest ye leave not this world, and if that should happen, the prayer which ye have prayed will help you in the way that ìs everlasting; and at cockcrow, because that is the hour in which announcement is made to us of the coming of the day, and for the labour of the Works of light Commandments frotn the writing of Addai the Apostle,

(1) The Holy Apostles have therefore decreed, first, that people should pray towards the East, because, that as the lightning that flashes from the East, and is seen unto the West, thus shall be the coming of the Son of Man. By this let us know and understand when we pray, that He shall be seen from the East, and towards it we expect Him and we worship Him.

(2) Again, the Apostles have decreed, that on Sunday there shall be service and reading of the Holy Scriptures, and the Eucharist, because that on Sunday the Christ rose from the dead, and on Sunday He ascended to Heaven; on Sunday again He will appear at the end with His holy Angela.

(3) Again, the Apostles have decreed that on Wednesday there shall be service, that is to say, the Eucharist, because that on it our Lord revealed to His Apostles about His judgment and passion, and crucifixion, and death, and resurrection; and the disciples were in sorrow about this.

(4) Again, the Apostles have decreed, that also on Friday at the iiinth hour there shall be service, because of what was saicl on Wednesday about the Passion of our Saviour; on the Friday it was accomplished, the earth quaking and all creatures crying out, and the lights in the Heaven were darkened.

(5) The Apostles have also decreed that there shall be Elders in the Church like the holy Priests, the sons of Aaron; and Deacons, like the Lcvites; and Sub-Deacons, like those who carried the vessels of the court of the Sanctuary of the Lord; and an Overseer who should be leader of all the people, like Aaron the High Priest, chief and leader of all the Levites and Priests and of all the camp.

(6) The Apostles have also decreed that they should make the day of the Epiphany of our Saviour to be the beginning of the yearly feasts, on the 6th of January (second Canon) according to the number of the months of the Greeks.

(7) The Apostles have also decreed that forty days before the Passion of our Saviour they should fast, and then should keep the day of His Passion and the day of His Resurrection, because that also our Lord Himself, the Lord of the feast, fasted for forty days; also Moses and Elias, who were clothed with this mystery, fasted for forty days and then were glorified.

(8) The Apostles have also decreed that at the end of all the Scriptures the Gospel shall be read as the seal of all the Scriptures, the people rising to their feet to hear it; because it is the Message of the Salvation of all men.

(9) The Apostles have also decreed that at the end of forty days after His Resurrection, they should make remembrance of His Ascension to His glorious Father.

(10) The Apostles have also decreed that except the Old (Testament) and the Prophets, and the Gospel, and the Acts of their own triumphs, nothing should be read from the pulpit in the Church.

(11) The Apostles have also decreed that he who does not know the faith of the Church and the ordinances and the laws that are decreed in it, shall not be a leader and commander; and he who knows them and transgresses them, shall not again serve; because he is not true in his service, but false.

(12) The Apostles have also decreed that he who swears and is untrue, or who bears false witness or goes with wizards and diviners and Chaldeans, and confirms fortunes and nativities, or anything which those who know not God hold to; as if he were a man who knows not God, let him be put out of His service, and never again serve in it

 (13) The Apostles have also decreed that if there be a man who is doubtful about his  service and not sure of it, be shall never again serve, because the Lord of the service is not real to him, and be deceives men; but not God, before whom stratagems are not established.

(14) The Apostles have also decreed that be who lends and takes usury, or be who uses merchandise of avarice, shall never again serve, and shall not remain in his  service.

(15) The Apostles have also decreed that be who loves the Jews like Judas Iscariot who loved them, or the heathen, who worship the creatures instead of the Creator, shall not enter among them nor serve; or if he be among them, they shall not allow him, but be shall be separated from them, and shall not serve with them.

(16) The Apostles have also decreed that if there have come a man of the Jews or of tbe heathen and been mingled with them, and after be bas come and bas been received and mingled with them, he have turned and gone again to the sect in which be stood, and again have come and been converted to them for the second time, be shall not be received again, but as the sect in which he was at the first, thus those that know him shall regard him.

(17) The Apostles have also decreed that it shall not be lawful for the ruler to administer the affairs of the Church without those who serve along with him, but in the counsel of all he shall command and oversee that with which all shall be pleased, and not in any way oppressed.

(18) The Apostles have also decreed that all those who go out of this world in the martyrdom of the faith of Jesus the Christ, and in tribulation for His Name’s sake, of them remembrance shall be made on the day of their murders.

(19) The Apostles have also decreed that whilst they stand in the service of the Church, they should recite the songs of David every day;  because of this , “I will bless the Lord at all times, and at all times His songs are in my mouth,” and “In the night I will meditate and say and cause my voice to be heard before Thee.”

(20) The Apostles have also decreed that those who are void of riches and do not run after increase of silver shall be chosen and also presented for the service of government.

(21) The Apostles have also decreed that the Priest who binds in a haphazard and unjust manner shall receive punishment justly; but be who is bound shall receive the interdict as be who is reasonably bound.

(22) The Apostles have also decreed that those who are accustomed to bear judgment, if it be perceived that they are respecters of persons condemning the innocent, and acquitting the guilty; they shall not again bear another judgment, and they shall also receive the reproof of their partiality.

(23) The Apostles have also decreed that those who are high-minded and lifted up in the haughtiness of pride shall not be presented for service, because of this that “He who is haughty among men is abominable before God,” for it is also said, “I will repay vengeance on them that exalt themselves.”

(24) The Apostles have also decreed that the commands of the Bishop shall be upon the Elders of the Churches who are in all the villages, that he may be known to be the chief of them all, that through him they may all be judged, for Samuel also visited thus from place to place and commanded.

(25) The Apostles have also decreed that those Kings who shall become believers in the Christ; it shall be lawful for them to go up and stand before the altar with the Ruler of the Church, because also David and those who were like him went up and stood before the altar of the Lord.

(26) The Apostles have also decreed that no man shall venture to do anything with the authority of the Priesthood in unrighteousness and impropriety but in integrity without accusation of partiality.

(27) The Apostles have also decreed that the bread of the Eucharist in the day in which it is cooked shall be laid on the altar, and not after some days, which is not lawful.

Again, a list of the Canons of the Apostles, and the Fathers, by which the Church of the Christ is truly bound, To those who in everything agree with us in the Orthodox faith, and in the Apostolic laws; the holy Bishops, the glorious Priests, the pure Deacons; and the faithful and Christ-loving people, with the rest of all the ecclesiastical order, and the sons of the Lord; who live, that is to say, dwell as strangers in all the various provinces, keeping (themselves) continually in the Lord, Amen.  Because, therefore, O beloved, we are sons and heirs of the laws, prophetical and apostolic, those which command and warn us that continually and always we shall learn the way which is straight and good, and that we should go in it; we have appointed to you twenty Canons, and they are these.

Canon I – A man shall not take a wife, and his son her daughter.

Canon II – Nor shall a man take a girl, and his son the mother of the girl.

Canon III – Nor a man and his son two sisters, or two daughters of a paternal uncle.

Canon IV – Nor two brothers a woman and her daughter.

Canon V – Also a man shall not take a woman, and give his daughter to her son.

Canon VI – Nor a man a woman, and give his daughter to her brother.

Canon VII – Nor a man a woman, and give his daughter to her father.

Canon VIII – Nor shall a man take the sister of his wife nor the daughter of his sister.

Canon IX – Nor a man the wife of the brother of his wife.

Canon X – Nor the wife of a brother or the wife of his son.

Canon XI – Nor (is) a man bound to the wife of his paternal uncle.

Canon XII – Nor is the wife of a mother’s brother lawful.

Canon XIII – Nor let a man take the daughter of the brother of his wife.

Canon XIV – Nor let a man take his godmother from among men for three generations.

Canon XV – Nor the brothers of that one for two generations.

Canon XVI – Nor let a man take a (fellow-) sponsor of baptism, nor a man who is related to him in race for five generations.

Canon XVII – Nor let an Elder baptize his son according to the flesh, unless a reason of death should happen to that child and there be no stranger Elder to baptize him.

Canon XVIII – Nor let a man confirm the espousals of a woman except before the Elders and Deacons, and before free persons who are worthy to be believed.

Canon XIX – And he who espouses a spouse let him not do violence to the girl, and let him not see her face until he has fulfilled to her all (things) that are obligatory to the order of Christians, and let the girl enter his house.

Canon XX – It is not lawful for a Christian to give a woman to any kind of marriage with a Nestorian or with a people out of our fold, nor to a heretic, nor to those who are strange to us in faith.

These things we have determined thus and appointed to you as to sons and obedient people; as therefore ye keep them and walk in them, attend also to the Canons spoken by the Spirit; by them ye shall be kept, in this world ye shall be blest, and in that which is to come ye shall be saved to the Kingdom of our Lord and ye shall have rest, pleasing Him by good Works.

Chapter IV

Teaches what sort of man it is right to be chosen for the Bishopric, and what like his works should be

About Bishops hear thus

Of the Pastor who is appointed as a Bishop and chief in the Eldership of the Church in all the assemblies, it is required that he be without reproof, irreprehensible, that he be far from all evil things, a man who is not less than fifty years (of age) and therefore far from the vehement manners of youth, from the desires of the Enemy, and from calumny, and from the blasphemy of false brethren which they bring against many, because they do not understand the word which is spoken in the Gospel, that “Everyone who speaks an idle word shall give account of it to the Lord in the day of judgment, for by thy words thou shalt be justified, and by thy words thou shalt be condemned.” If it be possible let him be a teacher, and if he be illiterate, let him be persuasive and wise of speech: let him be advanced in years. If the assembly be small and there be not found a man advanced in years, [one] about whom there be witnesses that he is wise and suitable to be appointed Bishop; one being found who is a youth, whose companions testify about him, and those who are with him, that he is worthy to be appointed to the Bishopric; he though yet a youth shewing the works of age in humility and meekness, if all men testify about him, being proved by all the people; thus let him sit in peace, because that even King Solomon when twelve years of age, reigned over Israel, and Josiah reigned in righteousness when eight years of age; again also Joash, when seven years of age, reigned over Israel; therefore, this man even if he be a youth, yet let him be meek and reverent and gentle; because the Lord God said by Isaiah, “To whom will I look and with [whom] will I rest, but with the gentle and meek who trembleth at My words.” Also in the Gospel He saith thus, “Blessed are the meek, for they shall inherit the earth;” and let him be merciful, for He saith in the Gospel, “Blessed are the merciful, for on them shall be mercy;”  and again, let him be a peacemaker, for it is said, “Blessed are the peacemakers, for they shall be called the children of God.” Let him be pure from all evil things, and injustice and iniquity, for it is said, “Blessed are  the pure in heart, for they shall see God.” Let him be watchful, and chaste,  and stable, and well-regulated, and let him not be turbulent, nor trespass in wine, nor be a calumniator, nor let him be contentious, nor a lover of money, nor have a childish mind, nor let him exalt himself and fall into  the condemnation of Satan; for it is said that, “Everyone that exalteth himself shall be abased.” Thus the Bishop is required to be; a man who bas taken one wife, who ruleth his  house well; and thus let him be proved when be receives the laying on of bands, that be may sit in the place of tbe Bishops, if he be chaste, and if also his  wife be believing and chaste, and if he have brought up his  children in the fear of God, and if he have admonished and taught them, and if they reverence and respect him at home, and if all of them be obedient to him; for if his  household according to the flesh oppose him and do not obey him, bow shall those who are without belong to him and submit to him? Let it also be proved that be is blameless in the affairs of the world, and in his body, for it is written; “See that there be no blemish in him who is appointed Priest.” Let him be also without anger, for the Lord hath said that anger destroyeth even the wise. Let him be merciful and gracious and full of love, for the Lord hath said that love shall cover a multitude of sins. Let his hand be stretched out to give; let him love both  Orphans and Widows. Let him love the poor, and also strangers. Let him be apt in his  service, and let him be Constant in service. Let him humble himself, and not be ashamed; let him know who is most worthy to receive. For if there be a Widow who possesses aught, or if she be able to provide for herself anything that is necessary for the nourishment of the flesh; and if there be another who is not yet a Widow and is in want, either on account of sickness or the education of children, or because of the infirmity of the flesh, to this  one rather let him stretch out his  band. If there be a person, who is spend-thrift or drunken or lazy, and is constrained in provision for the flesh, this one is not worthy of alms nor even for the Church. Therefore let the Bishop also not be a respecter of persons, and let him not be ashamed before the rich, and let him not please them beyond what is right, and let him not despise or neglect the poor; let him not be haughty towards them. Let him be frugal and poor in his  food and drink; so that be can be watchful in admonition and in discipline towards those who have no education. Let him not be very designing nor eccentric, nor be luxurious, nor let him love dainties, nor love pleasant viands, and let him not be irritable, but let him be long-suffering in his  admonition. Let him be very diligent in his instruction; let him be Constant in the reading of the divine books assiduously, that be may interpret and explain the Scriptures accurately. Let him compare the Law and the Prophets with the Gospel, how that the commandments of the Law and the Prophets agree with the Gospel. Before all things then let him be a good discriminator of the Law, and of Deuteronomy, so that he may distinguish and shew what is the law of believers, and what are the chains of the unbelievers; lest any man of those who are under thy hand should take the chains to be the Law, and should put heavy burdens upon his soul, and should become a son of perdition. Be therefore diligent and careful about the Word, O Bishop, if thou canst explain every commandment as it is in the doctrine (in order that by much teaching, thou mayest abundantly nourish and water thy people, for it is written in Wisdom, “Take care of the herb of the field, and shear thy flock; and gather the grass of summer, that there may be sheep for thy clothing. Take care and attend to thy flock, so that thou mayest have lambs.” Therefore let not the Bishop love filthy lucre, especially not from the heathen; let him be oppressed and not be an oppressor, and let him not love riches, and let him not murmur at any one, and do not let him bear false witness, nor be wrathful, nor let him love disputes, nor let him love rule; let him not be double-minded, nor double-tongued; and let him not love to incline his  ear to the words of an accuser and a murmurer, and let him not be a respecter of persons.)

Let him not love heathen feasts, nor be led by vain error. Let him not be covetous, nor love money, because all these things come from the operation of demons. Then let the Bishop inquire into all these things and warn the whole world. Let him be wise and self-denying. Let him be a monitor and a teacher in his doctrine and in the discipline of God. Let his  mind be clear, let him be far from all wicked designs of the heathen; let his  mind be sharp to compare, that he may anticipate and know the wicked, and ye may keep yourselves from them. Let him be a lover of all men, being a righteous judge. Everything that is found good among men, let these things be in the Bishop; because when the pastor is far from all evil things, he can also constrain his  disciples, and encourage them by his  good manners, that they may be imitators of his  good works; as the Lord said in the Twelve Prophets, “Let the people be like the  Priest;” for it is required of you that ye be an example to the people, for ye also have the example of the Christ. Therefore be ye also a good example to your people. For the Lord has said in Ezekiel the Prophet, “The word of the Lord was upon me, saying, “Son of man, speak to the children of thy people, and say unto them, The land, when I bring a sword upon it, and captivity upon the people of this land, and they appoint a man from among them and make him a watchman, and he seeth the sword coming upon the land, and he bloweth with the trumpet and warneth the people; and whosoever heareth the sound of the trumpet and taketh not warning, and the sword cometh and taketh him away, his blood shall be upon his head, because he heard the sound of the trumpet, and took not warning, his blood shall be upon his head, but he that taketh warning shall deliver his soul. But if the watchman see the sword coming, and blow not the trumpet, and warn not the people, and the sword come and take any soul from among them, he shall be taken away in his sins, but his blood shall be required at the watchman’s hands.” Therefore the sword is the judgment and the trumpet is the Gospel; the watchman is the Bishop who is appointed over the Church.

Chapter V

Doctrine and caution for the Bishop. that he should preach about judgment and warn the people. and remove himself from the disobedient, and judge those who do wrong like God, and not spare those that are wicked, and corrupt the people, It is required of thee, therefore, O Bishop, that when thou preachest thou shouldst testify and affirm about judgment, as in the Gospel, because the Lord hath said also to thee

 Also thou, O son of man, I have set thee for a watchman unto the house of Israel, that thou mayest hear the word at My mouth, and take heed, and preach it as from Me. When I say unto the wicked, That the wicked shall surely die, and thou dost not preach and say, so that the wicked may turn from his iniquity, the wicked man shall die in his iniquity, but his blood will I require at thy hands. But thou, if thou warn the people from its way and it be not warned, the wicked shall die in his iniquity, but thou shalt deliver thy soul.” Therefore ye also, because upon you will fall the accusation of those who have sinned without knowing, preach and testify, and those who walk without discipline, admonish and reprove them publicly. Though we say and repeat these things often, O brethren, let us not be blamed, for by a great deal of doctrine and by much hearing it may happen that a man is made to blush, and to do good things and avoid evil things. For the Lord saith in the Law, “Hear, O Israel,” and to this day he has not heard. Again, in the Gospel he preacheth much and saith, “Everyone  that hath ears to hear, let him hear,” and they have not heard, even those that thought they heard, because they leaned to the evil perdition of the heresies, those on whom the sentence of condemnation will come, for we do not believe, brethren, that when a man goeth down to the water, he will again do the abominable and impure works of the heathen and the depraved; for this is manifest and known to all men, that everyone who doeth evil things after having received baptism, is already condemned to the Gehenna of fire. We think that even the heathen blaspheme on account of these things, because we do not mix with them, nor are we partakers with them; and by means of the falseness of the heathen, keep the more, brethren, to the truth; for He saith thus in the Gospel, “Blessed are ye when they  shall revile you, and shall say against you every evil word falsely for my sake; rejoice then and be glad, for great is your reward in Heaven, for  thus your fathers persecuted the prophcts.” Therefore if they blaspheme against a man falsely he is blessed, because he is tried by temptations, saith the Lord. And the Scripture saith, A man who is not tried is also not proved. For if a man be reproved for doing wicked works, he is not a Christian, but is false, and by hypocrisy he has adhered to the worship of God. On this account when some of these are detected and reproved in truth publicly, let the Bishop reject them, he who is without offence and without hypocrisy. If then even his mind be not pure, having respect to persons on account of filthy lucre, or on account of the presents he has received, and he should spare him who has sinned wickedly [and] allow him to remain in the Church, the Bishop who is such pollutes the congregation before God, and also before men, and before many of the communicants who are young in their minds, or before the hearers; again also he destroys  those that are young along with himself; for on account of the wicked lasciviousness which they saw in him among them, they also doubt in their souls, and imitate him, and they also stumble and are taken by this passion and perish with him… .But if he who sinneth see the Bishop and the Deacons, that they are free from accusation and that all the flock are pure, in the first place he will not dare to go up to the congregation because he is reproved by his mind; and if it should happen that he have courage, and should go to the Church in his impudence, let him be reproved and reprimanded by the Bishop; he will look at them all, and will not find an offence in one of them, neither in the Bishop, nor in those who are with him; he will blush therefore, and with much shame he will go out quickly, weeping, and be in penitence of soul. Thus the flock will remain pure. Again, when he has gone out he will repent of his sin and weep and be consoled before God, that he may have hope. Then again, all the flock, having seen his weeping and his tears, will fear, knowing and understanding that everyone that sins shall perish.

Because of this, therefore, O Bishop, strive to be pure in thy works, and know thy place, that thou art appointed in the semblance of God Almighty, and that thou holdest the place of God Almighty; thus sit in the Church and teach, as one who hath power to judge those that sin, in the place of Almighty God; for to you Bishops it is said in the Gospel, that what ye bind on earth shall be bound in Heaven.

Chapter VI

Also teaches the Bishop, that he judge him that sins, as God, and not spare him; that he receive in love him that repents and pardons him, and that he adhere not to the passions of the laity. and shut the door in the face of those who repents but according to the greatness of his honour he carry the burden of all men’s sins; with demonstration and threatening from Ezekiel

Bishops who despise their flocks or about laymen who condemn the Bishop, Therefore judge severely, O Bishop, like Almighty God, and receive those who repent with compassion like God; and reprove, and beseech and teach, for even-the Lord God has promised with oaths pardon to those who have sinned, as Ezekiel the prophet has said, “And thou, son of man, say to them of the house of Israel; Thus ye say, our transgressions and our sins are upon us, and in them we pine away; how should we then live? Say unto them, As I live, saith the Lord God, I do not wish the death of the sinner, but that the wicked should repent of his evil way and live; repent therefore and turn from your evil deeds, and ye shall not die, ye house of Israel.” Here therefore he gives hope to those who have sinned when they repent, that they may have forgiveness in their repentance; and their hope may not be cut off, and that they may not remain in their sins, nor add to these; but that they may repent and weep for their sins, and be converted with all their heart; and those who have not sinned may remain without sins; lest these also should have need of weeping and sighings and forgiveness. How knowest thou, O man that hath sinned, how many may be the days of thy life in this world that thou mayest repent, for thou knowest not thy departure from this world; lest thou shouldest die in thy sins and have no repentance, as it is said in David, “In Sheol who confesseth to Thee?” Therefore everyone who hath pity on himself and remaineth without sins, may remain without danger; so that the righteousness which was done by him of old may be kept for him. Thou therefore, O Bishop, judge thus, first severely, and afterwards receive with mercy and clemency [him who] has promised to repent, reprove him and make him sorry and persuade him, because of the word that was said in David thus, “Thou wilt not give up the soul of him that confesseth to Thee.” Again, in Jeremiah He saith thus, about the repentance of those that sin, “He that falleth, shall he not rise; or he that returneth away [shall he] not turn back? Why hath My people turned away  with a shameless turning; they are held fast in their thoughts, and do not wish to repent and be converted.” Because of this therefore receive him who repenteth, not doubting in the least, and be not prevented by those who have no mercy, those who say, We must not be defiled by those. For the Lord God hath said, “The fathers shall not die for the children, nor the children for the fathers.” And again in Ezekiel he saith thus, “The word of the Lord carne unto me, saying, Son of man, when a land sinneth against Me, and doeth wickedness before Me. I will stretch out My hand against it, and 1 will destroy from it the staff of bread, and I will send famine upon it, and I will destroy from it man and beast. Though these three men were in it, Noah, and Daniel, and Job, they should deliver their souls by their righteousness, saith the Lord God.” The Scripture therefore plainly sheweth that if the righteous be found with the wicked, he will not perish with him, but every man shall live by his righteousness, and if he be prevented, he is prevented by his own sins. In Wisdom again He saith, “Every man is bound with the cord of his sins.” Every one of the laity therefore shall give an account of his own sin and no man will be hurt because of the foreign sins of others. Not even Judas did cause us any loss by praying with us, but he alone perished. Noah also in the Ark and two of his sons who were saved, were blessed; but Ham, the other, was not blessed; but his seed was cursed, ^because he mocked at his father, for going out to the beasts. We do not require you therefore to confirm those who delight in death, hate their brethren, and love quarrels, for which reason they are ready to kill; but help those who are very sick, and are in danger and sin, and deliver them from death, not according to the hardness of their heart and their word and their thoughts. For it is not required of thee, O Bishop, that being the head thou shouldst listen to the tail, that is to say, to the layman, to the quarrelsome man who delights in the destruction of another; but look thou only at the command of the Lord God, and for this reason, that they may not expect to perish, nor be defiled with the sins of others. Cut away also their evil thoughts. Even in Ezekiel the Lord God saith thus, “The word of the Lord came unto me, saying. Son of man, why use ye this proverb in the land of Israel, saying. The fathers have eaten sour grapes, and the children s teeth are set on edge. As I live, saith the Lord God, ye shall not use this proverb any more in Israel, because all souls are mine; the soul of the father is mine, thus also the soul of the son is mine; the soul that sinneth, it shall die.

If a man be righteous, and doeth judgment and righteousness, and eateth not upon the mountains, and lifteth not up his eyes to the idols of the house of Israel, and defìleth not his neighbour’s wife, and cometh not near to a woman in her separation, and hath not acted to any one with violence, and even returneth the pledge of the debtor which he hath taken, and clotheth the naked with a garment, and giveth not out his money to usury, and taketh not with avaricc, and withdraweth his band from iniquity, and judgeth true judgment between man and man, and walketh in my laws, and doeth my statutes and keepeth them; this is a righteous man, he shall surely live, saith the Lord God. If he beget an evil son who sheddeth blood and doeth murder, and walketh not in the way of his righteous father, and eateth on the mountains, and defìleth his neighbour’s wife, and oppresseth the poor and needy, robbeth with violence, and returneth not the pledge that he hath taken; lifteth up his eyes to the idols, doeth iniquity, giveth out his money to usury, and taketh with avarice, he shall not live, because he hath done all this iniquity, he shall surely die, and his blood shall be upon him. Now if he beget a son, and he seeth all these sins that his father hath done, and feareth, and doeth not like unto him; and eateth not upon the mountains, and lifteth not up his eyes to the idols of the house of Israel, and defìleth not his neighbour’s wife, and oppresseth no man, and taketh no pledge, and robbeth not with violence; and giveth his bread to the hungry, and clotheth the naked with a garment, and withdraweth his band from iniquity, and taketh not usury and avaricious gain, and doeth righteousness, and walketh in My laws, he shall not die in the iniquity of his father, but he shall surely live. But his father, because he hath grievously oppressed, and robbed with violence, and hath not done good to My people, he shall die in his iniquity. And ye say, Why is not the son punished for the iniquity of his father? Because the son hath done righteousness and mercy, and hath kept all My commandments and done them, he shall surely live; and the soul that sinneth, it shall die. The son shall not be recompensed for the sins of his father, and the father shall not be recompensed for the sins of his son; the righteousness of the righteous shall be upon him. If the wicked man turn from all his iniquity that he hath done, and keep all My commandments, and do judgment and righteousness, he shall surely live, and shall not die, and all the iniquity that he hath done shall not be remembered unto him, but in the righteousness that he hath done shall he live; because I have no pleasure in the death of the sinner, saith the Lord God, but everyone that turneth from his evil way shall live. And if the righteous turn away from his righteousness, and do iniquity, according to all the iniquity that the wicked man hath done, all his righteousness that he hath done shall not he remembered to him, but in the iniquity that he hath done, in the sins that he hath sinned shall he die. And ye say, His way is not good. Hear, ye house of Israel, My way is good, but your ways are not good. If the righteous man turn away from his righteousness, and do iniquity, in the iniquity that he hath done shall he die; and if the wicked man turn away from his iniquity that he hath done, and do judgment and righteousness, he shall save his soul, because he hath turned from all his iniquity, he shall surely m live, and shall not die. And ye of the house of Israel say. The way of the Lord is not good. My way is good, O ye of the house of Israel, but your ways are not good. Because of this I will judge everyone of you so according to his ways, saith the Lord God. Repent, and be converted from all your iniquity and wickednesses, and these shall not be an evil punishment to you. Cast away and remove from you all the wickedness that ye have done wickedly, and make you a new heart and a new spirit, and ye shall not die, O ye of the house of Israel. For I have no pleasure in  the death of the sinner, saith the Lord God, wherefore turn and live.” See, dear and beloved children, how many are the mercies of the Lord our God, and His goodness and clemency towards us. He requireth from those who  have sinned that they repent; and in many places He speaketh about these things, and giveth no place to the opinion of those who are hard-hearted, and who wish to judge sharply and without mercy, and to cast completely away those who have sinned, as if there were no repentance for them. But God is not thus, but He calls even sinners to repentance, and gives tlem hope, but those that have not sinned He teaches and says to them, that they must not expect that we should bear or share in the sins of others. Simply therefore receive those that repent, not doubting. For He saith in the Prophet thus, “And thou, Son of man, say unto the children of thy people, The righteousness of the righteous shall not deliver him in the day that he doeth evil, and the avarice of the wicked shall not hurt him in the day that he repenteth from his iniquity; and the righteous shall not be able to live in the day that he sinneth. When I say to is the righteous that he shall surely live, if he trust to his righteousness, and do iniquity, all his righteousness that he hath done shall not be remembered to him, but in the iniquity that he hath done shall he die.

When I say to the wicked that he shall surely die, and he turneth from his sin, and doeth his righteousness; returneth the pledge which he hath taken, and payeth back that which he hath violently robbed, and walketh in the statutes and commandments of life that he may not do iniquity; he shall surely live and not die, and all the sins that he hath sinned shall not be remembered unto him; he hath done judgment and righteousness, he shall surely live. And the children of thy people say, The way of the Lord God is not good. Say unto them, Your ways are not good. If the righteous turn from his righteousness and do iniquity, he shall surely die in his iniquity; and if the wicked turn from his wickedness and do judgment and righteousness, he shall live thereby).”

It is required of you, O Bishops, according to the Scriptures, that ye judge those who sin with pity and mercy. For him that walketh on the brink of a river and falleth, if thou leave him in the river, thou pushest and throwest him down and committest murder; or when a man has fallen by the side of a river’s brink, and nearly perishes, stretch out thy hand to him quickly and draw him up that he perish not: thus therefore do, that thy people may learn and be wise, and also that he that sinneth, may not perish utterly, but that thou mayest look to him that hath sinned, be angry with him, and command them to put him out And when he is put out, be ye not angry with him, and contend with him, but let them keep him outside of the Church, and then let them go in and make supplication for him, for even our Saviour made supplication to His Father for those that had sinned, as it is written in the Gospel, “My Father, they know not what they do, nor what they speak, yet, if it be possible, forgive them.” Then thou, O Bishop, command him to come in, and thyself ask him if he repents. If he be worthy to be received into the Church, appoint him days of fasting according to his fault, two, or three, or five, or seven weeks, and thus allow him to go, saying to him all that is proper for admonition and doctrine. Reprove him, and teli him to be humble-minded, and to pray and make supplication in the days of fasting, that he be found worthy of the forgiveness of sins, as it is written in Genesis, “Thou hast sinned, cease. Let thy repentance be with thee, and thou shalt have power over it.” Look also at Miriam the sister of Moses, when she had spoken against Moses, and afterwards she repented, and was thought worthy of forgiveness, it was said by the Lord, “If her father had but spit in her face, would she not have been ashamed and separated for seven days without the camp, and then she would have come in.” Thus also it is required of you to act towards those who promise to repent of their sins. Put them out of the Church as it is proper for their faults, and afterwards receive them as a merciful Father. If then the Bishop himself cause scandal, how can he rise and search for the sin of any one, or reprove for it, and command sentence by his hands? By respect of persons or gifts that they receive? Either he or his Deacons, whose conscience is not clear. They cannot contend in the help of the Bishop, for they fear lest they should hear as from a courageous man, this word that is written in the Gospel, “Why seest thou the straw that is in thy brother’s  eye, but obscrvest not the beam that is in thinc own eye? Thou hypocrite, take first the beam out of thine eye, and then shalt thou explore clearly to take out the Straw from thy brother’s eye.”

Because [of this] therefore the Bishop fears the Deacons, lest they hear the word of the Lord from him that sinneth as from a courageous man. For he does not know that it is dangerous for a man to speak against the Bishop, and in all that place there will be a scandal, for he that hath sinned is wanting in reason, and doth also not spare his soul. Because of this therefore for every reason for which the Bishop fears, he makes himself as one who does not know him that hath sinned, and he passes away from him, and does not reprove nor correct him; and because of this, Satan, when he finds opportunity, will rule by means of one, also of others. God forbid that this should be! And should happen thus, that the flock becomes so as it can never again be. For many sinners being found, evil becomes a force, because sinners are not corrected and reproved so that they may repent. In every man there is an incitement to sin, and it is fulfilled that was said, “My house shall be called a house of prayer for all peoples, but ye have made it a den of thieves.” If then the  Bishop does not keep silence before them that sin, but reproves and censures them, and corrects and admonishes and punishes him that hath sinned, he also throws fear on others; for it is required of the Bishop that by means of his doctrine he should be a preventer of sins unto death, and an exhorter to righteousness, and by the admonition of his doctrine a guide to good Works, a glorifier and exalter of good things to come, that are promised by God in the place of eternal life; and a preacher also of future wrath by the judgment of God, by the threat of cruel fire, quenchless and unbearable. Let him know the effect of the will of God, that he may not despise any one, for our Saviour has said, “See that ye despise not any one, not one of these little ones who believe in Me.”

Therefore let the Bishop care for everyone: for those who have not sinned  that they may remain as they are without sin; also for those who have sinned, that they may repent, and let him give them pardon for their sins, as it is written in Isaiah that the Lord hath said, “Loose all the bands of wickedness, and cut all the burdens of deceit and of oppression.”

 

 [Chapter VII in Cod. S.]

Therefore, O Bishop, teach, and reprove, and loosen by pardon, and know that thy place is that of God Almighty, and thou hast received power to forgive sins, for it is said to you Bishops, “All that ye shall bind on earth shall be bound in Heaven; and all that ye shall loose shall he loosed.” As therefore thou hast power to loose, know thyself and thy conduct and thy works, that in this life they may be (S. worthy) of thy place, but there is no man among the sons of men who is without sins, for it is written, “There is no man that is pure from the uncleanness of sin, no, not one, even if he have lived only one day in this world.” Because of this the conversation and the conduct of the works of the righteous, and of the first Fathers were written, that it might be known that in each one of them was found just a little sin, that it might be known that the Lord God alone is sinless, as David said, “That thou mightest be justified in thy sayings and be clear in thy judgments.” For the uncleanness of the righteous is to ourselves a comfort and a consolation and a good hope, that we, though we have also sinned a little, have an expectation of getting pardon. There is therefore no man without sin. But thou, according to thy strength, be diligent that thou be not overtaken in aught, and be careful about everyone, lest any man should be offended, and should perish because of thee; because the layman is careful of his own soul alone, but thou carriest the weight of every man, and it is a very great burden that thou bearest; “For he to whom the Lord hath given much, from him much will be required.” Forasmuch, therefore, as thou bearest the burdens of all men, be watchful. For it is written that the  Lord said to Moses, “Thou and Aaron shall bear the sins of the Priesthood.” For thus, as thou shalt give a sufficient answer for many, so thou shalt care for everyone; that thou mayest keep those that are whole, and admonish those that sin, and correct and reprove and punish and lighten them by means of repentance and pardon; and when a sinner repents and weeps, receive him; and when the people have prayed for him, lay [thy hands] upon him, and allow him thenceforth to be in the Church. Those who sleep and are negligent restore and rouse and confirm, and pray for them and heal them, for thou knowest where is the reward to thee if thou hast clone thus; so if thou neglectest it, a great danger will come upon thee. For the Lord hath said in Ezekiel about the Bishops who despise their people thus: “The word of the Lord carne unto me, saying, Son of man, prophesy against the shepherds of Israel, and say unto them, “Thus saith the Lord God, Woe to the shepherds of Israel that do feed themselves, and the shepherds do not feed My flock. Ye eat the milk, and clothe yourselves with the wool, and ye kill her that is fat, but ye feed not the flocks. Her that is sick have ye not cured; her that is weak have ye not strengthened; her that was broken have ye not bound up; her that bad wandered have ye not brought back; and her that was lost have ye not found; but with violence and levity have ye ruled them; and My flock is scattered without a shepherd; it has become meat to the beasts of the field. My own flocks are wandering on all high mountains and on all the face of the earth.”

Thou shalt leave the ninety and nine on the mountain, and go to seek her that was lost; and when thou findest her carry her upon thy shoulders, rejoicing, because thou hast found her that was lost; bring her and mingle her with the flock. Thus obey thou also, O Bishop; visit the one that is lost, and seek the one that has wandered, and restore the one that is far away, because thou hast power to forgive the sins of him that has fallen, for thou fillest the place of the Christ.

Because of this also our Saviour said to him that bad sinned, “Thy sins are forgiven thee; thy faith hath made thee whole; go in peace.” Peace then is the Church of quiet and rest; she in whom He established those whom He loosed from their sins whole and without spot, having a good hope, and being diligent in the cultivation of works and afflictions. As a wise and sympathetic physician He cures all men, and mostly those who have wandered in their sins, for “The whole have no need of a physician, but they that are sick.” Thou also, O Bishop, art made the physician of His Church, therefore do not restrain the medicine that thou mayest heal those that are sick in their sins, but cure them by every means and make them whole and establish them safe in the Church; that thou be not taken by this word which the Lord spake, “Ye have ruled them with violence and levity.” Lead not therefore with violence; be not vehement, nor judge sharply, nor be merciless, nor deride the people who are under thy hand, nor hide from them the word of repentance, for that would be to have ruled them with violence and levity. But if ye oversee my people harshly and punish them with violence, and drive them and expel them, and do not receive them that have sinned, but harshly and mercilessly hide repentance from them, thou wilt even be a helper in their conversion to evil, and in scattering the flocks to be food for the beasts of the field, that is to say, to the wicked men of this world, but not to men in truth, but to the beasts, to the heathen, to the heretics; for him who goes out of the Church they follow immediately, like evil beasts, to swallow him for food; because of thine own harshness, he then that goeth out of the Church, either goeth and entereth in unto the heathen, or plunges into heresies; he will be entirely a stranger, and be removed from the Church, and from the hope of God, and thou wilt be guilty of his ruin, because thou wert ready to put out and to cast away those who sin; and when they repented and returned, thou didst not wish to receive them. Behold, thou art fallen under the condemnation of this word which said, “Your feet hasten to evil, and are swift to shed blood; affliction and misery are in their paths, and the way of peace have they not known.” The Way of Peace is our Saviour, as He said, “Forgive the sins of those who sin, that your sins also may be forgiven; give and it shall be given unto you,” which is, “Give the pardon of sins, that you also may receive pardon.”

He also teaches us that we should be Constant in prayers at all times, and that we should say, “Forgive us our debts and our sins, as we also forgive our debtors.” For if thou forgivest not those that sin, how canst thou receive forgiveness? Behold, will not thy mouth accuse thee, and thou wilt convict thyself of having said, “I forgive” when thou hast not forgiven, but hast verily murdered; for he who puts any one out of the Church without mercy, what else does he do but murder bitterly, and shed blood without pity? For if a righteous man is unjustly killed by any one by means of the sword, he is received to rest with God; but he who puts any one out of the Church and receives him not again, kills verily evilly and bitterly for eternity; and God gives to be food to cruel fire forever, him who puts out of the Church, and does not look at the mercy of God, and does not remember His goodness to the penitent, and does not bear the likeness of the Christ, nor pay attention to any people who repent of the multitude of their failings that they may receive pardon from him. It is required of thee then, O Bishop, that the things which happened of old should be put before thine eyes, that from them thou mayest understand and be taught the cure of souls, and admonition and reproof and intercession. When thou judgest men, compare cautiously and with much investigation, and cleave to the will of God; and according as He acts, thus ought ye also to act in your judgments. Hear therefore, O Bishop, in regard to these things, an example that is congruous and helpful. It is written in the fourth Book of Kingdoms, and in the second Book of Days thus, that “In these days Manasseh reigned, being twelve years old, and for fifty years he reigned in Jerusalem; the name of his mother was Aphezeba (Hephzibah). He did that which was evil before the Lord, like the abomination of a the peoples, whom the Lord had destroyed before the children of Israel.” He returned and built the high places for the sacrifices which Hezekiah his father had thrown down. He raised statues to Baal, and made abominations like as Ahab King of Israel had done. He made altars to all the army of Heaven, and worshipped all the powers of Heaven. He built an altar to demons in the house of the Lord, where the Lord had said, “In Jerusalem is My house, I will put My name there forever.”

Manasseh served the high places and said, My name shall endure forever. He built an altar to all the army of Heaven in the two courts of the house of the Lord. He caused his children to pass through the fire in the valley of the son of Hinnom; he used auguries and sorceries; he made soothsayings and incantations and divinations, and wrought many evil things in the eyes of the Lord, to provoke Him to anger. He set a molten and carved image of the abomination which he had made, in the house of the Lord, where the Lord had said to David and to Solomon his son, that in this house, and in Jerusalem which I have chosen from all the tribes of Israel, I will put My name forever. Nor will I any more restrain My feet from the land of Israel which I have given to your fathers, only if they keep all that I have commanded them, according to all the commandments which I commanded my servant Moses, and they did not hear. Manasseh caused them to err, to do evil before the Lord, according to the works of the nations whom the Lord had destroyed before the children of Israel.”

“The Lord spake with Manasseh, and to his people by the band of his servants the prophets, and said, Because Manasseh King of Judah has done these abominations in Jerusalem, like as did the Amorites who were before him, and has also made Judah to sin by his idols; therefore thus saith the Lord God of Israel, Behold I bring such evil things upon Jerusalem and upon Judah, that the two ears of everyone that heareth them shall tingle. I will is stretch over Jerusalem that measure of Samaria, and the weight of the house of Ahab, and I will wipe Jerusalem as one wipeth a water-vessel when he turneth it on its face. I will give the remnant of Mine inheritance to the sword, and will deliver them into the band of their enemies, and they shall be for a prey and a spoil to all that hate them, because they have done evil before mine eyes, because they have been provoking from that day that I have brought out their fathers from Egypt until this day. Manasseh also shed much innocent blood, till he had filled Jerusalem from rim to rim with the slain, because of the sins which he committed; and he made Judah to sin in doing evil before the Lord.”

“And He brought against them the captains of Assyria; and they took Manasseh and bound him, and threw chains about him and carried him to Babylon in a copper star, and shut him up in prison, having completely chained and bound him in irons.” Bread of husks was given to him by weight, and water mixed with vinegar in small measure, that he might be alive and afflicted and heavily troubled.

“When he was much afflicted he sought the face of the Lord his God, and humbled himself greatly before the God of his fathers.” He prayed to the Lord God, and said:

The Prayer of Manasseh

Lord God of my fathers! God of Abraham and Isaac and Jacob, and of their righteous seed, who hast made the heavens with all their array, who hast chained the sea and established it by the command of Thy word, who hast bound the abyss and hast sealed it by Thine awful and glorious name; Thou before whose power everything trembles and shakes because of the unbearable greatness of the splendour of Thy glory, and no man can bear to stand before the anger of Thy wrath against sinners; whose mercies are infinite and measureless; for Thou art a Lord who is longsuffering and merciful and very gracious, and Thou regrettest the evils of the sons of man; Thou, Lord, according to the kindness of Thy goodness, hast promised forgiveness to those who repent of their sins, and in the greatness of Thy mercies Thou hast appointed repentance for the salvation of sinners. Thou, therefore, Lord God of the righteous, didst not appoint repentance to our father Abraham, and Isaac and Jacob, nor even to those who had never sinned against Thee. Yet thou hast appointed repentance to me, for I am a sinner, because my sins are more than the sand of the sea. I have not breath to lift up my head for the multitude of my iniquities. And now, Lord God, behold, I am justly afflicted, and I am grieved as I deserve. Behold, I am chained and bent by a multitude of iron chains, so that I cannot lift up my head. Nor am I worthy to lift up mine eyes and look and see the height of Heaven because of the multitude of my wickednesses, for I have done evil things before Thee, and I have kindled Thy wrath and set up idols, and multiplied abominations. And now behold, I bend the knees of my heart before Thee, and seek Thy kindness. I have sinned, Lord, I have sinned. Because I know my sins, I supplicate before Thee, forgive me, Lord, and destroy me not in my follies. Be not angry with me forever, nor keep my evil deeds, nor hold me guilty nor cast me down to the lower parts of the earth. For Thou, O Lord, art the God of those who repent, therefore even in me. Lord, shew Thy goodness, for though I am unworthy, save me according to Thy mercies. Therefore I will praise Thee at all times, and all the days of my life; for all the powers of Heaven praise Thee, and sing to Thee for ever and ever. And the Lord heard the voice of Manasseh, and had mercy upon him. There came upon him a flame of fire, and all the irons with which he was chained were melted and loosened; and the Lord delivered  Manasseh from his  afflictions, and restored him to Jerusalem to his  Kingdom; and Manasseh knew the Lord, and said that He was God alone, with all his  heart and with all his  soul all the days of his  life. He was counted righteous, and slept with his  fathers, and Amon his  son reigned after him.

Ye have heard, dear children. Like as Manasseh worshipped evil idols bitterly, and killed the righteous, and when he repented, the Lord forgave him, although there is no sin worse than the worship of idols, yet a place for repentance was given. But to him who saith, Good things shall happen to me though I walk in the perverse will of my heart, thus saith the Lord, I will stretch out My band upon him, and be shall be for a history and a proverb, because Amon son of Manasseh having taken counsel with the counsel of law-breaking said, My father from his  childhood was very wicked, and good in his  old age; I also will act now according to the lusts of my soul, and at the last I will repent towards the Lord. He did that which is evil before the Lord. He reigned two years only. Therefore the Lord God destroyed him from the good land. Therefore take heed, ye who have no faith, lest any of you should confirm in his heart the calculation of Amon son of Manasseh and perish quickly and swiftly.

Therefore, O Bishop, keep with strength as thou canst those who have not sinned, that they may remain without sinning, and those who repent of sins heal and receive. For if thou receive not him who repents, because thou art merciless, thou sinnest against the Lord God, because thou dost not obey our Lord and God in acting as He acted; for even He to that woman who had sinned, her whom the Elders placed before him and left it to judgment at His bands, and went away; He then who searcheth the hearts, asked her and said to her, “Have the Elders condemned thee, my daughter? She saith to him. No, Lord. And our Saviour said, Go, and return no more to do this, neither do I condemn thee.” In this therefore let our Saviour and King and God be to you a sign, O Bishops I be like Him, that ye may be gentle and humble and merciful and clement, and peacemakers and without anger, teachers, and reprouvers, and receivers and persuaders. Be not wrathful and be not tyrants, nor contemptuous, nor haughty, nor boasters.

Chapter VII

Again a grand doctrine about the Bishop himself, that with much diligence he take care of his flock and admonish and encourage them, and teach them, that they may not cut off hope about themselves when they fall; and a great consolation to those who are shaken and are converted repenting, and a great condemnation upon the Bishop who receiveth not those who repent, and a command to him that he be gentle and kind towards the children of his people, and be not harsh and angry.

Therefore, ye shepherds, hear the word of the Lord God. Forasmuch as my flock is for a prey and for meat to all the beasts of the wilderness, without a shepherd, and the shepherds have not sought my flock, but the shepherds fed themselves, and fed not my flock, therefore, ye shepherds, hear the word of the Lord. Thus saith the Lord God, Behold, I am against the shepherds, and I will require My flock at your hands, and cause them to cease from any more feeding My flock; neither shall the shepherds feed themselves any more, but I will deliver My flock from your hands, that they may not be meat for them. For thus saith the Lord God. Therefore behold I will visit my flock, and will seek them out, as a shepherd seeketh out his flock in the day of storm, being amongst them, thus will I seek out my flock and gather it, from all the places where they have been scattered, in the day of cloud and darkness. And I will bring them out from the peoples, and gather them from the lands, and bring them into their own land, and I will feed them upon the mountains of  Israel, and in all the waste places of the land. In a good and fat pasture I will feed them, and upon the high mountains of Israel shall be the glory of their splendour, and there they shall He in a good fold, and in a fat pasture shall they feed in the mountains of Israel. I will feed My flock, and I will establish them, saith the Lord God, I will seek that which is lost, and restore that which has wandered, and bind up that which is broken, and strengthen that which is sick, and I will keep that which is fat and strong, and will feed them with judgment And you My flock, the flocks of My pasture, thus saith the Lord my Lord, Behold I judge between sheep and sheep, and between ram and ram. Is it a small thing unto you that ye eat up the good and fat pasture, and the rest of your pasture ye tread down with your feet, and My flock drank what is trodden down by your feet. Therefore thus saith the Lord my Lord, Behold I judge between sheep and sheep, and between those that are sick; because ye thrust with your sides and your shoulders, and with your horns ye pierced all the sick ones, until ye scattered them out. And I will save My flock, and they shall no more be for a prey; and I will judge between sheep and sheep. And I will set up a shepherd over them, and David My servant shall be captain among them, I the Lord have spoken. I will make with them a covenant of peace, and will cause the evil beasts to cease out of the land, and they shall dwell safely in the wilderness, and sleep in the wood; and I will give them a blessing round about my hills. I will send down the rain in its season and it shall be a rain of blessings. The trees of the field shall yield their fruit, and the earth shall yield her produce, and they shall dwell safely in their land; and they shall know that I am the Lord,when I have cut the nooses of their yoke, and I have delivered them from the hand of those who made them to serve. And they shall no more be for a prey, nor shall the beast of the field devour them; but they shall dwell safely, and there shall be none to make them afraid. And I will raise up for them a Plant of renown, that they may no more bear the shame of the nations; and they shall know that I the Lord their God am with them, so and that they of the house of Israel are My people, saith the Lord God.”

Hear therefore, ye Bishops, and hear, ye laymen, that as the Lord hath said, I will judge between ram and ram, and between sheep and sheep, that is to say, between Bishop and Bishop, and between layman and layman; for if the layman love the layman, let the layman also love the Bishop and honour him, and reverence him as father and lord and god after God Almighty, for it is said to the Bishop by means of the Apostles, that “All who hear you hear Me, and all that injure you injure Me, and Him that sent Me.” Again, let the Bishop love the laymen as children, and nourish and inflame them with the zeal of his love, like eggs, that chickens may come from them; hatch them like chickens and nourish them as with the nourishment of winged fowls. O Bishop! Teach and admonish everyone. Those who are deserving of reproof reprove, and make them sorry, as for conversion and not for destruction. Admonish as for repentance, and  one Shepherd over them, and he shall feed them, and he shall Ih: their shepherd, that they may no more lie few and abandoned upon the earth, and admonish and correct them, so that thou mayest make their ways straight and smooth for them, and make stable their mode of life. Keep what is in health, that is to say, keep carefully him who is steadfast in the faith, and feed all the people in peace. That which is weak strengthen, that is to say, him who is tempted, strengthen by means of admonition. That which is sick heal, that is to say, him who is sick with doubt of the faith heal by means of doctrine. That which is broken bind up, that is to say, him who is beaten or struck or broken by his sins or halting in the way of righteousness, bind him up, that is to say, cure him by means of intercession and admonition; raise him from his fall and encourage him; shew him also that there is hope for him. Bind him up and heal him; admit him also to the Church. That which has wandered persuade, that is to say, him that is abandoned in sins, and excommunicated as for reproof, leave not without, but teach and admonish and convert, and receive him into thy flock, that is to say, him who by the multitude of his falls has cut off his hope, and has let his soul go to perdition; do not allow him to perish utterly, lest by means of temptation or much negligence he sleep, and through the heaviness of his slumber he forget his life, and be removed and turned from the flock, that is to say, from the Church, and he come to perdition; for since he has got out of the fold and is removed from the flock, a wolf will eat him as he wanders, and he will perish utterly. But do thou visit him, admonish and teach and convert him, command him and encourage him to awaken; tell him that there is hope, and cut this off from their minds, that they may not say nor think that which was said of old, that “Our iniquities and sins are upon us, and by them we are corrupted; how then can we live?” It is not required of us that we should say or think these things, or suppose that their hope is cut off on account of the multitude of their sins, but that they should know that the mercies of God are many, that He hath promised with oaths and good counsel, pardon to those who have sinned. If then a man sin, and know not the Scriptures, and be not persuaded of the long-suffering and pity of God, and knoweth not the boundaries of pardon and repentance, he perisheth by this, that he knoweth not. Therefore thou, O Bishop, as a shepherd, a partaker in suffering, who art full of love and tenderness, be assiduous in visiting thy flock. Count the flock. Seek that which has wandered, as said the Lord God Jesus the Christ, our Teacher and our Good Shepherd.

Chapter VIII

Teaches the same Bishop that he be not luxurious and covetous about the things that come into the Church, as provision for the poor, but that he furnish them with justice to those that are in want, as a just steward of God, and that he also may supply his own want out of them without guilt; and that he also stir up the people, that everyone according to his ability take a sitare, and supply the need of the Church, in regard to the provision for the poor and for  Orphans and Widows.

Be not lovers of wine, nor drunkards, nor much puffed up, nor luxurious. Do not incur expense that is not proper from the gifts of God, as if it were not your own, but as if you were making use of your own; as those who are appointed to be good stewards of God, of Him who will in future require at your hands an account of the management of the stewardship with which you are entrusted. Let your sufficiency then be enough for you, food and raiment; make use of what is necessary and not beyond what is just from the things that come in, as from strange things, but in moderation; do not enjoy yourselves and be luxurious from the income of the Church, for to a workman his raiment and food are sufficient Therefore as good stewards of God, do well in dispensing the things that are given and come into the Church, according to the commandment, to the  Orphans and Widows and those who are in straits and to strangers, like men who know that ye have a God who requires at your hands an account of the stewardship which He has committed to you.

Therefore distribute and give to everyone who is in want, also yourselves provide and live from these things, from the things that come into the Church. Do not consume them yourselves alone, but give a share with yourselves to those who are in want Be without offence before God; because God reproves Bishops who use the income of the Church avariciously and for themselves alone, and do not give a share with them to the poor.

The Lord said thus, “Ye eat the milk of the flocks, and ye clothe yourselves with the wool.” For it is required of you Bishops that ye be provided for out of the income of the Church, but not that ye swallow it up; for it is written, “Thou shalt not muzzle the ox that grinds.” Thus therefore as the ox that works in the threshing-floor without a muzzle eats food, but does not consume it all, thus also ye who labour in the threshing-floor, which is the Church of God, provide for yourselves from the Church, like the Levites who served in the Tabernacle of witness, which was the type of the Church, as its very name tells, for the Tabernacle of witness set forth the Church beforehand. Therefore the Levites who served in it were provided for without hindrance from the things that were given as the offerings of God by all the people, gifts, and oblations and first-fruits and tithes and sacrifices, and offerings and whole burnt-offerings, they and their wives and their sons and daughters, because their work was the service of the Tabernacle alone. Therefore they received no inheritance of land among the children of Israel, for the inheritance of Levi and of his tribe was the inheritance of the people. Therefore ye also to-day, O Bishops, are Priests to your people, and Levites who serve in the house of God, the Holy Catholic Church, those who remain continually before the Lord God. Therefore ye are to your people Priests and prophets and chiefs and governors and teachers and mediators between God and the believers, receivers of the Word, preachers of it, evangelists of it, knowers of the Scriptures and of the words of God, witnesses of His will, ye who bear the sins of all men, and who will

give account concerning all men; ye who hear how that word is kindled hardly against you, if ye despise, and do not preach the will of God, ye are they who are in grave danger of perdition, if ye despise your people. Ye again are those to whom is promised by God a great reward that will not disappoint nor be snatched away, and unspeakable grace in that great glory, if ye serve well the Tabernacle of God, the Catholic Church. Therefore as ye bear the burden of all men, thus also it is required of you that ye receive from all who are with you the service of food and clothing, and other things, such as are necessary. It is required also that ye take from the gifts that are given you by the people who are under your hands, and provide for the Deacons and the Widows and the  Orphans, and those that are in want. For it is required of thee, Bishop, that thou care for all men as a faithful steward, for as thou carriest the weight of all those who are under thy hands, thus, and more than all men, thou shalt receive the glory of excellency from God; for thou art the propitiator of the Christ; and as He has borne the sins of us all, thus it is required of thee that thou carry the sins of all those who are under thy hands. For thus it is written in Isaiah about our Saviour, “We have seen Him, that He had no splendour and no beauty, but His visage was more shamed and humiliated than men, and that He was a man of suffering; and knoweth [how] to understand sicknesses; for His face was changed and done despite to, and He was of no account in our eyes. He then hath carried our sins, and for us He died; and we thought Him wounded and grieved and humiliated. But He was wounded for our sins, and afflicted for our iniquities, and by His wounds we are all healed.” Again he saith, that “He bore the sins of many, and was betrayed because of their iniquity.”

 

And in David and in all the Prophets and also in the Gospel, our Saviour entreats on account of our sins, He who was without sins. Therefore as ye have the example of the Christ, thus also be ye an example to the people that are under your hands, that as He hath taken our sins, so do ye also take the sins of the people. Do not imagine that the burden of the Bishopric is a light and easy one. Therefore as ye have received the burden of all men, thus also the fruits which ye draw from all the people, are yours for all things that are necessary to you. Provide well for those that are in want, like people who give account to an inquisitor

who does not err and cannot be got over. As ye serve in the office of the Bishopric, thus it is meet that from the office of the Bishopric ye provide for yourselves; like Priests and Levites and Deacons who serve before God; as it is written in the Book of Numbers, that God spake to Aaron and said, “Thou, and thy sons, and thy father’s house shall bear the sins of the holy things; and thou and thy sons shall bear the sins of the Priesthood; and thy brethren the sons of thy a father, the tribe of Levi, bring with thee; let them be placed beside thee and let them serve thee. Thou and thy sons with thee shall serve before this Tabernacle of witness, except that the sons of Levi shall not approach the vessels of the Sanctuary nor the altar, that they and ye die not; but they shall be added unto thee, and they shall keep the watches of the Tabernacle of witness for all the service of the Tabernacle, and a stranger shall not come nigh unto thee. Ye shall keep these charges of the holy things, and the charges of the altar; and there shall be no wrath upon the children of Israel. And behold, I have taken your brethren the sons of Levi from among the children of Israel, they are given as a gift to the Lord, to do the service of the Tabernacle of witness. Thou, and thy sons with thee, keep your Priesthood for all the service. of the altar, and of that within the Veil; do your service, as something that is given to your Priesthood; the stranger that cometh nigh shall die the death. And the Lord spake unto Moses and unto Aaron, and said, Behold, I havc given you the charges and the first fruits of all that is hallowed to me by the children of Israel, to thee I have given them for service, and to thy sons after thee, a law forever. This shall be thine of all the holy things that are hallowed from their fruits and from their offerings, and from all their sacrifices, from all their errors and from all their sins, all that they offer to Me of all the holy things, let it be for thee and for thy sons; eat it in the Holy place; every male shall eat it, thou and thy sons, it shall be holy to thee. These shall be to you, the firstfruits of their gifts, from all the oblations of the children of Israel, to thee I have given them, and to thy sons and thy daughters with thee, for an everlasting law; everyone that is clean in thy house shall eat them, all the firstfruits of the oil, and all the first-fruits of the wine, and the first-fruits of the wheat, all that they give to the Lord shall be thine; everyone that is clean in thy house shall eat of them.

“All the rest that remains shall be thine, and all that openeth the matrix of all flesh, all that they bring to the Lord, of men and even of beasts shall be thine; nevertheless the firstborn of men shall surely be redeemed, and the firstborn of beasts that are not clean to be offered; and their redemption shall be from a month old and upwards; thou shalt redeem them for a price, five shekels by the shekel of the Sanctuary, which is ten shekels of Silver. But nevertheless the firstlings of oxen, and the firstlings of sheep and goats, thou shalt not redeem; they are holy; thou shalt pour out their blood before the altar, and their fat thou shalt send up as an offering of a sweet savour unto the Lord; and their flesh shall be pure to thee, the end of the wave breast and the right forefoot shall be thine. AH the heave ofierings of the Sanctuary, which the children of Israel destine to the Lord, to thee have I given them, to thy sons and also to thy daughters with thee, for an everlasting law: it shall be a statute forever before the Lord, to thee and to thy seed after thee.“

“And the Lord spake unto Aaron, and said, Thou shalt not inherit in their land, nor have any portion among them, because I am thy portion and thine inheritance among the children of Israel. And behold, to the children of Levi I have given all the tithes of the children of Israel

for an inheritance, on account of their service in the Tabernacle. And the children of Israel shall not again come nigh unto the Tabernacle of witness, that they receive not the sin of death, but the Levites shall do the service of the Tabernacle of witness, and they shall bear their sins, as an everlasting law to their generations. And among the children of Israel they shall have no inheritance, because that the tithes of the children of Israel which they destine as heave offerings to the Lord, I have given to the Levites as an inheritance; therefore I said unto them, and to those of the house of Israel, that they shall have no inheritance forever. The Lord spake unto Moses and said to him, Speak with the Levites, and say unto them, When ye take from the children of Israel the tithes that I have given you from them as an inheritance, offer up from them also an heave offering to the Lord, even a tenth part of the tithes. The heave offering shall be reckoned to you as the wheat of the threshing-floor, and as the offering of the wine-press.

“Thus ye also shall offer a heave offering unto the Lord of all your tithes which ye receive from all the children of Israel, and ye shall give of them a heave offering to the Lord, to Aaron the Priest, of all your gifts ye shall offer a heave offering to the Lord, of the firstfruits which He hath sanctified. And say unto them, When ye offer the firstfruits of them, so it shall be reckoned unto the Levites as the produce of the threshing-floor, and as the produce of the wine-press; they shall eat it in every place, ye and your households, because that is your reward for your service in the Tabernacle of witness, and ye shall have no sin because when ye have offered the firstfruits of it; ye shall not pollute the offerings of the children of Israel, that ye die not.”

Chapter IX

Exhortation to the people that they bring heave offerings of prayers and confessions to God, and that they honour the Bishop as [they honour] God, and reverence him, and that they do nothing apart from his permission, nor even give alms to those that are in need without him; but take everything known to him by means of the Deacon, and le will administer whatever is given, and that everyone of the orders of the Church take its place and be featured as befits it; condemnation and commination on those who speak wickedly to Priests or despise them; that they think of them as of their Kings, that they take them gifts from their labour for the supply of the need of the poor and the  Orphans and the Widows, making no reckoning with them, as to whether they give or do not give.

Hear, therefore, these things, ye also, ye laymen, the Church chosen of God, because that even the first people was called the Church. Ye then, Holy and perfect Catholic Church, royal Priesthood, holy assembly, people of inheritance, great Church, Bride adorned for the Lord God. As therefore was said before, hear also now, Bring heave offerings and tithes and firstfruits to the Christ, the true High Priest, also to His servants bring tithes of salvation, Him the beginning of whose name is the letter Yod.

Hear, thou Catholic Church, which art of God, who hast been delivered from IO plagues, and hast received commandments, and hast leamt the law and hast held the faith, and hast believed in a Yod at the beginning of a name, and art confirmed by the perfection of His glory; instead of the sacrifices of that time, offer now prayers and supplications and thanksgìvings; then were firstfruits and tithes and oblations and gifts, to-day are offerings that are presented by means of the Bishops to the Lord God, for those are your High Priests. Priests and Levites; now Elders and Deacons, and Orphans and Widows. For the Levite and the High Priest is the Bishop. He is a servant of the Word of God and a Mediator, but to you a Teacher and your Father after God, who has begotten you by means of water. He is your Head and Governor, and he is a powerful King to you. He governs in the place of the Almighty, but let him be honoured by you as God, because the Bishop sits for you in the place of Almighty God; but the Deacon stands in the place of the Christ; and ye should love him, but let the Deaconesses be honoured by you in the likeness of the Holy Ghost. Moreover, let the Elders be to you in the likeness of the Apostles, but Orphans and Widows be considered by you in the likeness of an Altar.

For as it was not allowed for the stranger, that is to say for him who was not a Levite, to approach the Altar, nor to offer anything apart from the High Priest, thus do ye naught apart from the Bishop. For if anyone do aught apart from the Bishop, he doeth it in vain, for it will not be counted to him as a work, because it is not fitting that any one should do aught without the High Priest Present, therefore, your offerings to the Bishop, either ye yourselves, or by means of the Deacons; and what he receives let him deal to you justly, for the Bishop is well acquainted with those who are afflicted; for he provides for everyone and gives as it becomes him; lest anyone should receive many times in the day or in the week, and another should not receive even a little. For to him whom the Priest and steward of God knows to be much afflicted, he does good, as is required of him. And those who ask Widows to help her whom he knows to be much afflicted, to her let him send oftenest. And again, if any one give gifts to Widows, to her who is in want let him send most. Let the portion of a shepherd be defined and known, according as the law of old is defined, and even if he be not present ye shall not cause to perish [any that belong] to God Almighty. As often then as is given to you or the Widows, let double be given to each of the Deacons for the honour of the Christ; twice double to the Governor for the honour of God Almighty.

If any man wishes also to honour the Elders, let him give also to them as to the Deacons. For it is required for them that they be honoured as Apostles, and as the counsellors of the Bishop, and also as the crown of the Church; for they are the directors and counsellors of the Church. And if there be also a Reader, let him also receive along with the Elders. Every office, therefore, let each of the laity as is proper to him, honour by gifts, by dignity, and the respect of the world. Let them have great boldness with the Deacons, and let them not be troubling the Chief at all hours, but whatever they require, let them make it known by means of the servants, that is to say, by means of the Deacons. For not even to God Almighty can one approach save by means of the Christ. All things, therefore, that ye wish to have done, make them known to the Bishop by means of the Deacons, and then let them be done. Not even of old in the Temple of the Sanctuary was anything offered or done apart from the Priest. Again also, with the idols of the heathen, polluted and abominable and reprehensible, even to our day they imitate the Sanctuary, though in comparison the house of impurity is very far from the Holy place; but nevertheless in the work of their oversight (in another manuscript, of their folly), without their polluted Priests they do not offer nor do anything; but thus they suppose that the mouth of the stones (that is to say, the idols he calls stones) is a polluted Priest, and they wait for whatever he commands them to do, and in all that they contemplate doing they are counselled by their polluted Priest, and they do nothing without him, for they think that this is acceptable whatever they do, honouring him and doing homage to him like their honouring of the dumb stones, those that are fixed as stones (S. in the walls) for the worship of impure and cruel demons. If they, therefore, who are foolish and [have] false customs and no hope, but err by a vain expectation, watch and desire to imitate a Sanctuary, and honour with every honour those who stand in the house of their ridiculous idols, why then ye to whom it is known and manifest that ye believe in the truth, and are possessed by a hope that will not be falsified, and look to the promise of eternal glory which passeth not away nor dissolveth, should not ye the more honour the Lord God, by means of those who are appointed over you? Consider, therefore, the Bishop as the mouth of God.

For if Aaron, because he interpreted to Pharaoh the words that were given through Moses, was called a Prophet, as the Lord said unto Moses, “Behold, I have given thee for a god unto Pharaoh, and Aaron thy brother shall be thy prophet,” why, therefore, do ye also not consider (S. as prophets, and adore) as God those who are to you mediators of the Word? Now for us ourselves, Aaron is the Deacon, and the Bishop. Let him be honoured by you as God, and the Deacon as a Prophet. Therefore for the honour of the Bishop make known to him everything that ye do. Even by means of him let everything be completed. If ye know that a man is much afflicted, but the Bishop doth net know it, inform him, but without him do nothing to disgrace him that thou bring no shame upon him as upon a despiser of the poor; for he who raises an evil report against the Bishop either by word or by deed, sins against God Almighty. But again, against a Deacon if any one speak evilly by word or by deed, he offends the Christ. Therefore it is written also in the Law, “Thou shalt not revile thy gods, nor speak evil against the ruler of thy people.” Let no one suppose then that the Lord was speaking about idols of stone, but He calls “gods” those who are placed over you. Moses also said again in the Book of Numbers, when the people had murmured against him and against Aaron, “It is not against us that ye murmur, but against the Lord God.”

Also our Saviour said, “He that wrongeth you wrongeth Me, and Him that sent Me.” For what hope is there, even a little, to him who has spoken evil things against the Bishop? Or against the Deacon? For if one have called a layman a fool or vile (Raca), he shall be condemned by the Synagogue, as one of those who rise up against the Christ, because he hath called his brother vain, him in whom the Christ dwelleth, who is not vain, but filled; or a fool him in whom dwelleth the Holy Spirit of God, the Perfecter in all wisdom, as if he were a fool from the Spirit that dwelleth in him! If, therefore, anyone who should say one of these things to a layman be found to have fallen into all this condemnation, how much [more] if one venture to say anything against a Bishop or against a Deacon? Him by whose

means the Lord hath given you the Holy Ghost, and by whose means ye have leamt the Word and know God, and by whose means ye are known of God, and by whose means ye are sealed; and by whose means ye are become the sons of light; and by whose means the Lord in baptism, by the laying on of the Bishop’s band, gave witness about each of you, and caused His holy voice to be heard and said, “Thou art My son, this day have I begotten thee.” Therefore, O my son, love thy Bishops, those by whose hands thou art become a son of God, and knowest the right, cherish him who after God is thy father and thy mother;  for everyone who mocketh his father or his mother, let him die the death.

But honour ye the Bishops who are able to loose you from sins, those who have begotten you anew by means of water, those who have filled you with the Holy Ghost, those who have nourished you with the Word as with milk, those who have established you with the doctrine of life, those who have confirmed you by admonition, and made you partakers in the holy Eucharist of God, and made you sharers and heirs of God’s promise. Reverence these [men], and honour them (the Bishops) with all honour, for they have received authority from God of life and death, not that they may judge those who have sinned, and condemn them to death in everlasting fire, excommunicating and sending away those who are condemned, may this never happen! But that they may receive and give life to those who are converted and repent. Let these then be your Chiefs, and let them be considered by you as Kings, and by deeds give honour to them as Kings, for it is required of you that ye provide for them and for those that are with them.

For thus it is written in the first book of the Kingdoms, that Samuel  the prophet said unto the people by means of words of the Lord, to those that asked from him a King, and he said unto them, “This is the law of the King who shall reign over you; he will take your sons, and appoint them over his chariots, and make them runners before him; and will make is to himself captains over thousands, and captains over hundreds; they shall reap his harvest, and gather his vintage, and shall keep in order the instruments of his chariots. Your daughters he shall take to be weavers, and servants of his house. Your fields, and your vineyards, and your olive-yards, the best, he will take and give to his servants, and to eunuchs.  Your maidservants and menservants, and your oxen and your asses he shall take and tithe for the service of his work. He will take tithe of your sheep; and ye also shall be his servants.” According to this likeness also the Bishop rules. For if even a King who reigned over all a multitude of people, took from that people, as it is written in Hosea, that “The people of the children of Israel are many as the sand that is on the shore of the sea, which cannot be measured nor numbered,” and according to the number of that people were also the services that were required from it, thus now also the Bishop taketh to himself from the people, those whom he considereth and knoweth to be worthy of him and of his office, and maketh them Elders and counsellers, members of his session, Deacons and Sub-Deacons, all as he requireth according to the service of a house. What more can we say? for the King who wears the crown, reigns only over the body, and binds and looses only in this world, but the Bishop reigns over both soul and body, that he may loosen on the earth, and bind in Heaven, by heavenly power. For it is a great heavenly power, that of the Almighty, which is given to him. Nevertheless, love ye your Bishop as a father, reverence him as a King, and honour him as God. Present to him your fruits, and the work of your hands, that your firstfruits may be blessed. Give to him your tithes, and your vows, and your oblations; from them he will require to be nourished, and to provide also for those who are in want, to everyone as it is proper for him. Thus thy offering shall be acceptable to the Lord thy God, for a sweet savour in the height of Heaven, before the Lord thy God, and He will bless thee, and multiply to thee the good things of His promise. For it is written in Wisdom, that “Every simple soul shall be blessed” and that “Blessings shall be on the head of him who giveth.”

Because of this be Constant in work, and labour, and bring a gift; for the Lord hath lightened your burden, and loosened from you the chains of fetters, and lifted from you the heavy yoke; and made Deuteronomy pass away from you, according to the greatness of God’s mercy, as it is written in Isaiah, “Say to those who are in chains, Go out, and again, to bring out the prisoners from the prisons.” And in David He said that “He despiseth not His prisoners.” And again in the Gospel He said, “Come unto me, all ye that are weary and carry heavy burdens, and I will give you rest Take My yoke upon you, and learn of Me, for I am meek and humble of heart, and ye shall find rest unto your souls; for My yoke is easy, and My burden is light.” If, therefore, the Lord, in the gift of His goodness, hath loosed you and given you rest, and brought your souls to enlargement, that ye be not again bound by sacrifices and by sin-offerings, by purifìcations, by vows, and by gifts, by oblations, by burnt-offerings, by shewbread, and by observations of purifìcations, again, by tithes, and by firstfruits, and by heave offerings, and by gifts, all these things were of necessity appointed for them to give; ye then are not bound by these things, for it is required of you that ye know the  word of the Lord which said, that “Unless your righteousness exceed the righteousness of the scribes and Pharisees, ye shall not enter into the Kingdom of Heaven.” Thus, therefore, your righteousness is more excellent than the tithes, and firstfruits, and heave offerings of these people, when ye act as it is written, “Sell all that ye have, and give to the poor.” Therefore do thus, and keep the commandment by means of the Bishop and the Priest, and thy mediator who is with the Lord God, for He has commanded thee to give. Take care that thou provide for these things, and do not exact an account from the Bishop; do not watch him as to how he provides and fulfils his stewardship, or when he gives, or to whom or how, whether well or ill, or if he gives as is fitting, for it is the Lord God who is the exactor, who has committed this stewardship to his hands, and counted him worthy of the Priesthood of all this office. In order, therefore, that thou observe not nor require an account from the Bishop, nor speak evil things against him, resisting God, nor offend the Lord, Jet there be put before thine eyes what was said to thee in Jeremiah, “Shall the day say to the potter, Thou workest not, and  thou hast no hands;” as he that saith to his father and his mother, “Hast  thou brought me forth?” but labour with a single mind and work in the house of God. Be it always written and established in thy heart, and remember the saving voice of the renewal of the Law, as the Lord hath said, “Thou shalt love the Lord thy God with all thy heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy strength.” Your strength then is the property of the world. Do not love the Lord with the lips only, like that people to whom reproving Ile saith, “This people honoureth Me with its lips, but its heart is far  from Me.” But love thou the Lord and honour Him with all thy strength;  and bring thy gifts at all times, and keep not away from the Church. When thou receivest the Eucharist of the sacrifice, give whatever cometh to thy band, as thou partakest, to the strangers; for this is collected by the Bishop for the reception of all strangers. Therefore according as thou art able, put down, and keep thyself, because the Lord hath said in the Law, “Thou shalt not appear before Me empty.” Therefore do good works, lay up for thyself a treasure above in Heaven where moth doth not destroy, nor thieves steal. When thou doest thus, do not judge the Bishop, nor the layman, because to you laymen it is said, “Judge not, that ye be not judged.” For if thou judgest thy brother, and accusest him, thou considerest thy brother guilty, that is to say, thou accusest thyself; thou art then judged with the guilty; for the Bishop has the power to judge, as it is said to them, “Be accurate discerners.” It is,  therefore, required of the Bishop as a tester of silver that he should divide  the ecvil from the good; those that are completely evil he should reject and  throw out; but those who are hard and defective for any reason, like those who are not defective, he should leave them in the crucible. The layman then is not allowed to judge his neighbour, nor even to impose upon himself a burden which is not his; for the weight of this burden belongs not to the layman, but to the Bishop. Therefore thou, being a layman, do not lay snares for thyself, but leave judgment in the hands of those who will have to answer for it to the Lord. But as for thee, strive to make peace with all men, and love thy limbs the children of thy people, because the Lord hath said, “Love thy neighbour as thyself.”

Chapter X

Admonition about false brethren, and investigations about those that are accusers, or witnesses against any one, and the decree of punishment against those who are convicted of sin; and the consolation and reception into the Church, if they shew repentance; and injunction to the Bishops that they give the hand and bind up those who have sinned if they repent; that they should not judge with partiality, and be convicted before God; and that they should convict him who accuses falsely in punishing as was fit him who was accused.

If then there be false brethren, [who] on account of envy or the jealousy of enemies and of Satan, who works by them, bring a false accusation against one of the brethren, or even a true one, those shall know that everyone who investigates about these things, in order to accuse or blaspheme about any one, he is the son of anger, and where anger is, God is not; for anger is of Satan, who by means of these false brethren never allows peace to be in the Church. Therefore when ye know them, those that are so far wanting in sense, first of all believe them not, and secondly, Bishops and Deacons, beware of them, how ye say ought of the things that ye have heard from them to any of the brethren. Consider about him against whom they bring an accusation, investigate wisely, compare his actions, and if he be found to merit reproof, according to the doctrine of our Lord which He hath spoken in the Gospel, reprove him between thee and him; if he repent, and be converted, save him. And if he will not be convinced, reprove him before two or three, and fulfil that which was said, that at the mouth of two or three witnesses every word shall be established; for therefore, brethren, it is required for witness, that it stand upon the mouth of two or three witnesses, because the Father, and the Son, and the Holy Ghost testify about the works of men; for where there is admonition of doctrine, there is also discipline and conversion of those who have wandered. Therefore at the mouth of two or three witnesses every word shall be Ap. Con. established. And if he obey not, reprove him before all the Church; if he do not hear even the Church, let him be counted unto thee as a heathen and as a publican. Because the Lord hath said unto you, O Bishops, that henceforth ye receive not that man into the Church as Christians and be not partakers with him; for not even the heathen or the wicked publicans dost thou receive into the Church, nor make thyself partaker with them, unless they first repent, promising so that they may believe, and never henceforth again do evil deeds; for therefore our Lord and Saviour gave room for repentance to those who have sinned; for even Matthew, who am one of the twelve Apostles, who speak to you by this Didascalla, I was a publican of old, and because I believed, grace carne upon me, and I repented from my former works, and I was thought worthy to become an Apostle and a preacher of the Word of God. Again also John the Baptist, that he might seek, preached in the Gospel to publicans, not to cut off their hope, but taught them how they should act in future. When they asked him for a reply he said to them, “Do not exact more than what is commanded and appointed for you.” And also Zacchaeus in repentance the Lord received, making a request of him. We do not refuse salvation even to the heathen if they repent and renounce and remove from themselves their error. Therefore let him be accounted to you as a heathen and as a publican, he who is convicted of evil works and of falsehood; and afterwards if he promise to repent as the heathen, when they wish and promise to repent and say, “We believe,” we receive them into the congregation that they may bear the Word, but we do not communicate with them until they receive the seal and are confirmed.

Thus also we do not communicate with these until they shew the fruits of repentance; for they can certainly come in, if they wish to hear the Word, that they may not perish utterly, but in prayer they take no part, but go outside; because that even they, when they see that they do not take part in the Church, restrain themselves, and repent of their former deeds, and become eager to be received into the Church in prayer.

They also who see them and bear that they have gone out like publicans may fear, and take heed to themselves that they sin not, lest it happen thus to them also, and they go out of the Church, being reproved for sin or for falsehood. Do not utterly prevent them then from entering the Church, and hearing the discourse of the Bishop; for even our Lord  and Saviour did not completely reject and cast out the publicans and sinners, but even ate with them. Because of this also the Pharisees murmured against Him, saying, “He eateth and drinketh with publicans and sinners.” Then our Saviour answered and said against their thoughts and murmurings, “They that are whole have no need of a physician, but they that are sick.” Therefore have intercourse with those who have been reproved for their sins, and are in a bad state, and attach them to you, and take care of their [interests], and talk ye with them and console them, keep hold of them, and cause them to be converted; and afterwards when everyone of them has repented, and has shewn the fruits of repentance, thereafter receive him in prayer as [ye do] to the heathen. As therefore thou baptizest a heathen, and thereafter receivest him, so on that man also lay the hand, everyone praying for him; thereafter bring him in and let him partake with the Church. Let that laying on of the hand be to him instead of baptism; for if by the laying on of the hand and by baptism they receive the communication of the Holy Ghost… therefore as a sympathetic physician sharing in suffering, heal all those who have sinned, and distribute with all wisdom, offer healing for the help of their lives; and be not ready to cut off the members of the Church, but make use of the Word of remedies, also of admonitions of preparation and of the plasters of supplication; for if an ulcer goes deep, and diminishes his flesh, by means of curative medicines nourish it, and reduce it. If there be in it foulness, by a sharp medicine, that is to say by the word of reproof, purify it; and if more flesh should spring up, by a harsh medicine, that is to say, by the communication of judgment shave it off and reduce it. If there be in it gangrene, burn it with a cautery, that is to say, with the incision of a long fast, cut off the putridness of the ulcer. If the ulcer grow and get the better of the cauteries, decide about that which is corrupt, then after much consultation with other physicians cut off that member which is corrupt that it destroy not all the body. Be not ready to amputate speedily, and do not rush in a hurry and run to the saw of many teeth, but first use scalpels, and cut the ulcer, that the cause of the evil which is hidden inside it may be seen openly and be known, that the whole body may be kept from being affected. But if thou see a person who does not wish to repent, but has completely cut off hope of himself, then with grief and sorrow cut him off and cast him out of the Church. For if thou findest that that accusation of calumny is false, and ye pastors with the Deacons have received the falsehood as truth, because of the accepting of persons, or because of offerings which ye have received; and ye change judgments, because ye wish to do the will of the Evil one, and him who is accused, being guiltless of this accusation, ye put out and cast him from the Church, ye will give an account in the day of  the Lord; for it is written, “Thou shalt not respect persons in judgment,” and again the Scripture hath said, that a “Bribe blindeth the eyes of seers, and perverteth righteous words.” And again it hath said, “Deliver the oppressed, judge the  Orphans, justify the Widows;” and judge righteous judgment in the gates. Take heed then that ye be not respecters of persons and be condemned by the word of the Lord, who hath spoken thus, “Woe unto those that make bitter sweet, and sweet bitter; and call light darkness, and darkness what is bright, and justify the wicked for his reward, and pass over the righteousness of the righteous.” But be watchful, that ye condemn not any one iniquitously, and help the wicked, because that in condemning others ye are condemning yourselves; as the Lord hath said, that “With what judgment ye judge ye shall be judged, and as ye condemn, ye shall be condemned.” Therefore remember, and apply to yourselves this word, “Forgive, and it shall be forgiven you; condemn not, and ye shall not be condemned.” If then, your judgment, O Bishops, be without respect of persons, look at him who is the accuser of his brother, if he be a false brother, if for the sake of envy or jealousy or calumny he have brought disturbance on the Church of God, and he should kill him who is calumniated by him, being put out  of the Church and delivered to the destruction of fire; thou therefore judge him severely, because he has brought an evil thing against his brother, as it were from his own imagination; if he had not found that it goes before to his hearing; he would have killed his brother in the fire; for it is written, that “Everyone who sheddeth man’s blood, his blood shall be shed  for the blood which he hath shed.” When that one then is found out to be thus, put him out of the Church with a great reprimand as a murderer; and after a time, if he promise to repent, admonish him, and lay a hard discipline upon him; and thereafter put on [your] band and receive him into the Church; and take heed and observe him that is such, lest again it happen against someone else. And if ye see him after he has entered the Church, that again he quarrels and wishes to accuse others also, and chatters and fabricates, and casts blame upon many falsely: put him out, that he may never again disturb and trouble the Church; for he that is such, even if he be within, because he is not suitable to the Church, is of no advantage to her. For we see that there are men who are born with superfluous things in their bodies, let us say fingers or any other superfluous flesh; those people then that have such things according to the flesh, it is a disgrace and a shame to them, both to the flesh and to the man, because he has too much of them. When they are taken away by a practitioner, that man receives beauty and loveliness of flesh, and nothing is wanting to it, on account of that superfluity that has been taken away from him, but he is even the more seen in his beauty for it In like manner therefore, ye also, O pastors, conduct yourselves; because the Church is a body, the members being we who believe in God, and are in love in the fear of the Lord according to the commandment of the tradition which we have received. Therefore he that devises evil things against the Church, and troubles its members, and loves the blames and accusations of enemies, that is to say, turmoils and contentions and calumnies and murmurings and quarrels and questions and incrimination and afflictions and accusations; he that loves these things and makes them, and moreover the Enemy is working in him, and he remains in the Church, is a stranger to the Church, and of the household of the Enemy, for it is him whom he serves, who works in him, and he offends and afflicts the Church; that one then if he remains within, is a disgrace to the Church because of his blasphemies (S. and his  great agitation, and there is danger lest he destroy the Church of God). To that one therefore do as it is written in Wisdom, “Cast out the evil man from the congregation, and his contention shall go out with him;” on account of litigation and reproach, that he sit not in the congregation and disgrace them all. For that one, when he goes out for the second time from the Church, is justly cut off, and the Church is the more beautified, for there is peace in it for it was wanting to her, because from that hour the Church will be free from blasphemy and trouble). But if your mind be not pure, either on account of respect of persons, or on account of gifts of filthy lucre which ye have received, and ye put out of the Church those who walk correctly, and ye increase many evil, quarrelsome persons, and profligate rulers amongst you, ye bring blasphemy against the assembly of the Church, and ye bring danger of death upon yourselves, that ye be deprived of eternal life, because ye have pleased man, and turned from the truth of God, for the sake of respecting persons, and for the sake of accepting vain gifts; and ye have scattered the Catholic Church, daughter and beloved of the Lord God.

Chapter XI

Again, exhortation to Bishops and Deacons, that they judge justly,  and that they be with one another in concord and love; that they do not receive testimony from the heathen against a believer, and that a Christian be not vexed and contend with his neighbour, If it happen that they have a lawsuit, let them not say their say before the heathen, but before the Church, and let them be pacified, even if one of them lose something according to the flesh; and let him that is hard and obstinate about peace be kept from the Church until he repent; when the two persons approach, let those judges who judge without respect of persons, with much caution, on Monday, investigating the conduct of him who brings the accusation, and his conscience, and the reason of his law-suit and contention. And him that is abused in like manner, Let them punish justly him that is found guilty. Again, about those who are angry, that it is right they should forgive each other’s faults, if it be that we seek forgiveness from God.

Strive therefore, O Bishops, with the Deacons, that ye be righteous before the Lord, because the Lord hath said, “If ye be righteous with Me, I also will be righteous with you; and if ye walk with Me forwardly, also will walk forwardly, saith the Lord of Hosts.” Be ye therefore  righteous, that ye may be worthy to receive praise from the Lord; therefore both the Bishops and the Deacons be of one mind, and let them feed the people carefully in one opinion. For it is required of you twain that ye be one flesh, father and son, for ye are in the likeness of the Divinity. Let the Deacon make known everything to the Bishop, as the Christ doth to His Father; let the Deacon settle some of them himself that he can; the rest of the other things the Bishop must judge; but nevertheless let the Deacon be the ear of the Bishop, and his mouth and his heart, and even his soul; for when ye twain are of one mind and in one consent there is peace in the Church. This praise then becomes the Christian, that he have not an evil word with any one.”

But if some temptation should happen to someone from the operation of the Enemy, and he have a lawsuit, let him strive to be delivered from it, even if he lose somewhat by it Only let him not go to the judgment of the heathen, and do not ye receive the testimony of the heathen about any of our people, for by means of the heathen the Enemy plots against the servants of God. Because the heathen are destined to stand on the left, he calls them the left, for our Lord hath said to us thus, “Let not thy left hand know what thy right hand doeth.” Let not then the heathen know anything about your lawsuits, and receive not testimony against yourselves from them. Be not judged before them, as also it is said in the Gospels, “Give to Caesar that which is Caesar’s, and to God that which is God’s.” Be therefore willing to lose, and more zealous to make peace though losing somewhat in worldly matters for the sake of peace; before God it will be thy gain, because thou fearest God, and doest according to the commandment But if there be brethren who have an unavoidable quarrel with one another, which God forbid! It is required of you that ye immediately make peace, that ye rulers may know that those who venture to act thus perform no act of brotherhood in the Lord. If then one of them be of the children of God, humble and much oppressed, that one is a son of light; but he who is hard and bold and injurious and a blasphemer, he is a hypocrite (and the Enemy is working through him). Reprove him therefore, and a reprimand him, disgrace him and put him out of the Church as a rebel, and afterwards receive him that he may not perish utterly. When ye punish and rebuke those that are such, ye will not have many lawsuits.

For if they do not know the word which was spoken by our Lord in the Gospel, about how many times, if my brother offend me, shall I forgive him? And they are angry with one another (and become enemies), teach them, and make peace between them, as it is said, “Blessed are the peacemakers.” Know that it is required of the Bishop with the Elders that he judge cautiously, as our Saviour said, when they asked Him about how often, if my brother offend me, shall I forgive him? Until seven times? But our Lord said, Not until seven times, but until seventy times seven. For thus the Lord desireth, that those who are His own in truth, should never have aught against any, and should not be angry with any one. But if there happen anything, by the operation of the Enemy, let them be judged before you; let it be on Monday, lest it happen that someone rise up against the word of your judgments; that there be opportunity for you until the Sabbath, that ye may arrange the matter, and make peace, and pacify them on the Sunday. Let the Bishops then be Constant in all judgments with the Elders and Deacons, and judge ye without respect of persons; the two individuals therefore coming and standing together in judgment, as the Scripture hath said, “Those who have any controversy or litigation with one another,” and when ye have heard them righteously, give an answer of judgment. Strive to keep them in love, before the judgment come out against them, (S. lest against one of them being a brother there come among you a condemnation of earthly judgment, but judge thus, even as ye shall certainly be judged), so that in the judgment ye may have the Christ as Associate, Counsellor, Assessor and Overseer of the Court.

If there are people against whom an accusation is brought that they do not walk well in the way of the Lord, having heard the two individuals, investigate carefully, like people who decree judgment concerning eternal life, or for a harsh and bitter death; and if someone be reproved and go out of the Church, he is cast out from life and from everlasting glory, he is rejected by men, and found guilty before God. Therefore judge according to the gravity of that conviction with much clemency), and incline a little, that ye may save, without respect of persons, (rather than cause to perish, when ye have condemned those who are judged). But if there be a man who is innocent, and is condemned by judges from respect of persons, it will not hurt him before God but will rather advantage him the more on account of the short time that he hath been unjustly judged by men. (Afterwards in the day of judgment, because he was unjustly condemned, he will be the judge of the unjust judges, for ye have been mediators of unjust judgments.) Therefore thus shall ye receive retribution from God, and ye shall be cast out of the Catholic Church of God, and that shall be accomplished against you that by the judgment that ye have judged ye shall be judged. Therefore when  ye sit to judge, Iet the two individuals come and stand together; we do not call them brethren until there be peace betwixt them; and investigate carefully with diligence between them about those things concerning which they have a lawsuit and contention with one another. Learn first about him who accuses if there be any accusation against him, or if he have brought actions also against others, and again [if] the accusation proceed from some former enmity, or from contention or envy, and what his conduct is, and if he be humble and without anger; if he love Widows, and the poor, and strangers, and doth not love filthy lucre; if he be quiet and philanthropic, a lover of all men; if he be merciful, and stretch out his band to give; not a glutton and not greedy; not avaricious and not a drunkard; for a perverse heart that deviseth evil  things disturbeth cities (at all times), even if he have not done the evil things that are in the world (adultery, and fornication, and other such things). If then he who accuses be free from all these things, (from of old it is known and manifest that he is a believer and his accusation  truthful; but if it be known that he is perverse and quarrelsome, and that his deeds are unrighteous, it is evident that he hath brought false witness against your brother. When, therefore, it is found and known that he is unjust; reprove him and put him out for a time; until he repent and be converted and weep; test again he blaspheme against any other person among the brethren who conducts himself well; or lest another who is like him, sitting in your assembly and seeing that he is not reproved, venture also and do likewise to one of the brethren, and perish from before God; but if he who has sinned be reproved and punished, and go out for a time, he also who is ready to be like him and to act like him, when he sees him put out, may also fear, lest it happen to him in like manner; and he will submit, and live before God, and not be ashamed at all before man.

Also in regard to him who is accused, take counsel likewise, and consider amongst yourselves, and observe his habits and deeds in the world, whether ye have heard many accusations against him, or whether many wicked things are done by him; if it be found that many evil deeds are wrought by him, it appears as if also this accusation that they bring against him were true.

It may also happen, that some sin has formerly been committed by him, but that he is innocent from the present accusation. Therefore investigate carefully about these things; that with great caution and with truth you pronounce sentence of judgment Against him that is found guilty judge righteously, and pronounce judgment against him; but he amongst them who doth not stand by your judgment, let him be reproved, and let him go out of the assembly, until he repent, and implore the Bishop or the Church, and confess that he has sinned and that he repents; and thus there will be a help to many, lest even, when another person sees him sitting in the Church neither rebuked nor punished, he also venture to do like him, thinking that he will live before men, but before God he will perish. But if ye hear one person alone, the other not standing, nor defending himself on account of the action which they bring against him, but ye pronounce judgment hastily without consultation or investigation, and condemn according to false words which ye believe, he not having stood nor made any defence on his own behalf and ye have condemned him, ye have become partakers before God with him that hath brought the false witness, and ye shall be punished with him before God; for the Lord hath said in the Proverbs, that “He who stirs up strife that is not his is like him that taketh hold of  the tail of a dog.” In another place He hath said, “Judge righteous judgment;” and again He hath said, “Judge the  Orphans, and justify the Widows,” and again He saith, “Let the oppressed go free, and loose every unjust bond.” But if it be that ye resemble those Elders that were in Babylon, who brought false witness against Susan, and condemned her unjustly to death, ye also will be partakers in their judgment and condemnation. For the Lord saved Susan by means of Daniel from the band of the unjust; but these Elders who were guilty of her blood He condemned to the fire. Then let those who are of the Sanctuary be far removed from the things of the world. Nevertheless we say that ye [must] see, brethren, when murderers are brought before Authority, that the judges question carefully those that have brought them, and learn from them what they have done, and then again they say to that doer of evil things, if these things are so, and he confess and say yea, they send him not at once to die, but again they interrogate him for many days, and draw the curtains, and consider and consult much together, and then at last pass sentence of death upon him, and lift up their hands to Heaven, and call to witness that we are clear from men’s blood; for they do these things being yet heathen, and knowing not God nor that they shall receive retribution from God on account of those whom they judge and condemn unjustly. But ye, knowing who our God is, and what are His judgments, do ye dare to pronounce sentence on one who is not guilty?

We therefore counsel you to investigate carefully with much caution, because that the sentence of judgment which ye pronounce goeth up to God at once; and if ye have judged justly, ye will receive the reward of justice from God, both now and in that [world] which is to come; and if ye have judged unjustly, thus also shall ye receive retribution from God. Strive therefore, brethren, that ye be found worthy to receive praise from God, and not blame, because praise from God is everlasting life to men, but blame from God is everlasting death to men.)

Be careful therefore, O Bishops, that ye be not hasty in sitting down in judgment hurriedly, lest ye oppress and condemn any one; but before they come and stand in judgment, bring them together, and make peace between them; and admonish them that have the lawsuit and strife with one another; and teach them first that no one ought to be angry; for the Lord hath said, that “Every one who is angry with his brother, without  cause, is condemned in the judgment;” and again, that if it happen that there is anger by the work of the Enemy, it is required of you immediately in that day that ye be reconciled and pacified, and that ye be at peace with one another; for it is written, “Let not the sun go down upon  wrath against thy brother.” David also said, “Be ye angry, and sin not” This is, that ye be quickly reconciled, lest anger remaining, there be a grudge with it, and it should bear sin, for it is said in the Proverbs, “The soul that keepeth a grudge shall die.” Again, also our Saviour said, “If thou bring thy gift to the altar, and there rememberest that thy brother keepeth anger against thee; leave thy gift before the altar, and go, first be m reconciled to thy brother, and then come, offer thy gift.” But the gift of God is our prayer and our Eucharist. If it be then that thou hast some grudge against thy brother, or he against thee, thy prayer is not heard, nor thy Eucharist accepted, but thou art found void of prayer and of the Eucharist, because of the anger that thou keepest. Prayer ought to be made diligently at every season. But those who are in anger and malice with their brethren, God heareth them not. If then thou prayest three times an hour, thou hast no advantage, for thou art not heard because of the enmity towards thy brother. Therefore, if thou carest, and strivest to be a Christian, acquiesce in the word of the Lord which He spake: “Loose all the bonds of wickedness, cut the bonds of the yoke of avarice; for our Saviour hath given thee this authority, to forgive thy brother who hath wronged thee, until seventy times over seven, seven, that is 49 times. How many times therefore hast thou forgiven thy brother, that thou dost not wish again to forgive him, but keepest a grudge and cherishest enmity, and desirest to go to law; thy prayer therefore is hindered, even if thou fulfil the 490 times which thou hast forgiven him, increase also for thine own sake, and in thy goodness without anger forgive thy brother. If thou doest it not for thy brother’s sake, consider, and do it for thine own sake: forgive thy neighbour, that thou mayest be heard when thou prayest, and mayest bring an acceptable offering to the Lord. Because of this therefore, O ye Bishops, that your gifts and prayers may be received, when ye stand in the Church to pray, let the Deacon say with a loud voice,

Is there anyone who is keeping any grudge against his fellow?

If there be found any people who have a lawsuit and strife with one another, persuade and make peace betwixt them; in the house as they go in and say, Peace be to this house; they are also evangelists of peace who bring peace. If therefore thou preachest peace to others, it is required yet more of thee, that thou be at peace with thy brethren, as a son of light and of peace. Be to everyone light and peace; and do not contend with any one, but be at rest and at peace with everyone, and be a helper with God (so that the number of the saved may be increased), for this is the will of the Lord God. They who love to be in enmity and quarrels, those are the enemies of God, because that the Lord from the beginning from generation to generation, by means of prophets and righteous men, calleth to repentance and to life. And we too, the Apostles, who have been found worthy to be witnesses of His revelation in (and preachers of) the knowledge of the Divine Word, we have heard from the mouth of the Lord Jesus the Christ, we know truly and say, what is His will and the will of His Father, that should perish, but that all men should believe and live; for this is what He taught us, that we should say when we pray, “Thy will be done on earth as it is in Heaven,” that as the Angels of Heaven and all the Powers praise God, thus also upon the earth should men praise God. It is His will therefore to save all men, and this is His delight, that there should be many who are saved. But he who is contentious, and is an enemy to his neighbour, diminishes the people of God (for he sends out him whom he accuses from the Church and diminishes it) and deprives God of the soul of a man which would have been saved, or by means of his contentiousness expels and casts himself out from the Church, and thus again he sins against God, for God our Saviour hath said thus, “Everyone that is not with Me is  against Me, and everyone that gathereth not with Me scattereth abroad.”

Thou art not therefore a helper with God, to gather the people, because thou art a disturber, and a scatterer of the flock, and an adversary of God. Be not therefore constantly prone to quarrel, either by fights or by calumnies, or by enmity or by lawsuits, that thou scatter not people from the Church, because that we, by the power of the Lord God, have collected from all peoples, and from all tongues, and have brought [them] to the Church by much labour and toil, and by daily danger, that we may do the will of God, and fill the chamber with guests, that is to say, the Catholic Church, that they should be glad and rejoice and confess and praise God, Him who has called them to salvation, and ye therefore, O ye laity! be at peace with one another, and likewise doves, strive to fill the Church, and those who are without convert and reconcile and cause to enter her (the Church). This is a great reward which is promised by God, if ye save them from the fire and bring them into  the Church, confirmed and believing.

Chapter XII

Commands Bishops to be quiet and humble, far removed from all harshness and anger, and teaches them about the Order of the House of God, and how the places in it should be distributed for standing and or sitting, to every rank as befits it. And if there come a man from another Church, let him have honour as befits him; let him be honoured with the place that suits him, and let not the Christ, who loveth strangers, be despised in him.

Ye then, O Bishops, be not harsh nor tyrannical nor irascible; and be not wroth with the people of God whom He has given into your hands; do not destroy the House of God nor scatter His people; but convert all men, that ye may be helpers with God. Assemble the believers with much humility and long suffering, and with patience without anger; by doctrine and entreaty, as servants of the everlasting Kingdom; in your assemblies, in the holy Churches, after all good patterns form your gatherings, and arrange the places for the brethren carefully with all sobriety. Let a place be reserved for the Elders in the midst of the eastern part of the House, and let the throne of the Bishop be placed amongst them; let the Elders sit with him; but also at the other eastern side of the house let the laymen sit; for thus it is required that the Elders should sit at the eastern side of the house with the Bishops, and afterwards the laymen, and next the women: that when ye stand to pray the rulers may stand first, afterwards the laymen, and then the women also, for towards the East it is required that ye should pray, as ye know that it is written, “Give praise to God, who rideth on the heavens of heavens towards the East.” As for the Deacons, let one of them stand constantly over the gifts of thankfulness (the Eucharist), and let another stand outside the door and look at those who come in; and afterwards when ye make offerings, let them serve together in the Church. And if a man be found sitting out of his place, let the Deacon who is within reprove him, and make him get up and sit in the place that befits him, for our Lord compared the Church to a fold. For as we see the irrational beasts, we mean oxen, sheep, and goats, lying down in herds, rising and feeding and mating, and none of them is separate from its race; and also the beasts of the deserts go in the mountains along with those who are like them. Thus therefore it ought to be also in the Church, that those who are children should sit by themselves, if there be room; if not, let them stand upon their feet. And let those who are advanced in years sit by themselves. But let the children stay at one side, or let their fathers and mothers keep them beside them and let them stand on their feet.

Again, also let those who are girls sit apart, or if there be not room let them stand on their feet behind the women. Let those who are married and young and have children stay by themselves, but the old women and Widows sit by themselves, the Deacon seeing as everyone enters that he goes to his place, lest anyone sit in a place that is not his. Let the Deacon also notice lest anyone whisper, or sleep or laugh or make signs; for thus it is required that [people] be attentive in the Church, with watchfulness and good manners, and with their ears open to the word of the Lord. If there comes a person from another assembly, a brother or a sister, let the Deacon ask and learn if she be the wife of a man, or again if she be a believing Widow, if she be a daughter of the Church, or if it be one of the heresies, and then let him lead her and put her in the place that befits her. If an Elder come from another assembly, ye Elders receive him to a share in your place, and if he be a Bishop let him sit with the Bishop, and let him give him the honour of his place like himself;  and let the Bishop say to him that he preach to his people; for entreaty and admonition of strangers is of great help, especially because it is written, that “No prophet is acceptable in his country.”

When ye are offering the Eucharist, let him speak. If he be wise, and give thee honour and do not wish to officiate, yet over the cup let him speak. If while ye are sitting, there come another person, either man or woman who has honour in the world, either from the place or from another assembly, thou then, O Bishop, who speakest the word of the Lord, or hearest, or readest, do not shew respect to persons and leave off the service of thy word to appoint them a place, but remain thou quietly as thou art; do not interrupt thy word, but let the brethren receive them. If there be no room, let that one of the brethren who is full of love, and loves his brethren and would do honour, rise and give them place. Let him stand on his feet. If while the boys or the girls are sitting, he or she that is eldest rise and give up his [or her] place, look thou, O Deacon, at those who are sitting, for him who is younger than his comrades or her who is younger; make them rise, and seat the one who rose and gave up his place. Lead the one whom thou hast made to rise and put him behind his comrades, that others also may be educated and learn to give place to those who are more honourable than they. If a poor man or a poor woman come, either belonging to thine own assembly, or from another assembly, and especially if they are advanced in years, and there be no room for such, appoint a place for them with all thy heart, O Bishop, even if thou hast to sit on the floor, and be not thou like a respecter of persons, but let thy service be acceptable to God.

Chapter XIII

That no Christian should neglect the assembly of the Church at the time of prayer, or of the Eucharist; not for the sake of the work of the hands, or any other work of the world; he should not go to a theatrical spectacle to hear heathen words, dissuading his sons away from the learning of the words of the Scriptures of life; nor to the foreign assemblies of heretics. Let those who are children in the Church fear and serve in it without laziness. Let no Christian love idleness from the work of luimiicraft, which is alien to the Church.

When thou teachest, command and remind the people, that they be Constant in the assembly of the Church; so that ye be not hindered, but that they be constantly assembled, that no one diminish the Church by not assembling, and make smaller by a member the body of Christ For it is not about others alone that a man should think, but also about himself, hearing what our Lord hath said, that “He who gathereth not with Me scattereth abroad.” As, therefore, ye are members of the Christ, scatter not yourselves from the Church by not assembling yourselves, for ye have a head, that is the Christ, as He counsels and promises, that ye are partakers with us.

Therefore do not despise yourselves, and do not deprive our Saviour of His members; do not mangle and scatter His body, do not have more respect to the affairs of the world than to the word of God, but leave everything on the Lord’s day and run eagerly towards your Church, for this is your glory.

If not, what excuse will ye have before God, for those who have not assembled on the Lord’s day, to hear the Word of Life, and to be nourished  with the divine food which endureth forever? For ye strive to get the things that are for a time, for a day or an hour, but ye neglect those that are eternal; ye go on providing for bathing, for eating, for drinking, for the belly, and for other things to be nourished; but for eternal things ye do not care; ye despise your souls and do not hasten to the Church, that ye may hear and receive the Word of God. In comparison with those who err, what apology have ye? For, because the heathen, when they rise from their sleep every day, go in the morning to worship and serve their idols, before all their works and labours they go first and worship their idols, and also they do not neglect their feasts and pilgrimages, but assemble constantly, not only the natives, but also those who come from afar. They also assemble for the spectacle of their own theatre, and all of them come. Thus also those who vainly are called Jews, are idle one day for six, and assemble in their synagogue. They do not neglect their holidays, they who have deprived themselves of the strength of the Word, because they believe not, nor even of the name by which they have called themselves, Jews. Jew is interpreted as confession, but they are not confessors, for they do not confess to the murder of the Christ, which they have committed in transgressing the Law, that they may repent and live. If, therefore, those who are not saved strive always for the things in which there is no profit nor help to them, what excuse has he before the Lord God? He who restrains himself from the assembly of the Church, and does not even imitate the Gentiles; and because he does not assemble, neglects himself and goes afar, and does iniquities; those to whom the Lord spake by means of Jeremiah, “My laws ye have not kept; but ye have not even walked according to the laws of the Gentiles, and ye have almost excelled them in wickedness. Have the nations changed their gods, which yet are no gods? But My people hath changed its glory for that which doth not profit.” How then can he who is neglectful make excuse, he who is not zealous in the assembling of the Church of God? If a man gets an excuse on account of secular work and is prevented, let him know that the handicrafts of believers are called works of superfluity; for the sure work is the fear of God.

Do your handicrafts, therefore, as a work of superfluity for your nourishment, but let your real work be the worship of God. Strive, therefore, never to be hindered from the assembling of the Church. But if a man forsake the assembling of the Church of God, and go to the assembly of the Gentiles, what shall he say, and what excuse will he make to God in the day of judgment? who has left the Holy Church, and the words of the living God which live and give life, and can redeem and save from the fire and give life? And hath gone to the assembly of the heathen, because he desired the spectacle of the theatre? Therefore he will be considered as one of those who enter there because he desired to hear and receive the fables of their words, which are those of dead men, and of the spirit of Satan; for they are dead and cause death, they cause people to tum from the faith, and bring near to everlasting fire. Yet ye care for the world, and occupy yourselves with domestic concerns, and ye disdain to hasten to the Catholic Church, the beloved daughter of the Lord God Most High, that ye may receive the doctrine of God which remaineth forever and is able to give life to those who receive the Word of Life. Be, therefore, Constant in assembling with the believers who are saved in your mother the Church, her who liveth and giveth life to her children. Be watchful not to assemble yourselves as those who perish in the theatre, which is an assembly of the heathen of error and of perdition; for he who enters into the assembly of the Gentiles shall be counted as one of them, and shall receive woe; for the Lord saith by means of Isaiah the Prophet to those who are such, “Woe, woe, to [those who] come from the spectacle,” and again He saith, “Women who come from the spectacle, because this is a people who have no understanding.” Therefore He calls the Church women, those whom He has called, and brought out, and drawn from the spectacle of the theatre, and He holds and receives them, and He has taught us not to go there anymore; for He saith in Jeremiah, “Lean not the way of the nations,” and again in the Gospel He hath said, “Go not in the way of the Gentiles.” Here, therefore. He teaches and warns, that we remove completely from all heresies, which are the cities of the Samaritans, and that we should not enter into strange synagogues, and, from their pilgrimages which are on behalf of idols. Let a believer not approach their pilgrimage, excepting to buy provision for his body and his life. Remove yourselves far from all vain spectacles of idols, and from their feasts and pilgrimages. Let then those who are children in the Church serve diligently without laziness, in all things that are required, with much modesty and chastity. AH ye believers, therefore, at all times always when ye are not in the Church be Constant at your labours; and in all the course of your life either be Constant in exhortation, or labour at your work and never be idle, because the Lord hath said, “Be like the ant, O sluggard; emulate its ways, and learn from it; for it has no office, and no one  to impel it, nor is it under authority. It gathers its food in the summer, and collects much food in the harvest” And again He saith, “Go to the bee, and learn how she works, that she doeth her work with wisdom, and from her work she offereth food to the rich and to the poor. She is beloved and honoured, and yet she hath little strength. She honoureth wisdom and she is illustrious. Until when wilt thou sleep, O sluggard, and when wilt thou arise from thy slumber? Thou wilt sleep a little and slumber a little, and sit a little, and put thy hands upon thy breast. Poverty shall come upon thee as one who runs, and want as a skilful man. If then (S. thou art) without laziness, thy revenues shall increase and overflow like a fountain, and poverty be removed from thee.” Work, therefore, at all times, for idleness is a blot for which there is no cure. “If any man among you .work not, neither let him eat,” for the Lord even hateth sluggards, for a sluggard cannot be a believer.

Chapter XIV

About Widows, and about the time of their ardor in the Church, Eiicomiuni on her who keeps the statute of her Widowhood before God, and condemnation of her who tramples on her statute, Exhortation to the Bishop about the Widows and the Poor and the Needy

Let Widows then be appointed; she who is not less than fifty years of age and over, in order that by reason of her years she may be removed from the thought of having another husband. If you appoint one who is a girl to the place of a Widow, and she doth not support her Widowhood because of her youth, she will take a husband, and bring disgrace upon the glory of Widowhood. She will give account to God, first for having had two husbands, and next for having promised to God to be a Widow; she has received as a Widow and did not remain in Widowhood. If there be the Widow of a young man who was for a short time with her husband, and he died, or for any other reason which she receives and there be no separation, and she remain alone by herself, being in the honour of Widowhood, she will be blessed by God, because she has resembled that Widow who was in Zareptah of Sidon, with whom the holy messenger, the Prophet of God, found rest, or she will be as Anna, who celebrated the coming of the Christ, and there was a testimony to her, and for her goodness she receives honour from man on the earth, and inherits glory Heaven. Let not then young Widows be  to the office of Widows, but let them be taken care of and trained, lest by reason of their indigence they seek to take a husband a second time, and this act be an undisciplined one; for ye know that she who has had one husband has had him lawfully, and beyond this it is fornication. Therefore take by the hand those who are young, that they may remain in chastity to God. Take care of them, therefore, O Bishop, and remember also the poor; hold them by the hand, and provide for them, even if none of them be Widowers or Widows, and they need help on account of poverty, or of sickness, or are straitened on account of the education of their children. It is required of thee that thou care for all men, and pay attention to all men. Therefore those who bring gifts are not to give to the Widows with their own hands, but are to offer to thee on their behalf, as thou art well acquainted with those who are straitened, that thou mayest distribute to them like a good steward (S.  from what is given to thee); for God knoweth him that giveth, even when he is not present;

and when thou distributest to them the name of the giver, that they may pray for him by his name. For in all the Scriptures the Lord commandeth about the poor, even that they be partakers; and He even adds in Isaiah, and saith thus, “Break thy bread to the hungry, and bring the poor man that hath no shelter into thy house; when thou seest the naked clothe him, and tum not away from thine own flesh.” Therefore by every means care for the poor.

Chapter XV

How it befits Widows to conduct themselves in tranquillity and chastity, and it is not fitting that women should teach, not even those who are the Widows of the Church, nor the laity, About the dissimulation of false Widows, On the manners of chaste Widows. That it is necessary for Widows to be obedient to the Bishop and Deacons, and not to do anything without permission, and that those are guilty who act thus, or pray with those who are separated, That it is not permitted to a woman to baptize, Again, of the jealonsies of false Widows amongst themselves. Reproof of those who curse by their jealonsies.

It is required, therefore, of everyone who is a Widow that she be humble, peaceful and quiet; and also that she be not wicked nor angry, nor a great talker, nor lift up her voice when she speaks, and that she have not a long tongue, nor love quarrels; and that when she sees or hears anything that is hateful, she be as though she saw and heard it not. Let the Widow care for nothing else, but to pray for those who give, and for the whole Church. When she is asked for an explanation by any one, let her not give an answer in haste, unless it be about righteousness alone, and about the faith of God, and let her send those who wish to be instructed to the authorities. To those who ask them, let them return an answer only.

[S. It is not fitting for a Widow to teach, nor for a layman either.]

But about the destruction of idols, and about there being only one God, about punishment and about rest, and about the Kingdom of the name of the Christ, and about His providence, it is not incumbent on the Widow nor on the layman to talk; for if they talk without the knowledge of doctrine, they bring blasphemy against the Word; for our Lord compared the word of His Gospel to a grain of mustard; for mustard, if it be not prepared with art, is bitter and sharp to those who use it. Therefore the Lord said in the  Gospel to Widows and to all the laity, “Do not throw your pearls before swine, lest they trample them with their feet, and turn again and rend you;” for when the heathen who are instructed, hear the Word of God that it is not spoken in an orderly manner as it ought to be, for edification to eternal life, especially because it is declared to them by a woman, about how our Lord became incarnate, and about the Passion of the Christ, they mock and joke, instead of praising as is right the word of the doctrine, and she will incur a great condemnation for the sin. Therefore it is not required nor necessary that women should be teachers, especially about the name of the Christ, and about salvation by His Passion, for women were not appointed to teach, especially not a Widow, but that they should make prayer. and supplication to the Lord God. For even Jesus the Christ, our Teacher, sent us the Twelve to make disciples of the people and the nations. There were with us female disciples, Mary Magdalene, and another Mary (S. and Mary the daughter of James), and He did not send [them] to make disciples with us of the people. For if it were required that women should teach, our Teacher would have commanded them to make disciples with us. But let the Widow know that she is the Altar of God, and let her constantly sit in her house; let her not wander and gad about among the houses of believers in order to receive; for the Altar of God doth not wander and gad about anywhere, but remaineth in one place. It is, therefore, not fitting that a Widow should wander and gad about amongst houses; for those who are wanderers are without modesty, and do not even frequent their own houses and sit in them, because they are not Widows, but blind persons, and they care for nothing else, but to be ready to receive, because they are talkative, and murmurers, insolent and inciters of quarrels, and they have no shame, for those that are such are unworthy of Him who has called them, for not even in the communion of the assembly of rest on Sunday, when they come, are they attentive who are such, the woman or the man, they either sleep soundly, or talk about something else; so that by their means others also are taken captive by Satan the enemy, and he does not allow them to be attentive to the Lord. Therefore those that are such, when they enter the Church empty, go out of the Church yet more empty, because they hear nothing that is spoken or read that they should receive it with the ears of their hearts. Those that are such are like those about whom Isaiah spoke, “Hear ye indeed, but understand not, and see ye is indeed, but perceive not; for the heart of this people is made fat, and with their ears they hear heavily; their eyes have they closed that they may ncver see with their eyes, nor hear with their ears.” In this same manner are closed the ears of the hearts of such Widows, so that they sit not beneath the shelter of their houses in order to pray and entreat the Lord, but they hasten to run so as [to gain] some advantage, and by their talking they accomplish the lusts of the Enemy. Such a Widow then is not fitted for the Altar of the Christ; for it is written in the Gospel, “That if two agree and ask about all that they wish to be, it shall be given to you; and if they say to a mountain, that it be removed and fall into the sea, yes, it shall be thus.” We see, therefore, that there are Widows, by whom this thing is considered a merchandise, and they receive with avidity, and instead of doing good works and giving to the Bishop as for the reception of strangers, and for the relief of the oppressed, they lend for bitter usury, they care for nothing but Mammon, those whose gods are their purses, and their glory is their bellies; for where their treasure is, there is also their heart. For she who is assiduous to gad about in order to receive does not devise good things, but only worships Mammon, and serves filthy lucre; and she cannot please God, nor attend to His service, by being Constant in prayer and supplication, for her soul is much held captive by diligence in avarice. When she stands up to pray, she recollects where she should go to receive something, or that she has forgotten again to say some word to her friends. While she is standing in prayer her mind is not upon the prayer, but upon the idea that has come up in her soul. The prayer of such an one will not be heard, but is quickly cut short because of the agitation of her mind, because she has not offered prayer to God with her whole heart, but she goes into the thought wrought by Satan, and she speaks with her friends about something in which there is no advantage, because she does not know how she has believed, or of what place she is deemed worthy. But the Widow who wishes to please God sits within her house, and meditates in the Lord by day and by night, without ceasing, at all times offering prayer and supplication, praying purely before the Lord, and receiving whatsoever she asketh, because all her mind is set upon this, for her soul is not greedy to receive, nor is her desire great to make great expenses, nor doth her eye wander about to see and desire anything and impede her mind. She doth not listen to wicked words to consent to them, for she goeth not out and gaddeth not without. Because

of this her prayer is not impeded by anything, and her peacefulness, her quietness, with her purity, are accepted before God. Whatever she asketh of God she quickly receiveth her desire, for such a Widow as she loveth not Silver, nor fìlthy lucre, and is not greedy nor covetous, but is constant in prayer, humble, not excitable, pure and modest; who sitteth in her house and worketh with wool and flax, that she may provide something for those who are straitened, or make return to others and not receive anything from them, because she remembereth that Widow to whom our Lord bare witness in the Gospel, her who came and threw into the treasury two mites, which make one dinar, her whom when our Lord and Teacher, the searcher of hearts, saw. He said unto us, O my disciples! this poor Widow hath cast in more alms than all men, because they all from their abundance have cast in, but she hath cast in all the treasure that she had. (S. That it is not fitting for Widows to do anything without the commandment of the Bishop,) It is therefore required of Widows to be obedient to the Bishop, to be shamefaced and modest, to reverence the Bishop as [they reverence] God; not to act according to their own will, nor to do anything except what is commanded them by the Bishop, nor talk with any one without counsel as if for conversion, nor go with any one to cat or to drink, nor should they fast with any one, nor receive aught from any one, nor put their hands upon nor pray for any one, except by the command of the

Bishop; but if some one do any thing that has not been commanded let her be prevented (S. reproved) because she has conducted herself without discipline. For whence dost thou know, O woman, from whom thou hast received, or from what service thou hast been nourished, or on account of whom thou hast fasted, or on whom thou hast put thy hand? Dost thou not know that about each of these things thou shalt give account to the Lord in the day of judgment, because thou hast been partaker of their Works?

Reproof of rebellious Widows.

But thou, O Widow who art without discipline, thou seest the Widows thy companions, or thy brethren, in sicknesses, and thou carest not to fast and pray for thy members, to put thy hand and to visit them; but thou makest thyself as if thou wert not in health, or as if thou wert not sufficient, and with others who are in sins or who have gone out from the Church,

because they give much, thou art ready to go joyfully and to visit them.

Therefore ye ought to be ashamed, ye who are such, ye who wish to be wiser and more intelligent not only than men, but also more so than the Elders and the Bishops. Know then, O sisters! that in obeying all that the Pastors command you, with the Deacons, ye are obeying God, and in all that ye take part by the order of the Bishop ye are blameless before

God, as also every brother of the laity, when he obeyeth the Bishop and submitteth unto him, because they will give account on behalf of all men, but if ye obey not the mind of the Bishops and the Deacons, they will be clear from your faults, and you will give account of all that you have done of your own will, or of yours, O ye Widows!

It is not proper to pray with one who is censured (S. separated), Foreveryone who prays or takes part with anyone who has gone out of the Church, is justly reckoned with him, for these things lead to the dissolution and the destruction of souls. For if any one take part and pray with him who is censured and is put out of the Church, and doth not obey the Bishop, he obeyeth not God, and is polluted along with him. Also he alloweth him not to repent. For if a man doth not take part with him he repenteth, and weepeth, and prayeth, and imploreth to be received, and turneth from what he hath done and is saved.

It is not permitted to a woman to baptize

We do not advise a woman to baptize or to be baptized by a woman, for that is a transgression of the commandments, and there is great danger to her who baptizeth and also to him who is baptized; for if it were lawful to be baptized by a woman, our Lord and Teacher would have been baptized by Mary His mother; but He was baptized by John, as also others of the people. Therefore do not bring danger on yourselves, brothers and sisters, acting beyond the law of the Gospel.

About the jealousy of false Widows towards one another

About jealousy, or envy, or about calumny and murmurings, and about strife and vain talking, or about contention, we have spoken to you before; it is not suitable that these things should be in a Christian; nor is it fitting that one of them should even be named among the Widows. But because the Author of Evil has many devices he enters into those who are not Widows, and is glorified in them. For there are some who say of themselves that they are Widows, and do no works worthy of their name. For it is not for the name of Widowhood that they are found worthy to enter the Kingdom; but on account of faith and works. For if she cultivate good things, she will be honoured and praised; but if she cultivate evil things, and do the works of the Wicked One, she shall be reproved, and cast out from the everlasting Kingdom, because she hath forsaken eternal things, and (S. desired and) loved the things of time. For we see and hear that there are some who are called Widows and there is among them jealousy of one another. For when some old woman, thy companion, has received a garment or a gift from someone, thou, O Widow, when thou seest thy sister comforted, thou who art a Widow of God oughtest to say, Blessed be God, who comforteth the old woman my comrade; thou wilt glorify God, and afterwards him that gave, and thou wilt say, Let his deed be received in truth. Remember him. Lord, for good in the day of Thy retribution; and also my Bishop; his conduct is good before Thee, and he dispenses alms as it is necessary. For this old woman, my comrade, was naked, and was provided for. Increase praise to him, and give him a crown of glory in the day of Revelation, the [day] of Thy coming.

Again, also that Widow who has received alms from the Lord shall pray for him who served (S. did this service), hiding his name, like a wise woman, that his righteousness may be with God, and not with men. This service is as it was said in the Gospel, “When thou doest alms, let not thy left hand know what thy right hand doeth,” lest when thou dost disclose and reveal his name in praying for him who gave, his name be exposed and come to the ears of the heathen, and the heathen, that is the men of the left hand, should know; for it might happen also that one of the believers, on hearing thee, should go out and talk. It is not suitable that such things should go forth and be revealed, or be spoken of in the Church, for he who goeth out and talketh about them obeyeth not God. But do thou pray for him, concealing his name, and thus thou shalt fulfill that which is written, thou and the Widows that are such, who are the holy Altar of the God, Jesus the Christ. We have now heard that there are Widows who do not conduct themselves according to the commandment, but only care for  this, that they may beg and wander and gad about. She again who has received alms from the Lord, if she be without sense, revealing what has happened (S. what is evident to her that interrogates her), reveals and makes known the name of the giver. And she, whenever she has heard it, grumbles and blames the Bishop who made the provision, or the Elder (S. Deacon) or him that gave the gift, and says, Dost thou not know that I am nearer to thee, and I am much more destitute than she? She knoweth not that this hath not happened by the will of man, but by the commandment of God. For if thou testifiest, and sayest, I am nearer to thee, and thou knowest that I am more destitute than she, thou oughtest to know him who has commanded, and be silent, and not blame him who has served; but go into thy house, and fall on thy face, and thank God on behalf of the Widow thy companion, and pray also for the giver, and for the server, and seek from the Lord that the door of compassion may be opened also to thee, and the Lord will hear thy prayer quickly which is without grudge, and will send to thee more compassion than to that Widow thy comrade, from whence thou hast never hoped to be served, and the proof of thy patience shall be found (S. praised). Or do ye not know that it is written in the Gospel, “When thou doest alms, do not blow a trumpet before thee (S. before men), that thou mayest be seen of them, as the hypocrites do. Verily I say unto thee that they have received their reward?”

About the audacity (S. reproof) of cursed Widows

If therefore God command that a service be performed in secret, and he who serves has performed it thus; thou therefore who hast received in secret, why dost thou proclaim openly? or thou again, why dost thou inquire? for not only dost thou roundly blame, and grumble like a fool (S. not a Widow), and thou also givest forth curses like the heathen. Or hast thou not heard what the Scripture saith, “Everyone who blesseth shall be blessed, and everyone who curseth shall be cursed?” Again in the Gospel He said, “Bless them that curse you,” and again He said, “When ye go into an house, say, Peace be to this house. And if the house be worthy of your peace, it shall come upon it, but if it be not worthy, it shall return to you.”

If therefore peace return to those that have sent it, more therefore shall the curse be upon him who hath launched it. For if we (S. they) who have sent it out in vain, because he against whom it was sent was not worthy to receive a curse, everyone who curseth anyone in vain curseth himself; for it is written in the Proverbs, “As the swallows and the birds fly, thus vain curses return.” And again he said, that “Those who send forth curses are void of understanding;” for we are compared to the likeness of the bee, as the Lord said, Go to the bee, and learn from her how she worketh, that she doeth her work with wisdom, and from her work food is offered to the rich and the poor, for she is graceful and glorious, though she hath little strength. Therefore as the bee with little strength, when she stingeth anyone leaveth her dart, is sterile and soon dieth, thus also we Believers, in this likeness, every evil thing that we do to another person we are hurting ourselves. For everything that thou wouldst hate to happen to another. Therefore everyone who blesseth is blessed, and he who curseth is cursed. Admonish and reprove those who are without discipline. Admonish therefore, strengthen and increase those who act honestly. Let the Widows therefore be removed from curses, for they are appointed to bless. Therefore neither let Bishop, nor Elder, nor Deacon, nor Widow send out a curse from their mouth, that they inherit not a curse, but a blessing. Let this be a care to thee, O Bishop, that not even one of the laity should send out a curse from his mouth; for thou hast the care of every man.

Chapter XVI

Of the appointment of Deacons and Deaconesses, and of how it is fitting for them to conduct themselves in their service, without indolence of the mind nor license.

Therefore, O Bishop, appoint for thyself workers of righteousness and helpers, to help with thee to life, electing those who please thee from all the people (S. and appoint Deacons). The man who is elected is for many oversights that are required, but a woman for the service of the women; for there are houses where thou canst not send a Deacon to the women on account of the heathen. Send a Deaconess for many things. The office of a woman Deaconess is required, first, when women go down to the water, it is necessary that they be anointed by a Deaconess, and it is not fitting that the anointing oil should be given to a woman to touch; but rather the Deaconess. For it is necessary for the Priest who baptizeth, to anoint her who is baptized; but when there is a woman, and especially a Deaconess, it is not fitting for the women that they be seen by the men, but that by the laying on of the hand the head alone be anointed, as of old time the Priests and Kings of Israel were anointed.

Thou also, in like manner, by laying on [thy] hand, anoint the head of those who receive baptism, whether of men or of women, and afterwards, whether thou thyself baptize, or command the Deacon or the Elder to baptize, let it be a Deaconess, as we said before, who anoints the women.

Let a man repeat over them the names of the invocation of the Godhead in the water. And when she that is baptized arises from the water let the Deaconess receive her, and teach her and educate her, in order that the unbreakable seal of baptism he with purity and holiness. Therefore we affirm that the service of a woman, a Deaconess, is necessary and obligatory, even our Lord and Saviour was served by the band of women Deaconesses, who were Mary the Magdalene, and Mary (Cod. S. daughter) of James, the mother of Joses, and the mother of Zebedee’s children, with other women. This service of Deaconesses is necessary also to thee for many things, for in the houses of the heathen, where there are believing women, a Deaconess is required, that she may go in and visit those who are sick, and serve them with whatever they need, and anoint (S. wash) those who are healed from sicknesses.

Deacons, Let the Deacons in their conduct resemble the Bishop; let them however work very much more than he. Let them not love filthy lucre, but let them be diligent in service. According to the number of the congregation of the Church let there be Deacons, that they may be able to distinguish and to comfort everyone, so that to the aged women who have no strength, and to the brothers and sisters who are in sicknesses, they may prepare for everyone of them the service that is fitting for him. But let a woman preferably be diligent in the service of the women, and a man, a Deacon, in the service of the men. Let him be ready to hear and to obey the command of the Bishop. In every place to which he is sent to serve or to say something to any one, let him work and labour; for it is necessary that everyone should know his office, and be diligent in fulfilling it; and be of one counsel, and of one mind, and of one soul dwelling in two bodies. Know what that service is, as our Iord and Saviour said in the Gospel, “Whosoever among you wishes to be chief let him be your servant; even as the Son of Man came not to be ministered unto, but to minister, and to give His soul a ransom for many.” Thus ye ought to work also, ye Deacons, even if ye have to givo your lives for your brethren, in the service that is required of you. For even our Lord and Master did not despise when He served us, as it is written in Isaiah, “To justify the righteous who doeth a good service to many.” If therefore the Lord of Heaven and of earth did service to us, bore and endured everything on our account, how much more is it required of us, that we should do thus to the brethren, that we, who are His imitators, and take the place of the Christ, should be like Him? You will find also that it is written in the Gospel, how our Lord girt a towel about His loins, and poured water into the wash-bason, while we were reclining, and drew near and washed the feet of us all, and dried [them] with the towel; but He did this, that He might show US the love and affection of brethren, that we also should do likewise to one another. If therefore our Lord did thus, ye Deacons, do ye hesitate to do thus to those who are sick and have no strength, ye who are doers of the Truth, and preserve the likeness of the Christ? Therefore serve in love, and do not grumble nor hesitate; but if not, if ye have done this service for the sake of men, and not for God, ye shall receive your reward according to your service in the Day of Judgment. It is therefore required of you Deacons, that ye visit all those who are in want, and make known to the Bishop those who are afflicted, that ye be his soul and his mind, and that ye labour and obey him in everything.

Chapter XVII

It is right that the Bishop should take care of  Orphans, those who are Ufi yotifig, and give them to be reared; and there is a contemplation on you, on those who have aught, and are not in want,  who are greedy, and take of the gifts that are given to the Church for the  Orphans and the poor.

If one of the children of Christians be an  Orphan, either a boy or a girl, good that if there be one of the brethren who hath no children, he take the boy in place of children, and let him take a girl, everyone who has a son; when her time comes let him give her to him in marriage, and fulfill his work in the service of God. If there be people who do not wish, because of their riches, to do thus to  Orphan members, such people will meet also with the same, and they shall spend (S. their) parsimony in these things, and what the saints have not eaten, the Assyrians shall eat; and strangers shall devour your land before your eyes. Ye therefore, O Bishops, take up the burden of them, that they be brought up so that nothing be wanting to them, and when it is the time for the maiden, give her in marriage to one of the brethren. And let the boy when he is grown up learn a handicraft, and when he is a man let him take the wage that is meet for his craft, (S. and acquire the necessary tools,) that he may no longer be a burden on the charity of the brethren, which they had without deceit and without hypocrisy. And truly blessed is he who is able to help himself, and does not straiten the place of the  Orphans and the Widows and the poor.

Those are guilty who take alms when they are not in want. Woe unto them who possess, and who receive falsely. For everyone of those who receives will give account to the Lord God in the day of judgment, of how he received, whether it was on account of childish  Orphanhood, or on account of the feebleness of old age, or on account of the weakness of sickness, or for the education of children that he received. Verily this man is also to be praised, he is considered as the Altar of God, therefore he shall be honoured by God; for it was not in vain that he received, for he prayed diligently at all times without idleness for those who gave.

He offered his prayer, which is his strength, in return for his receiving, for such people shall receive from God a blessing in everlasting life. But those who possess, and receive by improbity, or again, who are idle, and instead of working and giving to others, themselves receive a gift, what therefore they have received shall be required of them, because they have straitened the place of the believing poor. Everyone who has property and does not give to others, nor make use of it himself, lays up for himself a treasure which perishes on the earth; and inherits the place of the serpent who sits upon the treasure, and incurs the danger of being reckoned with it. For he who possesses, and receives by falsehood, does not believe in God, but in the mammon of iniquity, and because of the gains of avarice holds the Word in hypocrisy, and is filled with infidelity. He that is such, incurs the danger of being reckoned with the Infidels. But he who simply gives to everyone, does well to give, and he is also pure who has received through necessity, and uses with sense what he has received; he has well received, and will be glorified by God in everlasting life and rest.

Chapter XVIII

Exhortation to Bishops, that they watchfully take care not to receive gifts from those who are guilty, as for the provision of  Orphans and Widows and the poor, not even if they are constrained to be degraded by hunger, and that they are guilty if they accept; and that the prayers of the poor are not heard when they pray for them that are such, being supplied by their goods, It is fitting that they receive from the believing and the honest for the provision of the poor, and for the redemption of prisoners and the oppressed.

Therefore, O Bishops and Deacons, be Constant in the service of Christ’s Altar. For we have said about Widows and  Orphans, that with all care and diligence ye shall observe the things that are given, what is the conduct of him or of her who gives for the provision, we say also again, of the Altar; because when Widows are provided for by the works of righteousness, they bring a holy and acceptable service before the Lord (S. God Almighty) by means of His beloved Son and His holy Spirit, to Whom be glory and honour to all eternity. Amen. Therefore take care and be diligent that ye serve the Widows with the service of a pure mind, that what they ask for be given [to them] quickly with their prayers. If there be any Bishops who are contemptuous, and pay no attention to these things through partiality, or for the sake of filthy lucre, or because they are careless and do not investigate, they shall give an account in no ordinary manner. For they accept what is for the service of the provision for  Orphans and Widows, from the rich who have put people in prison, who act badly towards their servants, or who deal hardly in their cities, or who oppress the poor, or from the impure and from those who use their bodies wickedly (S. or from doers of evil), from those who diminish and lend with usury; (S. or from villainous advocates); (S, or from infamous accusers); or from judges who are accepters of persons; (S. or from the concocters of poisons; or from the makers of idols); from worshippers of gold or Silver or brass (S. as thieves; or from unjust publicans; or from seers of visions); from those who change weights, or from those who measure in deceit; or from tavern-keepers who mix [wine] with water; or from soldiers who conduct themselves iniquitously; (S. or from murderers; or from guilty executioners); or from any arrogant princes who have been polluted in wars, and have shed innocent blood unjustly; (S. or from the reversers of judgments who for theft act unjustly and deceitfully towards the country people and all the poor; and from worshippers of idols; or from the polluted); or from the usurers and the covetous; those therefore that from these [persons] provide for Widows and the poor, will be found guilty in the judgment of the (S. day of the) Lord; because the Lord hath said, “Better is a dinner of herbs with love and peace than a slaughter of fatted oxen with hatred.” If a Widow be nourished only with food from honest work, it will be of profit to her; but if aught be given to her from abundance of iniquity, it will be a certain loss to her. If a Widow be nourished by aught that is unjust, she cannot offer her service and her prayer (S. in innocence) before God; even if she be just who prays for the wicked, her prayer for them will not be heard, but only [that] for herself; for God is a trier of hearts and He receives prayers in righteousness (S. and discrimination),but if they pray for those who have sinned and repent, their prayers will also be heard; for those who are enchained in sins and do not repent, not only are they certainly unheard when they pray, but they also call their delinquencies to mind before God.

Those Bishops are culpable to take alms from the guilty. Therefore, O Bishops, flee from such services; for it is written, “Thou shalt not take up to the altar of the Lord the price of a dog nor the wages of a harlot.” For if the Widows in their blindness pray for adulterers and transgressors of the law, “Their prayers are not heard.” Ye cause a blasphemy to come upon

the Word by your evil administration, as if there were not a good and they are not heard, not receiving their requests liberal God. Be very watchful therefore that ye serve not the Altar of God from the services of a transgressor, for there is no cause for your saying, We did not know, for ye have heard what the Scripture has said, “Remove from evil, and fear not.” (S. and terror shall not come near thee).

Say not, These are they who alone give alms, and if we do not accept from them, from whence shall the  Orphans and Widows who are in straits be served? God has said to you not to take from the wicked and help the Churches, it were profitable for you to be tortured by hunger, rather than to take from the wicked. Therefore investigate and prove, that ye may receive from believers, those who are in communion with the Church and conduct themselves aright, that ye may nourish those who are in straits.

Do not receive from those who are put out of the Church and are blamable, until they are thought worthy to become members of the Church. But if ye be in want, tell the brethren, let them work amongst you, and give; serve thus with justice. Teach and say to the people, that it ìs written, “Honour the Lord with honest work, and with the first of all thy fruits.” Therefore with the honest work of believers nourish and clothe those who are greatly in want (S.  and what is given to you by them, as we said to you before, distribute it at the time for the ransom of believers).

Ransom slaves and captives, and those who are treated with violence, those who are condemned by the mob, (S.  those who are condemned to the circus, or to the mines, or to exile, or to the amphitheater), and those who are in straits (S. Let the Deacons go in to them), let them visit everyone and provide them with what they are in want of.  If it should happen that ye take from the wicked, against your will, make no use of it for nourishment, unless it be just a little, expend it in wood for fire; lest a Widow being in straits should buy with it some food for herself. Thus let the Widows, not being polluted by evil, pray that they may receive from God all good things that they ask and seek. Also each one of them by herself, and ye also, will not be held by these sins.

Because ye have received the gifts of the Levites, the first-fruits and offerings of your people, that ye may be nourished, and have also a superfluity that ye be not straitened and take from the wicked. But if the Churches are so poor, that those who are in want must be nourished by such people.

Chapter XIX

Exhortation to Bishops to take care of those who are persecuted or imprisoned far the name of the Christ, that they visit them,  and keep away from him who is imprisoned and receives punishment front judges because of his depravity. Also exhortation to all Christians that they suffer with those who suffer for the sake of the Christ, and that out of fear they €Uìiy not or forsake them. He who denieth them, denieth Christianity and the Christ. And let him pray that he enter not into temptation.

Do not take your eyes off the Christian who is put in prison for the name of God, and for his faith and love, and is cast into the mines; but by your work and by the sweat of your face send him nourishment, and for the wage of the soldiers who guard him, that he may be at ease and be taken care of, but that your blessed brother be not completely afflicted. For he who is condemned for the name of God the Christ, let him be considered by you as a holy Martyr, and an Angel of God, (S. or as God upon earth) he who is clothed spiritually with the Holy Ghost (S. of God, by whose means ye behold the Lord our Saviour), because he has been thought worthy of an incorruptible crown (S. he has renewed the testimony of the Passion). Therefore it is obligatory that all ye believers should diligently comfort the Martyrs with your goods (S. by means of your Bishops). But if there be a man who has nothing, let him fast, and what he would have spent for himself for that day, let him give to his brother. But if thou art rich, it is required of thee that thou serve them according to thy power, or even that thou give all thy property to redeem them from the chains of death, for they are worthy of God, and children who fulfìl His will, as the Lord hath said, “Whosoever shall confess Me before men, him will I also confess before My Father which is in Heaven.” Do not be ashamed to talk with them when they are imprisoned, and in doing these things ye shall inherit everlasting life, for ye shall be partakers in their martyrdom; as we know that our Lord hath spoken thus in the Gospel, “Come unto Me, all ye blessed of My Father, inherit the Kingdom that is prepared for you before the foundation of the world. I was hungry, and ye fed Me; I was thirsty, and ye gave Me drink; I was a stranger, and ye gathered Me in; I was  naked, and ye clothed Me; in prison, and ye came unto Me. Then shall the righteous answer and say, Lord, when saw we Thee hungry, and fed Thee; or thirsty, and gave Thee to drink; or naked, and we clothed Thee; or sick, and we visited Thee; or a stranger, and we gathered Thee in; or in prison, and we carne unto Thee? And he shall answer and say unto them, that all that ye have done to My little brethren, ye have done it unto Me.” Then shall the righteous go unto eternal life.

But if there be a man who is called a Christian, and he should stumble, and be tempted by Satan, and be reproved for wicked works, either theft or murder, keep away from any that are such; lest one of you be tempted by those who belong to him. For if a heathen should lay hold of thee, and ask thee and say to thee; Thou art also a Christian like that man, thou

canst not deny that thou art a Christian, but thou confessest, and thou art not condemned as a Christian, but art punished as an evil-doer, for thou wast asked if thou wert like that man, and thy confession is in vain to thee; if thou deniest, thou hast denied the Lord. Therefore keep away from them, that ye may be without offence. But help with much zeal those believers, your members, who are in the bond of iniquity as evil-doers and are imprisoned, and free them from the hand of the wicked.

For if someone approach those who are imprisoned for the name of the Christ our Lord, and is laid hold of along with them, blessed shall he be that he has been thought worthy of all thìs companionship.

Receive and refresh those who are persecuted on account of the faith, who migrate from city to city according to the Lord’s command, rejoicing that ye are partakers of their persecution; for our Lord spake about you in the Gospel, “Blessed are ye when they persecute you, and upbraid you for My name;” because when a Christian is persecuted, and killed because of the Faith, he is a Martyr of God; (S. + and henceforth he will not be persecuted by any one, for he is known of the Lord). But if he deny that he is a Christian, he will be called a [cause of] offence; he will not be persecuted by men, but he will be rejected by God because of his denials (S.  and henceforth he will have no part with the saints in the everlasting Kingdom, and according to the promise of the Lord; but his inheritance shall be with the wicked), for the Lord God hath said,  Whosoever denieth Me, or is ashamed of Me and of My words, I will deny him before My Father which is in Heaven, when I come (S. + with strength and glory) to judge the quick and the dead.” Again it is written. “Everyone who loveth his father and mother more than Me, is not worthy of Me (S. + and everyone who loveth his son or  his daughter more than Me is not worthy of Me); and everyone who taketh not up his cross, rejoicing, and cometh not after Me, is not worthy of Me.” (S. and everyone who loseth his life because of Me shall find it, and everyone that saveth his life by denying shall lose it.) For what shall it profit a man, if he gain the whole world, and lose his soul, or what shall a man give in exchange for his soul?” and again, “Fear not those who kill the body, but they cannot kill the soul; rather fear Me, who am able to destroy soul and body in hell.” Now everyone who learns a handicraft looks at his master, and sees how by means of his craft and knowledge he perfects his work; he also imitates him, and perfects the work that has been entrusted to him that he may not bear upbraiding from him, but if he come short of what has been entrusted to him, he is not a disciple; but we who have a master and teacher, our Lord and Saviour, who rose incorruptible from the grave, because by His doctrine we possess incorruptible beauty, thus He came in poverty; He also separated Himself from Mary, His blessed mother, and from His brethren, also from Himself, and endured persecution even unto the Cross.

These things He suffered on our account, that He might save us who believe, who are of the house of Israel, from chains and condemnations, which we have mentioned before, and deliver you who are of the Gentiles from the worship of idols and from all iniquity. If therefore the Christ suffered on our account, to save us who believe in Him, why should we not resemble Him in His sufferings when He has given us patience? And these things [are] for our own sake, that we may be delivered from the Gehenna of fire. For He suffered for us; let us suffer for ourselves (S. + or does our Lord certainly need that we should suffer for Him except for this only that He would prove the warmth of our faith and the desire of our souls).

Let US separate ourselves from our fathers and from our tribe, and from all that is in the world, and turn from ourselves, praying that we fall not into temptation. But if we are called to martyrdom, being questioned, let US confess; suffering. let us endure; being oppressed, let us rejoice; being persecuted, let us not be saddened; because it is not only our own souls that we are delivering (S. from hell, by acting thus), but also those who are children in the faith, (S.  and we teach the hearers to act thus,) that they may live before God. But if we are defaulters towards the faith in the Lord, and deny because of the weakness of the flesh, as the Lord hath said, “The spirit is ready and willing, but the flesh is weak,” it is not merely ourselves whom we destroy, but also the souls of our brethren (S. -whom we kill along with ourselves); for when they see our denials, they will think that they have been taught error of doctrines, and when they are made captive we shall have to answer for them as well as for ourselves, everyone of us to the Lord in the day of judgment (S. + But if thou art taken and brought before the governor, and deniest thy hope in the Lord in thy holy faith, and art set free today, but to-morrow thou art sick with a fever, and fallest on thy bed, or thy stomach pain thee, and thou takest no food, but givest it back with severe pains, or fallest into the affliction of gripes, or of the hurt of one of thy members; or thou sendest forth from thy bowels blood and gall by severe pains; or thou hast a tumour in one of thy members; and thou art cut up by the hands of doctors, and diest in afflictions and in great agonies, what will thy denial that thou hast made profit thee, O man? for behold, thou hast caused thy soul to inherit pains and sufferings, and thou hast lost thy eternal life before God. Thou wilt burn and be tormented without rest forever: as the Lord hath said, “Everyone who loveth his life shall lose it; and everyone that loseth his life for My sake shall find it.” Therefore the Christian who denies, loves his life for a short time in this world, that he may not die for the sake of the name of the Lord God; but he destroys himself forever in the fire, for he himself falls into hell, because Christ denies him, as He hath said in the Gospel, “Whosoever denieth Me before men, I also will deny him before my Father which is in Heaven.” But those whom the Lord denieth go out and are cast into outer darkness, and there they shall have weeping and gnashing of teeth; for He has said that “Everyone who loveth his life more than Me is not worthy of Me.”) But let us be diligent, my brethren, to commend our lives to the Lord God; and if a man be found worthy of martyrdom, let him receive it with joy, that he is thought worthy of this crown, and that his exit from this world should be by martyrdom; for our Saviour has said that “There is no disciple that is above his Lord, but let everyone be perfect like his Lord.”

Our Lord therefore chose all these sufferings in order to save us; He accepted to be beaten and blasphemed against, and His face spat upon, and to drink vinegar and myrrh, and at length He endured even to being hanged upon the cross.) We therefore who are His disciples, let us be imitators of Him; for if He endured everything for our sakes (S. even to sufferings) how much ought not we to bear for ourselves? Suffering and not hesitating, for thus He has counselled us, that if even we were to burn in coals of fire, let us believe in the Lord Jesus the Christ, and in His Father, the Lord God Almighty, and in the Holy Ghost, to whom be glory and honour forever and ever. Amen.

Chapter XX

About the Resurrection of the dead, we are taught not only by the Holy Scriptures, but also by means of demonstrations from the books of the beatitudes; and by means also of these natural demonstrations let us, being diligent like believing men who have a sure hope of the Resurrection, not excuse ourselves from martyrdom on account of the Christ, if we are called to it.

God the Father Almighty will raise us by means of God our Saviour, as He has promised. He will raise us from among the dead just as we are, in the likeness in which we now are; nevertheless there shall not be wanting to us the great glory of everlasting life; for even should we be thrown into the depths of the sea, or scattered by the winds like chaff, we shall always be within this world, and all this world is enclosed in the hand of God, and therefore from the interior of His hand the Lord God will raise us, as He hath said, “A hair  of your head shall not perish,” and ‘In your patience possess ye your souls.” About the resurrection and about the glory of martyrs the Lord hath said in Daniel thus, that “Many who sleep in the surface of the earth shall arise in that day, some to everlasting life, and some to shame and contempt (S. and dispersion). And they that be wise shall shine as the lights of Heaven, and those that are mighty in the Word as the stars of Heaven.” As the sun and as the moon (S. those lights of Heaven). He hath promised to give (S. the glorious light) to those who (S. are wise, and) are martyrs for his Name. And it is not to believers that He hath promised resurrection, but also to all men; for  He hath said thus in Ezekiel, “The hand of the Lord was upon me, and he led me out into (S. in the Spirit and set me in the midst of)

the plain, and it was full of bones, and He caused me to pass by them round about, etc. (S. + and they were many and very dry. ) And He said unto me, Son of man, do these bones live? And I said, Thou knowest, O Lord God. And the Lord said unto me, Prophesy upon these bones, and say unto them, O ye dry bones, hear ye the word of the Lord. Thus saith the Lord God unto these bones, Behold, I will upon you, and build flesh upon you, and clothe you with skin, and I will give breath into you, and ye shall live, and ye shall know that I am the Lord. So I prophesied as He had said to me, and as I prophesied there was a voice, and a shaking, and the bones carne together, bone to bone; and I saw that sinews and flesh carne up upon them, and skin was drawn over them from above, but there was no breath in them. And the Lord said unto me, Prophesy unto the wind, and say, Thus saith the Lord God, Come, O wind, from the four quarters, and enter into these dead men, and they shall live. So I prophesied as He commanded me, and the wind came into them, and they lived; and they stood up upon their feet, in a great army. And the Lord said unto me, Son of man, those bones are they of the house of Israel, who say, Our bones are dried, and our hope is destroyed, and we are not. Thus saith the Lord God, Behold, I open your graves, and I will bring you from thence, O my people, and I will lead you into the land of Israel; and ye shall know that I am the Lord when I open your graves, to bring out My people from the tombs. And I will put My Spirit into you, and ye shall live, and I shall cause you to dwell in your land, and ye shall know that I am the Lord who hath spoken and done, and all the dwellers on earth shall be at peace, saith the Lord.”

Again He hath said by means of Isaiah, “All they that sleep and the dead shall arise, and all that are in the graves shall awake, for thy dew is unto them the dew of healing, but the land of the wicked shall be destroyed.”)

And again he hath spoken by means of Isaiah the prophet about the Resurrection and eternal life and about the glory of the righteous, and also about the shame and destruction of sinners, (S. + about their conduct, and their fall, about their dissolution, their ruin, and their condemnation, for when He said that the land of the wicked shall fall, he spoke of their body, because it is from the earth, and will be accounted with shame as of the earth; because they did not worship God, they shall fall into fire and torment). And in the Twelve Prophets they said thus, “Behold, ye wicked, and see and understand wonders, and return to corruption, for I will work a work in your days (S. + which if a man declare it unto you ye will not believe.”) These things and more than these are said against those who do not believe in the Resurrection, and against those who deny God, (S. + and against those who do not worship God, and against transgressors of the Law and against the heathen,) that when they shall see the glory of believers they shall return to perish in the fire because they did not believe. But we have learnt and believed in His Resurrection from the dead. The Resurrection which God has promised to us is sure to us and not deceptive, because our Saviour Himself is the earnest of our resurrection, He having risen first.

Confirmation about the Resurrection, even from the writings of the heathen.

Also those among the Gentiles who read, read and hear, even among the heathen, about the Resurrection from the Sybil, what was said and preached to them thus, “When everything shall be dust and ashes, the Most High God shall cause the fire which He hath kindled to cease, and then God Himself shall raise the bones and ashes of men, and shall clothe them with their likeness, and raise men as they were before. And then the judgment shall take place, in which God shall judge the wicked in the future world, and the earth shall cover the impious. The just and the righteous shall live in the land of life; God will give them spirit and goodness, (S. -h and life) and thereafter they shall all see one another.”

It is not only, my friends, by means of the Sybil that the Resurrection was preached to the heathen, but also by means of the holy Scriptures, before the Lord preached to the Jews and to the heathen and to the together, and announced the Resurrection of the dead which shall come to men. (S. -h Confirmation about the Resurrection also from natural demonstrations,) God shows us abundantly about the Resurrection, even by means of a bird that cannot speak, we mean the phoenix, which is solitary, for if it had a mate many would be seen by man, but now one alone is seen once in five hundred years, which enters Egypt and goes to the altar that is called of the Sun. It brings cinnamon; as it prays towards the East, the fire kindles of itself, and consumes it, so that it becomes ashes; and again from the ashes is formed a worm, which grows up in its likeness, and becomes a perfect phoenix, and thereafter it departs and goes whence it came.)

Confirmation that we must not excuse ourselves from Martyrdom for the sake of the Christ, If therefore God has shown us about the Resurrection by means of an irrational animal, much more we who believe in the Resurrection of God and in the promise of God. if martyrdom come upon us as on men worthy of all this glory of God, shall receive the incomprehensible crown in eternal life, and in the glorious honour of the martyrdom of God; let US receive it joyfully with all our hearts, and let us believe in the Lord God who will raise us in glorious light. As in the beginning, God commanded by a word, (S. + and the world was) and He said, Let there be light, and night and day; and Heaven and earth and seas, and birds and beasts, and creeping things of the earth (S. + and fourfooted beasts) and trees, and everything was established (S. +in its nature) by His Word, as the Scripture hath said, (S. + all these works that were done were by means of the obedience they give Him; they witness about God who made them, that “He created and founded them out of nothing,”(S. they also show a sign of the Resurrection. As therefore He made everything,) thus also man who is His creature He will especially vivify and raise (S. For if He founded and established the world out of nothing, this would be still more easy, that out of nothing He should vivify and raise man, who is the creature of His hands), and as with human seed He clothes man with a garment in the womb and makes him grow. If therefore He shall raise all men, as He hath said in Isaiah, “All flesh shall see the salvation of God,” yet more will He vivify and raise believers (S. + and again the believers of believers, who are the Martyrs, He will vivify and raise and establish in great glory, and make them His councillors), because to the simple disciples who believe in Him, He hath promised a glory like that of the stars; but (S. 4- to the Martyrs) He hath promised to give eternal glory, (S. + like shining bodies that are not wearied with exceeding light, which shine continually. Therefore, as disciples of the Christ, let us believe that we shall receive from Him all good things which He hath counselled and promised us in eternal life. Let us be conformed to all His doctrine and to His patience.) Let us believe in His birth from a virgin, and in His coming and in His willing Passion. Let us be convinced by means of the Holy Scriptures, as the Prophets announced beforehand everything about His coming, and (S. -h all these things) were confirmed in our hearts (S. + for even the demons, when they trembled at His name, extolled His coming. You believe therefore and are convinced of the things that we said before); and we stili more, we who were with Him, and saw Him with our eyes and ate with Him, and were companions and witnesses of His coming, we believe in the great unspeakable things (S. gifts) which He will give as He hath promised (S. + Let us believe and hope that we shall receive, for all our faith is surely proved) if we believe in His promises that they shall be. Let us be called to martyrdom for His name’s sake; when we go out of this world by confession, we are sanctified from all our sins (S. -f and follies, and we shall be found pure, for He hath said in David about martyrs thus, “Blessed are they  whose transgression is forgiven, and whose sins are covered. Blessed is the man to whom the Lord will not impute his sins.” Therefore the Martyrs are blessed and pure from all follies, who are raised above all evil and taken away from ìt, as He said in Isaiah about the Christ and His Martyrs, “Behold, the righteous perisheth, and no man considereth; and holy men are taken away, and no one careth for it; for the righteous is gathered away before the evil, and his grave shall be in peace.” But these things are said about those who suffer martyrdom for the name of the Christ Sins are also forgiven) in baptism to those who come from the heathen and enter the holy Church of God. (S. + Let us ask again to whom sins are not imputed.) Their sins are considered like Abraham and Isaac and Jacob (S. + and all the Patriarchs, as well as the Martyrs. Hear then, my brethren) for the Scripture saith, “Who shall boast himself and say, I am pure from sins, or who will (S. -f dare to) say, I am holy?” And again, “There is no man clean from pollution, even if his life should be only for a day upon the earth.” Everyone therefore who believeth and is baptized, his former sins are forgiven; but should he again sin after baptism, (S. + even if he do not commit a mortal sin or participate in it, but only seeth or heareth or speaketh, and thus again) he is guilty of the sin. If then one go out of this world by martyrdom for the name of the Lord, blessed is he; for the brethren who have suffered martyrdom and have gone out of this world, in these things their sins are covered (S. + Behold, like this, that “Everyone who looketh on a woman to lust after her,” hear also, “Accusation and evil speaking,” or like this, that “Every vain word that men shall speak.” etc)

Chapter XXI

Exhorting every Christian to keep himself from all evil and frivolous conversation, and from all bad and heathenish conduct. About the Holy Fast, About the Passion and Crucifixion of our Lord, About the fourteenth [day] of the Passover of the Jews; about the Friday of the Passion, and the Sabbath of the Annunciation and the Sunday of the Resurrection of our Saviour. About the mourning of the Sabbath-day of the nation of the Jews, and about the rejoicing of the people of the Christians

Therefore it is required of the Christian that he keep himself from vain work, and from lascivious and impure words, (S. + even on Sundays when we are glad and rejoice) no one is allowed to say a word that belongs to sport or is foreign to the fear of God. (S. + as our Lord also taught us in the Psalm, in David, and saith thus, “Now therefore understand, ye Kings, and be instructed, all ye judges of the earth; serve the Lord with fear, and rejoice before Him with trembling. Attend to discipline, lest the Lord be angry, and ye perish from the way of justice, because His anger is kindled but a little against you; blessed are all they that put their trust in Him.”) But it is therefore required of us that we keep feasts, and that we make our rejoicing with fear and trembling, for a believing Christian ought not to recite the hymns of the heathen, nor to approach those foreign customs, nor to remember the name of an idol, may this be far from believers! For the Lord rebuketh in Jeremiah and saith, “They have forsaken Me, and sworn by those that are not gods,” (S. and again Ile saith, “If Israel will return unto Me, let him return, saith the Lord, and if he will take away his abominations from his mouth, and will fear before My face, and will swear as the Lord liveth,” and a again He saith, “I will take the name of the idols from your mouth.” By means of Moses again He saith to them, “They have moved Me to jealousy with that which is no God, and with their idols they have made Me angry.”

And in all the Scriptures He speaketh against these things, and not only concerning the idols.) It is not allowed to believers to swear, not by the sun nor by the moon, for the Lord God hath spoken thus by means of Moses, “My people, if ye see the sun and the moon, be not led astray by them, nor worship them; for the Lord hath given them to you for lights upon the earth.” (S. and by means of Jeremiah again He saith, “ Learn not according to the ways of the heathen, and be not afraid of the signs of Heaven.”) And by means of Ezekiel He hath said thus, “And He brought me into the court of the house of the Lord, between the porch and the altar, and I saw there men with their loins girt towards the Temple of the Lord, and their faces opposite the East, and they were worshipping the sun. And the Lord said unto me, Son of man, is this a small thing to the house of Judah to commit these abominations here? and they have filled the land with iniquity. (S. + and they have returned to provoke Me to anger, and they are as mockers. I also will deal in fury; mine eye shall not spare, nor will I have pity; even if they cry in Mine ears with a loud voice, I will not hear them.” Ye see, beloved, how severely and bitterly the Lord giveth judgment in His wrath against those who worship the sun or swear by it) It is therefore unlawful for the believer to swear either by the sun or by any of the signs of Heaven (S. or the elements); either to mention the name of an idol with his mouth, or to let a curse go out of his mouth, but only blessings (S. + and psalms, and the authoritative and divine Scriptures, which are the foundations of the truth of our faith), especially in the day of the fast and the holy Passover,  in which all believers fast (S. + who are in all the world), as our Lord and  Teacher said, when they asked Him, “ Why do the disciples of John fast, and Thy disciples fast not?” And He said unto them, “The children of the bride-chamber cannot fast while the bridegroom is with them, (S. -f but the days will come when the bridegroom shall be taken from them, and then shall they fast in those days)” Now then by means of His deeds He is with US (S. + but to sight He is far off, because He hath risen to the heights of Heaven, and sitteth at the right hand of His Father). Therefore when ye fast, pray and implore for those who are lost, as we also did when our  Lord was suffering; for while He was yet with us before He suffered, while we were eating the Passover with Him, He said to us, “This day, in this night, one of you betrayeth Me.” And everyone of us said to Him, “Surely it is not I, Lord?” And He answered and said unto us, “He who stretcheth out his hand with Me in the dish.” He signified Judas Iscariot,  who was one of the twelve (S. +Then our Lord said unto us, “Verily I say unto you, yet a little while, and ye shall leave Me, for it is written, I will smite the shepherd, and the sheep of His flock shall be scattered.” And Judas came with the scribes and with the Priests of the people, and up our Lord Jesus. But this was on Wednesday, for when we had eaten the Passover on Tuesday in the evening, we went out to the Mount of Olives, and in the night they took our Lord Jesus; and on the next day, which was Wednesday, He remained in prison in the house of Cepha the High Priest. In that day the chiefs of the people were assembled, and they took counsel together against Him. Again, the next day, which was Thursday, they brought Him to Pilate the governor, and again He remained in prison with Pilate, in the night after Thursday. And when it dawned on Friday, they accused Him much before Pilate, yet they could show nothing true, but they brought false witness against Him. And they asked Him from Pilate, to put Him to death, and they crucified Him on Friday. At six o clock therefore on Friday He suffered, and these hours during which our Lord was crucified have been reckoned a day, afterwards it was again dark for three hours, and it was reckoned a night; and again from the ninth hour till the evening, three hours, a day; and again afterwards the night of Passion Sabbath; but in the Gospel of Matthew it is thus written, that “In the evening of the Sabbath, when the first day of the week dawned, came Mary, and another Mary, the Magdalene, to see the sepulchre. And there was a great earthquake, for the Angel of the Lord came down and rolled the stone.” And again the Sabbath-day. Then three hours of the night after the Sabbath, in which our Lord slept [and rose], and the saying was fulfilled (marg. Take heed!) that “It is required of the Son of Man that He should pass through the heart of the earth, three days and three nights,” as it is written in the Gospel. Again, it is written in David, “Behold, thou hast appointed my days by measure,” because therefore these days and nights are made shorter. Thus it is written, “In the night therefore, as the first day of the week dawned, He was seen by Mary Magdalene, and by Mary the daughter of James; and in the night of the first day of the week Me went in to Levi, and then He was seen also by us.” But He said unto us when He was teaching us, “Will ye fast because of Me in these days? Or do I need that ye afflict yourselves?  But for the sake of your brethren ye have done this, and do it in these days  when ye fast; and on Wednesday, and on Friday at all times, as it is written in Zechariah, “The fast of the fourth and the fast of the fifth, which is Friday; for it is not lawful for you to fast on Sunday, because it belongs to My resurrection; wherefore Sunday is not counted amongst the numbers of the fast-days of the Passion, but they are counted from Monday, and are five days. Therefore let the fourth fast, and the fifth fast, and the seventh fast, and the tenth fast be to those of the house of Israel. Fast, therefore, from Monday, fully six days, until the night after the Sabbath, and let it be counted to you as a week; but the tenth, because the beginning of My name is “yod” in which is the beginning of the fasts, but is not as a feast of the former people, but as a new covenant which I have appointed to you, that you should fast on their behalf on Wednesday, because on Wednesday they began to destroy themselves and laid hold of Me; for the night after Tuesday, which was Wednesday, as it is written, that “The evening and the morning were one day;” the evening [see that thou take heed!] Therefore belongs to the day that follows it, for on Tuesday in the evening I ate with you My passover, and in the night they laid hold on Me [fast then], but again also on Friday, fast on their behalf, because on it they crucified Me in the midst of their feast of unleavened bread, as it was foretold by David, “In the midst of their feasts they have put their signs, and have not known.” But do ye fast constantly during these days at all times, especially those who are from the Gentiles; for because the nation doth not obey I have separated them from the blindness and from the error of idols; and I have received them in order that by means of your fast, and of those who are Gentiles, and your worship during those days, whilst ye are praying and imploring on account of the error and ruin of the nation, your prayer and entreaty may be accepted before My Father which is in Heaven, as from the one mouth of all the believers that are on the earth, and all that they have done to Me may be forgiven them.

Therefore also in the Gospel I said before to you, “Pray for your enemies;” and “Blessed are they who mourn for the perdition of unbelievers.” Therefore know, brethren, that our fast which we keep in the Passover, because our brethren have not obeyed, ye shall keep even if they hate you; but brethren we are bound to call them, because it is written for us thus in

Isaiah, “Call them brethren that hate you and reject you, that the name of the Lord may be glorified.” On account of them and of the judgment therefore and corruption of the land we are required to fast and mourn, that we may rejoice and be glad in the world to come, as it is written in Isaiah, “Rejoice, all ye who mourn over Zion,” and again He saith, “To comfort all those who mourn over Zion; instead of ashes the oil of joy, and instead of the spirit of heaviness the garment of glory.” It is required of us therefore to pity upon them, and to believe, and to fast and pray for them; because that when our Lord came to the nation they did not believe Him when He was teaching them, but they let His teaching pass away from their ears. Because therefore this nation obeyed not, He received you, brethren, who are from the Gentiles, and He opened your ears for the hearing of your heart, as our Lord and Saviour said by means of Isaiah the prophet,  “I was seen of those that asked not for Me; I was found of those that sought Me not; and I have said, Behold Me, to a people who have not called [upon] My name.” About whom therefore did He thus speak? Was it not about the Gentiles, because they had never known God, and because they had worshipped idols? But when our Lord came to the world and taught you, ye believed, ye who believed in Him, that God is one. And again those believe who are worthy, until the number of the saved shall be completed; a thousand times a thousand and ten thousand times ten thousand, as it is written in David; but about the nation which did not believe in Him thus He said, “I have stretched out My hands all the day unto a people who will not be persuaded and are disobedient, and who walk in a way that is not good, and who go after their sins, a people who provoke Me to anger before Me.” See therefore that the people provoked our Lord to anger because they did not believe in Him; wherefore He saith that “They provoked the Holy Spirit to anger, and turned themselves to enmity.” And again otherwise He saith about them by means of Isaiah the prophet, “The land of Zebulun, the land of Naphtali, the way of the sea, beyond the Jordan, Galilee of the nations; the people that sat [in] darkness, ye have seen a great light, and those who sat in darkness and in the shadows of, upon them hath the light shined. Those that sat in darkness,” He said, about those from the Nation who believed in our Lord Jesus; for because of the blindness of the Nation a great darkness surrounded them; for they saw Jesus, and they did not know that He was the Christ, and did not understand Him, not from the writings of the Prophets, nor from His Works and healings; but to you of the Nation who believe in Jesus we say, that ye have learnt how the Scripture testifieth about us and saith, “They have seen the great light.” Ye therefore who have believed in Him, ye have seen a great Light, Jesus the Christ our Lord. And again those who believe in Him shall see; but those who sit in the shadows of death, are ye who are from among the Gentiles; for ye have been among the shadows of death, ye who have trusted in the worship of idols, and have not known God; but when Jesus the Christ, our Lord and Teacher, was seen by us, a light dawned upon you, in that ye have gazed on and trusted in the promise of an everlasting Kingdom, and ye have removed yourselves from the feasts and customs of the former error; and ye worship idols no more as ye worshipped them; but ye have long since believed and have been baptized in Him, and a great light hath dawned upon you. Thus therefore because the Nation did not obey, there was darkness; but the hearing of your ear, you who are from among the Gentiles, became light. Because of this therefore pray and implore for them, and especially in the days of the Passover, that by your prayers they may be found worthy of forgiveness, and may be converted to our Lord Jesus the Christ.)

But it is required of you, my brethren (S. + in the days of the Passover), that ye (S. + investigate and) keep your fast with all care, (S. + but commence, when your brethren of the Nation keep the Passover); because when our Lord and Teacher ate the Passover with us, after that hour He was delivered up by Judas, and immediately we began to be grieved about what we had done to Him; and the number of the moon is as our number in the numbers of the believing Hebrews. In the tenth of the moon, on Monday, came the Priests and the Elders to the court of Kaipha, the High Priest, and took counsel to kill Him, but they feared, saying, “Not on the feast-day, lest there be an uproar of the people,” because everyone was attaching himself to Him and they held Him to be a Prophet, on account of the wonders that He wrought amongst them. But Jesus was in that day in the house of Simeon the leper, and we were together with Him; He also related to us about what was to happen. But Judas had gone out from among us in secret, on that Monday, hoping to deceive the Lord; and he went to the house of Kaipha. where the High-Priests and Elders were assembled, and he said to them, “What will ye give me, and I will deliver my Lord unto you, when I have opportunity?” And they covenanted with him for thirty pieces of silver. And he said to them: “Get ready young men armed because of His disciples” (S. + that if he should go out by night to a desert place, I may come and lead you; then they prepared the young men, and were ready to take Him). But Judas watched when he could find opportunity to betray Him, (S. + because of the crowds of all the people who had come from every city and every village, up to the Temple, to keep the Passover in Jerusalem). And the prìests and Elders (S. + considered and) commanded (S. + and decreed) that they should keep the feast with haste, that they might take Him without tumult; for the people of Jerusalem were occupied in the sacrifice and the eating of the Passover, and all the people from without had not yet come, because they deceived them [about] the days, that they might be reproved before God that they were greatly mistaken in everything.  So they anticipated and kept the Passover three days earlier, in the eleventh of the moon on Tuesday; for they said, because that all the people go astray after Him, now that we have the opportunity to take Him; and then when all the people have come, we will kill Him before all men for His fault, and this will be known openly, and all the people will turn from after Him. Thus Jn the night (S. + when Wednesday dawned) Judas delivered up our Lord, but they had given the reward to Judas when he covenanted with them (S. + on the tenth of the moon) on Monday. Therefore it was considered by God, as if they had taken Him from Monday (S. + because that on Monday they consulted how to take Him and to kill Him), and they accomplished their deed on Friday, as it was said in the Book of Exodus, “The Passover shall be kept by you from the tenth to the fourteenth, (S. + on marg., now pay great attention) and then all Israel shall keep the Passover.” Therefore from the tenth day, which is Monday, during the days of the Passover, ye shall fast, and be nourished by bread and salt and water (S. + only), at the ninth hour, until Thursday. But on Friday and on Saturday ye shall fast completely, and eat nothing; but assemble yourselves, and wake and pray the whole of the night, with prayers and supplications, and with the reading of the Prophets, with the Gospel  and the Psalms, with reverence and fear, and intercession, until the third hour of the night after the Sabbath, and then ye shall cease your fast, for it was thus that we also fasted, while our Lord was suffering, in testimony to the three days, and we watched and prayed and implored about the perdition of the Nation, because they went astray and did not confess our Saviour. Thus also pray ye, that the Lord may not remember to them their guilt unto the end, on account of the perfidy which they showed unto our Lord, but may give them a place for repentance, and conversion for the pardon of their iniquity; because he that was a heathen, and a stranger from the Gentiles, Pilate the judge, had no pleasure in the work of their wickedness, but took water and washed his hands and said, “I am innocent of the blood of this man;” but the people answered and said, “His blood be upon us and on our children.” Herod commanded that he should be crucified, and our Saviour suffered for us on Friday. Therefore the fast of Friday (S. + and Saturday) is especially required of you, also the watch and vigil of Friday, the reading of the Scriptures and the Psalms, and the prayers and supplications for sinners (S. + and the expectation and hope of the resurrection of our Lord Jesus, until the third hour of the night after the Sabbath. Then bring your offerings, and thereafter eat and enjoy yourselves, rejoice and be glad, because the Christ is risen, the earnest of your resurrection). Let that be to you an eternal law until the end of the world. (S. + for those who do not believe in our Saviour, He is dead, because their hope in Him is dead, but for you who believe, our Lord and Saviour is risen, because your hope in Him is immortal, and lives eternally. Fast therefore on Friday, because in it the Nation killed itself in crucifying our Saviour; and on Sabbath again, because it is the sleep of our Lord, for it is a day when fasting is especially required), as the blessed Moses (S. + the prophet of all this) has thus commanded; and it was commanded him by God, who knew what the Nation was about to do to His Son and His beloved Jesus the Christ; as they denied Moses and said to him, “Who hath made thee a chief and a judge over us?” Therefore he bound them beforehand in mourning at all times in separating and appointing to them the Sabbath, because they deserved to mourn (S. + who denied their life), who laid their hands upon Him who gave them life, and delivered Him over to death.

Therefore He appointed to them beforehand the mourning of their perdition. Let us look and see, my brethren, that most men in their mourning imitate the Sabbath; thus also those who keep the Sabbath sit in mourning; for he who is in mourning does not kindle a light, nor do the people of the Jews on account of the commandment of Moses (S. + for thus they were commanded by him. He who is in mourning does not wash himself, nor do the people on the Sabbath. He who is in mourning does not furnish a table, nor do the people on the Sabbath), but they prepare it in the evening and put in order for themselves something to eat, because they have a consciousness of mourning that they were ready to lay hands on the Christ. He who is in mourning does not work nor speak, but sits in sadness; thus also do the people on the Sabbath; (S. + for it was said thus to the people about the mourning of the Sabbath) “Thou shalt not lift thy foot to do any work, nor speak any word from thy mouth.” Who is it therefore that testifieth that the Sabbath is a mourning to them? The Scripture testifieth and saith, “Then the people shall lament, tribe by tribe; the tribe of the Levites apart, and their wives apart; the tribe of Judah apart, and their wives apart.” As also after the mourning of the Christ even until now, on the ninth of the month of Ab, they read in the Lamentations of Jeremiah, and assemble, and wail and lament. But the ninth is called 6, for the 6 indicates God; therefore they lament about God, about the Christ who suffered; but nevertheless on account of the Christ our Saviour, and about themselves and their perdition. Why, my brethren, doth a man lament, unless he be in mourning? Wherefore mourn ye also for them, on the Sabbath day of the Passover, until the third hour of the following evening; and thereafter rejoice in His resurrection; be glad and rejoice on their account; cease your fast, and the remainder of your fast of six days offer to the Lord God.

Let those who abound in worldly goods serve those who are poor and in want, and succour them diligently, that the reward of your fast may be received. Whenever the fourteenth day of the Passover may fall, thus observe it; for neither the month nor the day corresponds in time every year, but it varies. Therefore ye, when the people keep the Passover, fast and study to complete your vigil in the midst of their unleavened bread. On Sunday be always glad, for everyone who afflicts his soul on Sunday is guilty of sin. Therefore also, except at the Passover, no one is allowed to fast during these three hours of the night which is between Saturday and Sunday, because it belongs to that night of Sunday. But nevertheless in that night only fast those three hours of that night, being assembled together, ye Christians who are in the Lord.

Chapter XXII

Commandment about children that they should be given to learn handicrafts, and that they should not learn bad habits of idleness, and at suitable times wives should be given to them that they fall not into sin, and their fathers be held guilty for their sins

Teach your sons handicrafts which are suitable and helpful to the fear of God, lest by means of idleness they serve voluptuousness, for not being educated by their parents, they wickedly do works like the heathen.

Therefore spare them not, but reprove and discipline and teach them, for, by correcting them verily ye will not kill them, but rather ye will give them certain life, as also our Lord teacheth us in Wisdom and saith thus, ”Chasten thy son because there is hope for him, for thou shalt beat (S. + him) with the rod, and shalt deliver his soul from Sheol.” And again, He saith, “Everyone who spareth his rod hateth his son” But our rod is (S. + the Word of God,) our Lord Jesus the Christ, as also Jeremiah saw the rod of an almond-tree. Everyone who spareth to speak a word of reproof to his son hateth his son. (S. + Therefore teach your sons the word of the Lord.) Therefore chasten them with blows, and do not spare on account of their youth, by the word of the fear of God, and do not give them the power of rising against you, and against their parents; and let them do nothing without your advice; that they go not with those of their age to assemble and amuse themselves; because thus they learn vanity, and are laid hold of by harlotry and fall. Should this happen without their parents, they and their parents will be themselves guilty in the judgment before God. If again by your permission they are without correction, and you, their parents, sin, ye shall be held guilty on their account before God. Therefore be zealous that in their time ye take wives for them; and marry them, lest in their youth, in the fire of their adolescence, they commit fornication like the heathen, and ye shall give answer to God in the day of judgment.

Chapter XXIII

About heresies and schisms; that those are condemned to the Gehenna of fire who split the Churches, like Korah and Dathan and Abiram, those who wished to split Israel, Teacheth that the Church of God is one, and that the Churches of heresies are not Churches of God

Before everything beware of all odious heresies, and flee from them as from a burning fire, and from those who adhere to them; for if a man in making a schism, condemneth himself to the fire with those who err after him; what shall it be if a man go to steep himself in heresies? For know this, that if any of you love preeminence or venture to make a schism, he will inherit the place of Korah and Dathan and Abiram, he and those who are with him, and also with them he will be condemned in the fire. They also of the house of Korah were Levites, and they served in the Tabernacle of witness. They loved preeminence, and coveted the high-Priesthood, and began to speak evil things against that great Moses, as that he had espoused a heathen woman, because he had an Ethiopian wife,  and he was defiled by her. Many others of the house of Zambri were with him who committed fornication with Midianitish women, and that the people were defiled along with him. His brother Aaron was the leader in the worship of idols, who made images and sculptures for

his people; and they spoke wicked things against Moses, him who did all these signs and wonders from God to the nation, him who had done these glorious and perfect works for their help; him who had brought upon Egypt ten plagues, him who had divided the Red Sea, and raised the waters like a wall on either side, and made the people pass over as in the dry wilderness; and had drowned their enemies (S. + and evildoers and all who were with them); him who had sweetened for them the fountain of waters; and from the flinty stone had brought them out streams, and they had drunk (S. + and been satisfied); him who had brought down to them manna from Heaven, and with the manna had given them flesh; him who had given them a pillar of light (S. + for light and guidance) by night, and a cloud for a shade by day; and in the desert had stretched  out a hand to them for the dispensation of the Law, and had given them also the Ten Commandments of God. They spoke evil things against the friend and servant of the Lord, as if to be glorified in righteousness and to boast in holiness and to exhibit purity, and in hypocrisy they showed religion. They also said thus as sober and sedate in holiness, “We will not be soiled with Moses and the people who are with him, for they are polluted. Two hundred and fifty men arose, and led [them astray in leaving that great Moses, as if they hoped for themselves that would the better glorify God, and zealously serve Him; for in that multitude of the people it was said, for one censer of perfumes was offered to the Lord God, but those who were in the schism were two hundred and fifty with their leaders; everyone of them offered a censer of perfumes to God, two hundred and fifty censers, as those who were more pure and zealous than Moses and Aaron, and than the people of the Lord; but the multitude of the service of their censers which was in schism was of no advantage to them; but a fire was kindled from before the Lord and devoured them; and these two hundred and fifty men were burnt while they were still holding the censers in their hands; and the earth opened her mouth and swallowed Dathan and Korah and Abiram, and their tents and their vessels and all that was with them, and they went down alive to Sheol. The chiefs of their error of schism were swallowed up by the earth (S. + but these two hundred and fifty men who went astray were burnt in the fire, all the people looking on). The Lord spared the rest of the multitude of the people, though there were many sinners amongst them; the Lord judged each one of them according to his works.

The Lord spared the multitude of the people; but those who thought that they were purer and more holy and had done more service the fire devoured because they were in schism. And the Lord said unto Moses and unto Aaron, Take the censers of brass from out of the burning, and make them into thin plates, and strew them upon the altar, that the children of Israel may see, and not add to their sins by doing thus, (S. + and pour out the strange fire there, because the censers of the sinners are hallowed in their souls, in the fire; the Lord hath condemned to fire, in that fire came out from before the Lord, and burnt those who put on the incense, which was not permitted to them). Let us look then, beloved, at the latter end of schisms, what happened to them; because if they appear to be pure and holy, their final consummation is in fire and everlasting burning. Let this therefore be a cause of fear to you, for the fire of schism is also judged by fire (S. + not because it sanctified the censers, for they sanctified them through themselves), that is to say, because the fire finished its work, for these people thought in their hearts that their censers were holy; for it was necessary that the fire which was taken for the service of transgression (S. + and for the irritation of God) should not obey them, but should cease from its work or be quenched, and should not consume anything that was put upon it; for now tt would not have done the wìll of the Lord, but would have obeyed schism.

Therefore it was said, Pour out there also the strange fire, that is to say, that the Lord judged fire by fire; (S. + if therefore this curse and judgment are appointed for these schisms that think they are praising God,) what will happen to these heresies which blaspheme against Him? But ye from the Scriptures and with the eyes of faith, seeing the plates of brass that are encrusted on the altar, be careful not to make a schism, and not to fall into judgment, but therefore, as believing and intelligent people, keep far away from schisms, (S. and come not near to them, not even in anything, as Moses said about them to the people, “Separate yourselves from among these cruel people, and come not near to anything that is theirs, that ye perish not with them in all their sins.”

Whilst the wrath of the Lord was burning about the schism, it is written that the people fled from them, saying ”Lest the earth swallow us also with them.” Thus ye also, like people who make a struggle for your lives, flee from schisms, and reject those who wish to do thus, for ye know the place of their condemnation. But about heresies, do not even wish to hear their names, and do not defile your ears, for not only do they not verily praise God, but they even verily blaspheme Him, [mar, nor does the Lord have pleasure in the prayers of the heretics, nor their supplications, nor their praises.] Therefore the heathen will be judged because they knew not)” and offences and divisions, as our Lord said, “Woe to that man by whose means the offence cometh; it were right for him and better for him that a millstone of an ass were hung about his neck and he were drowned in the sea.” But the heretics, because they oppose God, are guilty, (S. + as also our Lord and Saviour Jesus said, “There shall be heresies and schisms,” and again, “Woe unto the world because of offences! for it must needs be that offences and schisms come, but woe to that man by whose means they come,” then we verily heard) but now we verily see, as also the Scripture hands down by means of Jeremiah, that “Profanity and heresies have gone out into all the land” (S. + as if to persuade our heart) and to confirm our faith that the prophecies are sure; for behold they exist and have been accomplished; because of all the work of the Lord our God, the Lord has turned it from the Nation to the Church by means of US the Apostles, and He hath removed and forsaken the Nation, (S. + as It is written in Isaiah, that He hath forsaken the people of the house of Jacob), and Jerusalem is forsaken; and Judah is fallen, and their tongues are in iniquity, and they have obeyed not the Lord, (S. + and He hath abandoned the vineyard), and behold, your house is left unto you desolate.

Chapter XXIV

That God hath left the Synagogue of the Nation, and hath come to the Church of the Gentiles; and that Satan also hath removed from the people of the Jews, and doth not tempt them anymore; and he hath also come against the Church, that he may make in it sects and divisions; and first he raised up in it Simon Magus, afterwards the false Apostles, those from among the Jews who obliged the Christians to act as Jews.

God therefore hath left the Nation, and hath filled the Church, and hath considered her the mount of [His] habitation, and the throne of glory, and the house of exaltation; and as David said, “The mountain of God is a mountain of fat, a mountain of arches. What think ye, ye arched mountains; this is the mountain which God hath chosen to dwell in; the Lord will tabernacle in it forever.” (S. + Ye see therefore how He speaketh to others, “What think ye?” to those who erroneously suppose that there are other Churches), for one only is the Church which is the mountain of the Sanctuary of God. Isaiah also hath said, “There shall be in the latter days (S. + He shall establish) the mountain of the House of the Lord God of Jacob (S. + in the top of the mountains and higher than the heights), and all nations shall flow unto it, and many peoples shall go and say, Come, let US go up to the mountain of the Lord; let us learn His way and walk in it”; (S. + and again he hath said, “There shall be signs and wonders in the midst of the people from the Lord of Sabaoth, and Him that dwelleth in Mount Zion,” and in Jeremiah also He hath said, “A high throne is the house of our Sanctuary”). Because therefore the Lord hath forsaken the nation of Israel, He hath also abandoned the Temple (S. + He hath made them desolate, and cloven the veil of the door), and taken away from it the Holy Spirit (S. + and cast it on those who believe from among

the Gentiles, as He hath said by means of Joel, “I will pour out of My Spirit upon all flesh,”) and the power of His Word, and He hath taken away all service from the Nation, and hath established it in the Church of the Gentiles. In like manner also, Satan the Tempter hath gone away and taken for the service of transgression (S. + and for the irritation of God) should not obey them, but should cease from its work or be quenched, and should not consume anything that was put upon it; for now it would not have done the will of the Lord, but would have obeyed schism.

Therefore it was said, Pour out there also the strange fire, that is to say, that the Lord judged fire by fire; (S. + if therefore this curse and judgment are appointed for these schisms that think they are praising God,) what will happen to these heresies which blaspheme against Him? but ye from the Scriptures and with the eyes of faith, seeing the plates of brass that are encrusted on the altar, be careful not to make a schism, and not to fall into judgment, but therefore, as believing and intelligent people, keep far away from schisms, (S. and come not near to them, not even in anything, as Moses said about them to the people, “Separate yourselves from among these cruel people, and come not near to anything that is theirs, that ye perish not with them in all their sins.” Whilst the wrath of the Lord was burning about the schism, it is written that the people fled from them, saying “Lest the earth swallow us also with them.” Thus ye also, like people who make a struggle for your lives, flee from schisms, and reject those who wish to do thus, for ye know the place of their condemnation. But about heresies, do not even wish to bear their names, and do not defile your ears, for not only do they not verily praise God, but they even verily blaspheme Him, [mar. nor does the Lord have pleasure in the prayers of the heretics, nor their supplications, nor their praises.] Therefore the heathen will be judged because they knew not) and offences and divisions, as our Lord said, “Woe to that man by whose means the offence cometh; it were right for him and better for him that a millstone of an ass were hung about his neck and he were drowned in the sea.” But the heretics, because they oppose God, are guilty, (S + as also our Lord and Saviour Jesus said, “There shall be heresies and schisms,” and again, “Woe unto the world because of offences! For it must needs be that offences and schisms come, but woe to that man by whose means they come,” then we verily heard) but now we verily see, as also the Scripture hands down by means of Jeremiah, that “Profanity and heresies have gone out into all the land” (S. + as if to persuade our heart) and to confirm our faith that the prophecies are sure; for behold they exist and have been accomplished; because of all the work of the Lord our God, the Lord has turned it from the Nation to the Church by means of US the Apostles, and He hath removed and forsaken the Nation, (S. + as it is written in Isaiah, that He hath forsaken the people of the house i.e., of Jacob), and Jerusalem is forsaken; and Judah is fallen, and their tongues are in iniquity, and they have obeyed not the Lord, (S. + and He hath abandoned the vineyard), and behold, your house is left unto you desolate.

Chapter XXV

Teaches that the Apostles assembled and settled the disputations and confusions that were in the Church, and aired the scandals that the false Apostles had wrought in it; and freed the people of the Christ from the burden of the observances of the law of Moses; and wrote writings to all the Churches of the Gentiles about what was necessary for them to observe;

and they wrote this Didascalla

We therefore have begun to preach the Holy Word of the Catholic Church. We returned again to visit the Churches, and found them of different opinions; some observed as holiness, thinking marriage profane, and some abstained from flesh and from wine, and some from swine’s flesh; and they kept all the bonds that are in Deuteronomy. When therefore a danger arose that heresies should be in all the Church, we assembled together, the twelve Apostles, in Jerusalem, and considered about what was to be. It pleased us all with one mind, to write this Catholic Didascalla, for the assurance of you all; and in it we confirmed and appointed that ye should worship God (S. + the Father) Almighty, and His Son Jesus the Christ, and the Holy Ghost, and that ye should minister in the Holy Scriptures, and believe in the Resurrection of the dead, and make use of all His creatures with thankfulness, and take wives, for He said in Proverbs, that “From God the wife is betrothed to the man,” and in the Gospel our Lord said, that “He that created in the beginning the male hath said that He created also the Female. Therefore shall a man leave his father and his mother, and shall cleave unto his wife, and they twain shall be one flesh; what therefore God hath joined together let no man put asunder.” But the spiritual circumcision of the heart is sufficient for believers, as it is said in Jeremiah, “Light a lamp for yourselves; sow not among thorns” (S. + “Circumcise to the Lord your God; circumcise the foreskins of your hearts, ye men of Judah;” and again in Joel He saith, “Bend your hearts and not your garments”). About Baptism also, this one alone is sufficient (S. + to you), the one which has completely taken away your sins; for Isaiah did not say “Be ye washed,” but “Wash yourselves once and be clean.” But we had a long disputation, as men who wrestle for the sake of life; it was not among us the Apostles only, but also among the people, with James

the Bishop and Saint of Jerusalem, him who according to the flesh was brother of our Lord, (S. + and with his Elders) and the Deacons, of the Church of Jerusalem. Because also some days before men had come down from Judaea to Antioch, and had taught the brethren, “Except ye be circumcised, and conduct yourselves according to the Law of Moses, and be cleansed from meats (S. + and from all the other things), ye cannot be saved.” And they had much vexation (S. -f and disputation). The brethren of Antioch did not know that we were all assembled and come in order to examine about these things; they sent to us believing men who were acquainted with the Scriptures, that they might learn about this question, (S. + and when they were come to Jerusalem, they told us about the dispute) which they had in the Church at Antioch. But some men of the doctrine of the Pharisees who believed arose and said, “Ye ought to be circumcised, and to keep the Law of Moses,” (S. + and others also cried out and said thus). Then I Peter rose and said unto them, “Men and our  brethren, ye also know that from the first days when I was among you, God chose that by means of me the Gentiles should hear the Gospel and believe; and God, who searcheth the hearts, bare witness to them, to Cornelius the Centurion, when the Angel appeared to him, and spoke to him about me, and he sent for me. But while I was getting ready to go to him, it was revealed (S. + to me) about the Gentiles who should believe, and about all meats; for I went up on a roof to pray; and I saw the Heavens opened, and a garment bound at its four corners, and it was let down and descended to the earth, and in it were all four-footed beasts and creeping things of the earth and fowls of the Heaven; and there carne to me a voice saying, Simon, rise, slay and eat And I said, Be it far from me, Lord, to eat anything that is impure, (S. + for I have never eaten anything that is impure and polluted). And another voice came to me the second time, saying, What God hath cleansed, call not thou common. But this was done three times, and it was lifted up from me into Heaven. Then I considered and knew the word of the Lord, that as He said, Be glad ye Gentiles, Deut. with the people, (S. + and that in every place He hath spoken about the calling of the Gentiles). And I rose and went; and when I entered his house, I began to speak the Word of the Lord; the Holy Ghost rested upon him and upon all the Gentiles who were present there. God therefore gave them the Holy Spirit, even as unto us, and made no difference in faith between them and us, and purified their hearts. Now therefore why tempt ye God, to put a yoke upon their necks, which neither our fathers nor we were able to bear? But by the goodness of our Lord Jesus the Christ, we believe that we shall be saved even as they; for the Lord hath come to us, and hath loosed us from these bonds, and hath said to US, Come unto Me, all ye who are weary and carry heavy burdens, and I will give you rest. Take My yoke upon you, and learn of Me, for I am quiet and humble in My heart, and ye shall find rest unto your souls, for so My yoke is pleasant and My burden is light If therefore our Lord

loosed US and lightened from us, why do ye wish to put a halter on yourselves?” Then all the people kept silence, and I James answered and said, “Men and our brethren, hearken unto me. Simon hath declared how God at first did say that He would choose from among the Gentiles a people for His name; and to this agree the words of the Prophets, as it is written, “After this I will raise and build the Tabernacle of David which is fallen; is and its ruins I will build and raise; that the residue (S. + of men) may seek the Lord, (S. + and all the Gentiles, upon whom My name is called, saith the Lord, who knoweth these things from everlasting. Therefore I say, let no man dispute with those who from among the Gentiles are turned to God), but let US send to them thus: Remove from idols and from sacrifices  and from blood and from strangled things.” Then it pleased us the Apostles (S. + and the Bishops and the Elders) with all the Church, to choose from among them men and to send them with those of Barnabas and Paul, who came from thence; and we chose Judah who was called Barnaba, and Shela, men distinguished among the brethren, and we wrote these with our hands:

Letter of the Apostles

The Apostles, and Elders and Brethren, to the Brethren who are of the Gentiles that are in Antioch, and in Syria, and in Cilicia, much greeting. Because we have heard that men whom we have not sent trouble you with words which corrupt your souls; it seemed good to all of US, being assembled together, to choose and send men to you with our beloved ones those with Barnaba, whom we have sent. But we have sent Judah and Shela, who also by word will speak to you about these things: for it hath pleased the Holy Ghost, and us, that no greater burden should be put upon you than that ye remove yourselves from what is necessary, and from sacrifices, and from blood, and from strangled things (S. + and from fornication); from these keep yourselves. and ye shall do good things, and fare ye well in our Lord.” But we sent this letter, and we remained in Jerusalem many days; and we examined and we decreed together the things that were said, to all the people; but further we wrote also this Catholic Didascalla.

Chapter XXVI

Sheweth that from the first the Apostles tumed to the Churches of the Gentiles.  as from the beginning of preaching, and in passing among them, they fixed and confirmed them, and appointed Canons among them

The opinion therefore which we have counselled and considered about those who were formerly in error, and we have sent and decreed, is thus, that we should return again anew, and also go to the Churches a second time, as from the beginning of preaching; we should also confirm believers, that they should avoid the before-named offences, that they receive not those who come among them falsely in the name of the Apostles, and that they distinguish them by the difference between their words, and the effects of  their deeds, because these are those of whom our Lord said that there shall come to you men wearing sheep’s clothing, but inwardly they are ravening wolves; and by their fruits ye shall know them. Beware of  them therefore, for false Christs and lying prophets shall arise, and shall deceive many, and because of the greatness of iniquity, the love of many shall wax cold; but he that shall endure unto the end, he shall be saved.

Those therefore that have not been deceived and those who repent of error, they shall be left in the Church; but those who hold fast the error and repent not, we cut off and appoint that they go out of the Church, and be separated from the believers, because they have heresies, (S. + in order to command the believers, to keep entirely away from them), and they should have no communion with them either by word or by prayer; for these people are the enemies (S. + and spoilers) of the Church; for about these our Lord hath commanded us and said unto us, “Beware of the leaven of the Pharisees and of the Sadducees;” and “Into the cities of the Samaritans enter not,” (S. + but the cities of the Samaritans are of heresies), which walk in a crooked way (S. + of which He spake in the Proverbs, “There is a way that men think straight,”) and its end leadeth lower than Sheol.” These are they against whom our Lord decreed severely and bitterly, and said, “They shall not be forgiven, neither in this world, nor in that which is to come,” (S. + for because of the Nation which did not believe in the Christ, and laid hands upon Him, on the Son of man, that laid hands on Him blaspheming; and our Lord said, “It shall be forgiven unto them”; and again our Lord said about them, “My Father, they know not what they do, nor what they speak; if it be possible, forgive them”; but again also the Gentiles blaspheme against the Son of man, because of the Cross, and to them he hath also given forgiveness), to those who believed (S. + of the Nation or) of the Gentiles by means of baptism, and blasphemed, He hath not given the pardon of their wicked deeds, as the Lord the Christ hath said, “Wherefore I say unto you, that all sins and blasphemies shall be forgiven unto men; but the blasphemy against the Holy Ghost shall not be forgiven, neither in this world nor in that which is to come; and everyone who speaketh a word against the Son of man, it shall be forgiven him; for everyone that blasphemeth against the Holy Ghost shall not be forgiven, (S. + neither in this world, nor in the world to come). Those who blaspheme against the Holy Ghost, those who against God Almighty hastily and hypocritically blaspheme, (S. + those heretics who receive His holy Scriptures, or who receive them wickedly in hypocrisy with blasphemy, or who blaspheme by wicked words against the Catholic Church, which is the receptacle of the Holy Ghost, are those who before the future judgment and before the Spirit, have from of old been condemned to give answer before the Christ; for this which He said, that “it shall not be forgiven unto them,” is a sentence of severe punishment of the condemnation which expels them), and say that the Holy Ghost does not dwell in baptism, nor in the flesh and blood of the Christ. Having decreed and established and confirmed with one mind, each one of us went out and departed to his first portion, confirming the Churches, because the things that had been predicted were fulfilled, and disguised wolves had come, and false Christs and lying prophets had appeared; for this was known and manifest that when (S. + the times) should approach (S. + and His coming be near, there should be more and worse than these, from whom may the Lord God therefore deliver you!) may they also repent of their godless error, and by much admonition and by the word of doctrine of prayer we have cured and healed and forgiven in the Church. Those who restrain the word by the perverted word of error, and there is no cure for them, we put out, that they may not lead the holy Church astray, the pure Church of God; lest like a hateful leprosy and like a cancerous ulcer it should get to everyone; but that pure and unpolluted and passionless and spotless, the Church may be sealed to the Lord God, they who are in every place and in every city, and in all the habitable part of the world.

We make and testify; and we leave this Didascalla, holy and Catholic, justly and righteously to the Catholic Church, and for the assurance of believers.


Appendix

 

Translation of note by Professor Nau on the Chronology contained in Chapter XXI. {La Didascalle, p. 119).

“There are numerous discussions on the chronology of the week of the Passion…. The greatest difficulty consists in conciliating the Synoptics with St John. The Didascalla does not think of this conciliation, for it seems to ignore the Gospcl of St John, but nevertheless it furnishes a solution. (On Sunday Jesus announces that in two days it will be the Passover, and that the Son of man will be delivered up to be crucified.) On Monday the chief Priests assemble, and decide to seize Jesus and to keep the Passover on Tuesday. On this Monday Jesus was in the house of Simon the Leper. As Friday is to count for two days, that really takes place, as St John says, six days before the Passover or the Saturday. For the evening of Friday, when the Passover was usually celebrated, was the commencement of Saturday. Thus the Synoptists and St John speak, the first of the day on which the Passover was celebrated that year, and the second of the day on which it ought to have been celebrated. All are then right; it was enough that we should understand them. Next, our Lord celebrates the Passover on Tuesday; He is arrested on the night following Tuesday, that is to say, on Wednesday; He passes Wednesday in the house of Caiphas, Thursday in the house of Pilate; He is crucified on Friday. At His death darkness covers the earth, which makes two days of Friday, and allows it to be said that our Lord to be dead during three nights, namely, the supplementary night consisting of the darkness which followed His death, the night from Friday to Saturday, and the night from Saturday to Sunday. This explanation, if it had been imagined in our day, would be worthless, but as it has been written at the latest in the third century, it may rest upon a tradition still more ancient, and ought not to be rejected without examination.”

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2012: The Apostolic Constitutions (or Constitutions of the Holy Apostles, lat. Constitutiones Apostolorum) / William Whiston’s Version

375 – 380 AD
The Apostolic Constitutions (or Constitutions of the Holy Apostles, lat. Constitutiones Apostolorum)
By Clement, Bishop And Citizen Of Rome (Pseudonym)
The Work Claiming To Be The Constitutions Of The Holy Apostles, Including The Canons; William Whiston’s Version, Revised From The Greek;
Irah Chase, Otto Krabbe
D. Appleton and company, 1848

 Download this document as a PDF file by clicking this link.

Link on Google Book

Table of Contents

 

  • BOOK I. Concerning The Laity
  • Book II. Concerning Bishops, Presbyters, And Deacons
  • Book III. Concerning Widows
  • Book IV. Concerning Orphans
  • Book V. Concerning Martyrs
  • Book VI. Concerning Schisms
  • Book VII. Concerning Deportment, And The Eucharist, And Initiation Into Christ
  • Book VIII. Concerning Gifts, And Ordinations, And Ecclesiastical Canons

BOOK I. Concerning The Laity

Chapters

  1. Concerning Covetousness
  2. That we ought not to return injuries, nor revenge ourselves on him that doeth us wrong
  3. Concerning the adornment of ourselves, and the sin which ariseth thence
  4. That we ought not to be over curious about such as live wickedly, but to be intent upon our own proper employment
  5. What books of Scripture we ought to read
  6. That we ought to abstain from all the books of those that are out of the church
  7. Concerning a bad woman
  8. Concerning the subjection of a wife to her husband, and that she must be loving and modest
  9. That a woman must not bathe with men
  10. Concerning a contentious and brawling woman

Book II. Concerning Bishops, Presbyters, And Deacons

Chapters

  1. In what things a Bishop is to be examined before he is ordained
  2. That charitable distributions are not to be made to every widow, but that sometimes a woman who has a husband is to be preferred; and that no distributions are to be made to anyone who is given to gluttony, drunkenness, and idleness
  3. That a Bishop must be no accepter of persons in judgment; that he must be gentle in his conversation, and temperate in his diet
  4. That a Bishop must not be given to filthy lucre, nor be a surety, nor an advocate
  5. What ought to be the character of the initiated
  6. Concerning a person falsely accused, or, on the other hand, a person convicted
  7. That a Bishop ought not to receive bribes
  8. That a Bishop, who, by wrong judgment, spareth an offender, is himself guilty
  9. How a Bishop ought to judge offenders
  10. An Instruction, how a Bishop ought to behave himself to the Penitent
  11. That we ought to beware how we make trial of any sinful course
  12. Concerning those who affirm that a Penitent is not to be received into the church. That a righteous person, although he converse with a sinner, Avill not perish with him. That no person is punished for another; but every one must give an account of himself. That we must assist those who are weak in the faith; and that a Bishop must not be governed by any turbulent person among the laity
  13. That the Priest must neither overlook offences, nor be rash in punishing them
  14. Of Penance. The manner of it, and rules concerning it
  15. That a Bishop must be unblamable, and a pattern for those who are under his charge
  16. That a Bishop must take care that his people do not sin, considering that he is a watchman
  17. That a shepherd who is careless of his sheep incurreth penalty; and that a sheep who doth not obey the shepherd is punished
  18. How the governed are to obey the Bishops who are set over them
  19. That it is a dangerous thing to judge without hearing both sides, or to determine punishment against a person before he is convicted
  20. That David, the Ninevites, Hezekiah, and his son Manasseh are eminent examples of repentance
  21. Amon may be an example to such as sin with a high hand
  22. That Christ Jesus our Lord came to save sinners by repentance
  23. Of first-fruits and tithes; and after what manner the Bishop is himself to partake of them, or to distribute them to others
  24. According to what pattern and dignity every order of the clergy is appointed by God
  25. That it is a horrible thing for a man to thrust himself into any sacerdotal office; as did Corah and his company, Saul, and Uzziah
  26. Of an entertainment; and how each distinct order of the clergy is to be treated by those who invite them to it
  27. What is the dignity of a Bishop and of a Deacon
  28. After what manner the laity are to be obedient to the Deacon
  29. That the Deacon must not do anything without the Bishop
  30. That the Deacon must not make any distributions without the consent of the Bishop, because that will turn to the reproach of the Bishop
  31. After what manner the Priests are to be honored and to be reverenced as our spiritual parents
  32. That the Priests are to be preferred before the rulers and kings
  33. That both the Law and the Gospel prescribe offerings
  34. Mention of the Ten Commandments; and after what manner they prescribe
  35. Concerning accusers and false accusers; and how a judge is not rashly either to believe them or to disbelieve them, but after an accurate examination
  36. That they who sin are to be privately reproved, and the Penitent to be received according to the Constitution of our Lord
  37. Examples of repentance
  38. That we are not to be implacable towards him who hath once or twice offended
  39. How we ought to receive the Penitent, and how to bear with them that sin, and when to cut them off from the church
  40. That a judge must not be a respecter of persons
  41. How false accusers are to be punished
  42. That the Deacon is to ease the burden of the Bishops, and to order the smaller matters himself
  43. That contentions and quarrels are unbecoming Christians
  44. That believers ought not to go to law before unbelievers; nor ought any unbeliever to be called for a witness against believers
  45. That the judicatures of Christians ought to be held on the second day of the week
  46. That the same punishment is not to be inflicted forevery offence, but different punishments for different offenders
  47. What are to be the characters of accusers and witnesses
  48. That former offences sometimes render subsequent ones credible
  49. Against judging without hearing both sides
  50. The caution observed at heathen tribunals before the condemnation of criminals, affordeth Christians a good example
  51. That Christians ought not to have contentions one with another
  52. That the Bishops must, by their Deacon, put the people in mind of the obligation they are under to live peaceably together
  53. An enumeration of several instances of divine Providence, and how, in every age, from the beginning, God hath invited all men to repentance
  54. That it is the will of God that men should be of one mind, in matters of religion, like the heavenly Powers
  55. An exact description of a church, and the clergy: and what things in particular, everyone is to do in the solemn assemblies of the clergy and laity for religious worship
  56. Of commendatory letters in favor of strangers, lay-persons, clergymen, and bishops; and that those who come into the church-assemblies, are to be received without regard to their quality
  57. That every Christian ought to frequent the church diligently both morning and evening
  58. The vain zeal which the heathen and the Jews show in frequenting their temples and synagogues is a proper example and motive to excite Christians to frequent the church
  59. That we must not prefer the affairs of this life to those which concern the worship of God
  60. That Christians must abstain from all the impious practices of the heathen
  61. That no Christian who will not work must eat; as Peter and the rest of the apostles were fishermen, Paul and Aquila, tentmakers; and Jude the son of James, a husbandman

Book III. Concerning Widows

Chapters

  1. That those who are chosen widows ought to be not under sixty years of age
  2. That we must avoid the choice of younger widows, because of suspicion
  3. in. Of what character the widows ought to be, and how they ought to be supported by the Bishop
  4. That we ought to be charitable to all sorts of persons in want
  5. That the widows are to be very careful of their deportment
  6. That women ought not to teach, because it is unseemly; and what women followed our Lord
  7. What are the characters of widows falsely so called
  8. That a widow ought not to accept of alms from the unworthy, nor ought a Bishop, nor any other of the faithful
  9. That women ought not to baptize; because it is impious, and contrary to the doctrine of Christ
  10. That a layman ought not to perform a priestly work, baptism, or sacrifice, or laying on of hands, or blessing
  11. That none but a Bishop or a Presbyter, none even of the inferior ranks of the clergy are permitted to do the offices of the Priests; that ordination belongeth wholly to the Bishop, and to no other person
  12. The rejection of all uncharitable actions
  13. How the widows are to pray for those who supply their necessities
  14. That she who hath been kind to the poor ought not to boast, and tell abroad her name, according to the Constitution of the Lord
  15. That it doth not become us to revile our neighbors, because cursing is contrary to Christianity
  16. Concerning the divine initiation of holy baptism
  17. What is the meaning of baptism into Christ 5 and on what account everything therein is said and done
  18. Of what character he ought to be who is initiated
  19. Of what character a Deacon ought to be
  20. That a Bishop ought to be ordained by three or by two Bishops, but not by one; for that would be invalid

Book IV. Concerning Orphans

 Chapters

  1. That it is highly commendable to receive orphans kindly, and adopt them
  2. How the Bishop ought to provide for the orphans
  3. Who ought to be supported, according to the Lord’s Constitution
  4. Concerning the love of money
  5. With what fear men ought to partake of the Lord’s oblations
  6. Whose oblations are to be received, and whose are not to be received
  7. That the oblations of the unworthy, while they are such, do not only not propitiate God, but, on the contrary, provoke him to indignation
  8. That it is better to present to the widows from our own labors, though it be inconsiderable and few contributions, than to presenfthose which are many and large, received from the ungodly. For it is better to perish by famine, than to receive an oblation from the ungodly
  9. That the people ought to be exhorted by the Priest to do good to the needy, as saith Solomon the wise
  10. A Constitution, that if anyone of the ungodly by force will cast money to the Priests, they spend it in wood and coals, but not in food
  11. Of Parents and Children
  12. Of Servants and Masters
  13. In what things we ought to be subject to the rulers of this world
  14. Of Virgins

Book V. Concerning Martyrs

 Chapters

  1. That it is reasonable for the faithful to supply, according to the Constitution of the Lord, the wants of those who, by the unbelievers, are afflicted for the sake of Christ
  2. That we are to avoid intercourse with false brethren, when they continue in their perversity
  3. That we ought to afford a helping hand to such as are plundered for the sake of Christ, although we should incur danger ourselves
  4. That it is a horrible and destructive thing to deny Christ
  5. That we ought to imitate Christ in suffering, and with zeal to follow his patience
  6. That a believer ought neither rashly to run into danger, through security; nor to be over-timorous, through pusillanimity; but to fly away for fear; yet, if he fall into the enemy’s hand, to strive earnestly on account of the crown that is laid up for him
  7. Several demonstrations concerning the resurrection, concerning the Sibyl, and what the Stoics say concerning the bird called the Phoenix
  8. Concerning James the brother of the Lord, and Stephen the first martyr
  9. Concerning false Martyrs
  10. A moral admonition, that we are to abstain from vain talking, obscene talking, jesting, drunkenness, lasciviousness, and luxury
  11. An admonition, instructing men to avoid the abominable sin of idolatry
  12. That we ought not to sing a heathen or an obscene song 5 nor to swear by an idol, because it is an impious thing, and contrary to the knowledge of God
  13. A catalogue of the feasts of the Lord which are to be kept; and when each of them ought to be observed
  14. Concerning the Passion of our Lord; and what was done on each day of his sufferings; and concerning Judas; and that Judas was not present when the Lord delivered the mysteries to his disciples
  15. Of the great week; and on what account they enjoin us to fast on Wednesday and Friday
  16. An enumeration of the prophetical predictions which declare Christ; whose completion though the Jews saw, yet out of the evil temper of their mind they did not believe he was the Christ of God, and condemned the Lord of glory to the cross
  17. How the Passover ought to be celebrated
  18. A Constitution concerning the great Passover week
  19. Concerning the watching all the night of the great Sabbath, and concerning the day of the resurrection
  20. A prophetic prediction concerning Christ Jesus

Book VI. Concerning Schisms

Chapters

  1. Who they were that ventured to make schisms, and did not escape punishment
  2. That it is not lawful to rise up against either the kingly or the priestly office
  3. Concerning the virtue of Moses, and the incredulity of the Jewish nation, and what wonderful works God did among them
  4. That he maketh schism, not who separateth himself from the wicked, but who departeth from the godly
  5. On what account Israel, falsely so named, is rejected, a demonstration from the prophetic predictions
  6. That even among the Jews there arose the doctrine of several heresies, hateful to God
  7. Whence the heresies sprang, and who was the ringleader of their impiety
  8. Who were the successors of Simon’s impiety, and what heresies they set up
  9. How Simon, desiring to fly by some magical arts, fell down headlong from on high, at the prayers of Peter, and broke his feet, and hands, and ankle-bones
  10. How the heresies differ from each other, and from the truth
  11. An exposition of apostolical preaching
  12. To those that confess Christ, but are desirous to judaize
  13. That we must separate from heretics
  14. Who were the preachers of the catholic doctrine, and which are the commandments given by them
  15. That we ought neither to rebaptize, nor to receive that baptism which is given by the wicked; which is not baptism, but a pollution
  16. Concerning books with false inscriptions
  17. Matrimonial precepts concerning clergymen
  18. An exhortation commanding to avoid the communion of the impious heretics
  19. To those who speak evil of the Law
  20. Which is the law of nature, and which is that afterwards introduced, and why it was introduced
  21. That we who believe in Christ are under grace, and not under the servitude of that additional law
  22. That the law for sacrifices is additional; which Christ, when he came, took away
  23. How Christ became a fulfiller of the law; and what parts of it he caused to cease, or changed, or transferred
  24. That it pleased the Lord, that the law of righteousness should be manifested also by Romans
  25. How God, on account of their impiety towards Christ, made the Jews captives, and placed them under tribute
  26. That we ought to avoid the heretics, as the corrupters of souls
  27. Of some Jewish and Gentile observances
  28. Of the love of boys, adultery, and fornication
  29. How wives ought to be subject to their own husbands; and husbands ought to love their own wives
  30. That it is the custom of Jews and Gentiles to observe natural purgations, and to abominate the remains of the dead; but that all this is contrary to Christianity

Book VII. Concerning Deportment, And The Eucharist, And Initiation Into Christ

Chapters

  1. That there are two ways; the one natural, of life, and the other introduced afterwards, of death; and that the former is from God, and the latter of error, from the snares of the adversary
  2. Moral exhortations of the Lord’s Constitutions agreeing with the ancient prohibitions of the divine laws. The prohibition of anger, envy, corruption, adultery, and every forbidden action
  3. Prohibition of conjuring, murder of infants, perjury, and false witness
  4. Prohibition of evil speaking, and wrath, of deceitful conduct, idle words, falsehood, covetousness, and hypocrisy
  5. Prohibition of malignity, acceptation of persons, prolonged anger, misanthropy, and detraction
  6. Concerning augury and enchantments
  7. Prohibition of murmuring, arrogance, pride, and audacity
  8. Of long-suffering, simplicity, meekness, and patience
  9. That it is our duty to esteem our Christian teachers above our parents; the former being the means of our well-being, the other only of our being
  10. That we ought not to separate ourselves from the saints, but to make peace between those that quarrel, to judge righteously, and not to accept persons
  11. Concerning him that is double-minded, or of little faith
  12. Of doing good
  13. How masters ought to behave themselves to their servants; and how servants ought to be subject
  14. Concerning hypocrisy, and obedience to the laws, and confession of sins
  15. Concerning the regard due to parents
  16. Concerning the subjection due to the king and to rulers
  17. Concerning the pure conscience of those that pray
  18. That the way which was afterwards introduced by the snares of the adversary, is full of impiety and wickedness
  19. That we must not turn from the way of piety, either to the right hand or to the left, is the exhortation of the lawgiver
  20. That we ought not to despise any of the sorts of food that are set before us, but gratefully and orderly to partake of them
  21. That we ought to avoid the eating of things offered to idols
  22. A Constitution of our Lord, how we ought to baptize, and into whose death
  23. Which days of the week we ought to fast, and which not, and for what reasons
  24. What sort of people they ought to be who offer the prayer that was given by the Lord
  25. A mystical thanksgiving
  26. A thanksgiving at the divine participation
  27. A thanksgiving in respect to the mystical ointment
  28. That we ought not to be indifferent about fellowship
  29. A Constitution concerning oblations
  30. How we ought to assemble together and celebrate the festival day of our Saviours resurrection
  31. What qualifications they ought to have who are to be ordained
  32. A prediction concerning events which are to occur
  33. A prayer declarative of God’s various Providence
  34. A prayer declarative of God’s various creation
  35. A prayer with thanksgiving declarative of God’s care over the beings He hath made
  36. A prayer commemorative of the incarnation of Christ; and his various Providence to the saints
  37. A prayer containing a memorial of Providence, and an enumeration of the various benefits afforded to the saints by the Providence of God through Christ
  38. A prayer for the assistance of the righteous
  39. How the Catechumens are to be instructed in the elements
  40. A Constitution, how the Catechumens are to be blessed by the priests in initiation j and what things are to be taught them
  41. The renunciation of the adversary, and the dedication to the Christ of God
  42. A thanksgiving in respect to the anointing with the mystical oil
  43. A thanksgiving concerning the mystical water
  44. A thanksgiving concerning the mystical ointment
  45. A prayer of the newly initiated
  46. Who they were whom the Holy Apostles sent and ordained
  47. A morning prayer
  48. An evening prayer
  49. A prayer at dinner

Book VIII. Concerning Gifts, And Ordinations, And Ecclesiastical Canons

Chapters

  1. On whose account the miraculous powers are put forth
  2. Concerning unworthy Bishops and Presbyters
  3. That to make Constitutions concerning those things which are to be performed in the churches, is of great consequence
  4. Concerning Ordinations
  5. Form of prayer for the ordination of a Bishop
  6. The Divine liturgy in which is the bidding prayer for the Catechumens.
  7. Prayer for the Energumens
  8. Prayer for the persons about to be baptized
  9. The imposition of hands, and prayer for the Penitents
  10. The bidding prayer for the faithful
  11. Form of prayer for the faithful
  12. A Constitution of James, the brother of John, the son of Zebedee
  13. The bidding prayer for the faithful, after the Divine oblation
  14. The bidding prayer after the participation
  15. Form of prayer after the participation
  16. Concerning the ordination of Presbyters, a Constitution of John, who was beloved by the Lord
  17. Concerning the ordination of Deacons, a Constitution of Philip
  18. Form of prayer for the ordination of a Deacon
  19. Concerning a Deaconess, a Constitution of Bartholomew
  20. Form of prayer for the ordination of a Deaconess
  21. Concerning Sub-deacons, a Constitution of Thomas
  22. Concerning Readers, a Constitution of Matthew
  23. Concerning Confessors, a Constitution of James the son of Alpheus
  24. The same Apostle’s Constitution concerning Virgins
  25. The Constitution of Lebbeus, who was surnamed Thaddeus, concerning Widows
  26. The same Apostle concerning an Exorcist
  27. Simon the Cananite, concerning the number necessary for the ordination of a Bishop
  28. The same Apostle’s Canons concerning Bishops, Presbyters, Deacons, and the rest of the clergy
  29. Concerning the blessing of water and of oil, a Constitution of Matthias
  30. The same Apostle’s Constitution concerning first-fruits and tithes
  31. The same Apostle’s Constitution concerning the remaining oblations
  32. Various canons of Paul the Apostle concerning those that present them selves to be baptized; whom we are to receive, and whom to reject
  33. On what days servants are not to work
  34. At what hours, and why we are to pray
  35. A Constitution of James the brother of Christ, concerning evening prayer
  36. A bidding prayer for the evening
  37. A thanksgiving for the evening
  38. A thanksgiving for the morning
  39. A prayer, with imposition of hands for the morning
  40. Form of prayer for the first-fruits
  41. A bidding prayer for those who have fallen asleep
  42. How and when we ought to celebrate the memorials of the faithful departed; and that we ought then to give somewhat out of their goods to the poor
  43. That memorials or mandates do not at all profit those who die wicked
  44. Concerning drunkards
  45. Of receiving those who are persecuted for Christ’s sake
  46. That every one ought to remain in that rank in which he is placed, and not seize for himself the offices which are not intrusted to him
  47. The Ecclesiastical Canons

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


Constitutions Of The Holy Apostles

By Clement, Bishop And Citizen Of Rome; Or, Catholic Doctrine

English Translation

BOOK I – Concerning The Laity

THE Apostles and Elders to all those who from among the Gentiles have believed in the Lord Jesus Christ: Grace and peace from the Almighty God, through our Lord Jesus Christ, be multiplied to you in the acknowledgment of him.

The catholic church is the plantation of God, and his beloved vineyard; containing those who have believed in his unerring divine religion; who are the heirs by faith of his everlasting kingdom; who are partakers of his divine influence, and of the communication of the Holy Spirit; who are armed and inwardly strengthened with his fear, through Jesus; who enjoy the benefit of the sprinkling of the precious and innocent blood of Christ; who have free liberty to call the Almighty God, Father; being fellow-heirs and joint partakers of his beloved Son. Hearken to the holy doctrine, ye who enjoy his promises, as being delivered by the command of your Saviour, and agreeable to his glorious words. Take care, ye children of God, to do all things in obedience to God; and in all things please Christ, who is our Lord. For if any man follow unrighteousness, and do those things that are contrary to the will of God, such a person will be accounted by God as the disobedient heathen.

Chapter I – Against Covetousness

ABSTAIN, therefore, from all unlawful desires and from injustice. For it is written in the Law, Thou shalt not covet thy neighbor’s wife, nor his field, nor his man-servant, nor his maid-servant, nor his ox, nor his ass, nor anything that is thy neighbor’s; because all coveting of these things is from the evil one. For he that coveteth his neighbor’s wife, or his man-servant, or his maid-servant, is already in his mind an adulterer and a thief; and if he do not repent, he is condemned by our Lord Jesus Christ; through whom glory be to God forever. Amen. For he saith in the Gospel, recapitulating, and confirming, and fulfilling the Ten Commandments of the Law, It is written in the Law, Thou shalt not commit adultery: But I say unto you; that is, I said in the Law by Moses, but now I say unto you myself, Whosoever shall look on his neighbor’s wife to lust after her, hath committed adultery with her already in his heart. Such a man is condemned of adultery who coveteth his neighbor’s wife in his mind. But he that coveteth an ox or an ass, doth not he design to steal them? To apply them to his own use, and to lead them away? Or again, he that coveteth a field, and continueth in such a disposition, doth not he wickedly contrive how to remove the landmarks, and so compel the possessor to part with somewhat for nothing? For the prophet somewhere saith, Woe to those who join house to house, and lay field to field, that they may deprive their neighbor of somewhat which was his. Wherefore it is said, Must ye alone inhabit the earth? For these things have been heard in the ears of the Lord of hosts. And elsewhere, Cursed be he who removeth his neighbor’s landmarks; and all the people shall say Amen. Wherefore Moses saith, Thou shalt not remove thy neighbor’s landmarks, which thy fathers have set.

Upon this account, therefore, terrors, death, tribunals, and condemnations from God, follow such as these. But as to those who are obedient to God, there is one law of God, simple, true, living, which is this: Do not that to another which Thou hatest  another should do to thee. Thou wouldst not that anyone should look upon thy wife with an evil design to corrupt her. Do not thou, therefore, look upon thy neighbor’s wife with a wicked intention. Thou wouldst not that thy garment should be taken away. Do not thou, therefore, take away another’s. Thou wouldst not be beaten, reproached, insulted. Do not thou, therefore, treat any other in the like manner.

Chapter II – That we ought not to return injuries, nor revenge ourselves on him that doeth us wrong

But if anyone curse thee, do thou bless him. For it is written in the book of Numbers, He that blesseth thee is blessed,  and he that curseth thee is cursed. In the same manner it is written in the Gospel, Bless them that curse you. Being injured, do not avenge yourselves, but bear it with patience; for the Scripture speaketh thus: Say not thou, I will avenge myself on mine enemy for what injuries he hath done me: but wait; that the Lord may right thee, and bring vengeance upon him who hath injured thee. For, again, in the Gospel he saith, Love your enemies; do good to them that hate you; and pray for them who despitefully use you, and persecute you; and ye shall be children of your Father who is in heaven; for he maketh his sun to rise on the evil and on the good, and sendeth rain on the just and on the unjust. Let us, therefore, beloved, attend to these commandments, that, doing them, we may be found to be children of light.

Bear, therefore, with one another, ye servants and sons of God. Let the husband not be insolent nor arrogant towards his wife; but compassionate, bountiful, desiring to please his own wife, and treat her honorably and obligingly, endeavoring to be agreeable to her.

Chapter III – Concerning the adornment of ourselves, and the sin which ariseth thence

Do not adorn thyself in such a manner as may entice another woman to thee. For if thou art overcome by her, and sinnest with her, eternal death will overtake thee from God; and thou wilt be punished with sensible and bitter torments. Or if thou dost not perpetrate such a wicked act, but shakest her off, and refusest her, in this case thou art not wholly innocent, even though thou are not guilty of the crime itself, but only of ensnaring her by thine embellishment to desire thee; for thou art the cause that she was so affected, that by her desire after thee she was guilty of adultery with thee; yet thou art not so guilty, because thou didst not send to her who was ensnared by thee, nor didst thou desire her. Since, therefore, thou didst not deliver up thyself to her, thou shalt find mercy with the Lord thy God, who hath said, Thou shalt not commit adultery; and, Thou shalt not covet. For if such a woman, upon sight of thee, or unseasonable meeting with thee, was smitten in her mind, and sent to thee, but thou, as a religious person, didst refuse her; yet, because she was wounded in her heart by thy beauty, and youth, and adorning, so that she fell in love with thee, thou wilt be found guilty of her transgression, as having been a cause of her stumbling; and shalt inherit a woe. Wherefore, pray thou to the Lord God, that no mischief may befall thee on this account; for thou art not to please men, so as to commit sin, but God, so as to attain holiness of life, and be partaker of everlasting rest.

That beauty which God by nature hath bestowed on thee, do not further beautify; but modestly diminish it before men. Thus do not permit the hair of thy head to grow too long, but rather cut it short; lest, by nicely combing thy hair, and wearing it long, and anointing thyself, thou draw upon thyself such ensnared or ensnaring women. Nor do thou wear over-fine garments, to seduce any; nor do thou, with evil subtilty, affect over-fine stockings or shoes for thy feet, but only such as suit the measures of decency and usefulness. Nor do thou put upon thy fingers a ring that hath a golden bezel. For all these ornaments are signs of lasciviousness; and if them be solicitous about them, in an improper manner, thou wilt not act as becometh a good man. For it is not lawful for thee, a believer and a man of God, to permit the hair of thy head to grow long, and to collect it into a tuft or a braided crown, nor so to separate it as to keep it divided, nor to puff it up, nor by nice combing and platting to make it curl, nor to tinge it with yellow; since the Law forbiddeth, saying in its additional precepts, Ye shall not  make to yourselves curls and round rasures. Nor is it right to destroy the hair of the chin, and unnaturally change the form of a man. For the Law saith, Ye shall not mar your beards. God the Creator hath made it seemly for women to have no beard, but he hath determined that it is unsuitable for men. But if thou do these things to please men, in contradiction to the Law, thou wilt be abominable with God, who created thee after his own image. If, therefore, thou wilt be acceptable to God, abstain from all those things which he hateth; and do none of those things that are displeasing to him.

Chapter IV – That we ought not to be over-curious about such as live wickedly, but to be intent upon our own proper employment

Thou shalt not be as a wanderer and gadder abroad, rambling about the streets, without just cause, to spy out such as live wickedly. But, by minding thine own trade and employment, endeavor to do what is acceptable to God. And, keeping in mind the oracles of Christ, meditate on them continually. For the Scripture saith to thee, Thou shalt meditate in his Law, day and night;  when thou walkest in the field, and when thou sittest in thine house, and when thou liest down, and when thou risest up, that thou mayest have understanding in all things. Nay, although thou be rich, and do not need a trade for thy maintenance, be not one that wandereth about, and walketh abroad at random. But either go to some that are believers and of the same religion, and confer and discourse with them about the lively oracles of God.

Chapter V – What books of Scripture we ought to read

If thou stay at home, read the Law, the books of the Kings, and the Prophets; sing the Hymns of David; and peruse diligently the Gospel, which is the completion of the Scriptures that have been mentioned.

Chapter VI – That we ought to abstain from all the books of those that are out of the church

Abstain from all the heathen books; for what hast thou to do with such foreign discourses, or laws, or false prophets, which subvert the faith of the unstable? What defect dost thou find in the Law of God, that thou shouldst have recourse to those heathenish fables? For if thou hast a mind to read history, thou hast the books of the Kings; of works of wisdom and poetry, thou hast those of the Prophets, of Job, and the Proverbs; in which thou wilt find greater depth of sagacity than in all the heathen poets and sophisters, because these are the words of the Lord, the only wise God. If thou desirest something to sing, thou hast the Psalms; if the origin of things, thou hast Genesis; if laws and statutes, thou hast the glorious Law of the Lord God. Do thou, therefore, utterly abstain from all strange and diabolical books.

Nay, when thou readest the Law, think not thyself bound to observe the additional precepts. Abstain from them; if not from all of them, yet from some of them, that are of this character. Read them only for the sake of history, in order to the knowledge of them, and to glorify God, that he hath delivered thee from so great and so many bonds. Propose to thyself to distinguish what rules were from the law of nature, and what were added afterwards, or were such additional rules as were introduced and given to the Israelites after the making of the calf. For the Law containeth those precepts which were spoken by the Lord God before the people fell into idolatry, and made a calf, like the Egyptian Apis; that is, the ten commandments. But as to those bonds which were further laid upon them after they had sinned, do not draw them upon thy self. For our Saviour came for no other reason than that he might deliver those that were obnoxious thereto from that wrath which was reserved for them; that he might fulfil the Law and the Prophets, and that he might abrogate or change those secondary bonds which were superadded to the rest of the Law. For therefore doth he call to us, and say, Come unto me, all ye that labor and  are heavy laden, and I will give you rest.

When, therefore, thou hast read the Law, which is agreeable to the Gospel and to the Prophets, read also the books of the Kings, that thou mayest thereby learn which of the kings were righteous, and how they were prospered by God; and how the promise of eternal life continued with them from him. But those kings who departed from God soon perished in their apostasy, by the righteous judgment of God, and were deprived of his life, inheriting, instead of rest, eternal punishment. Wherefore, by reading these books, thou wilt be much strengthened in the faith, and edified in Christ, whose body and member thou art.

Moreover, when thou walkest abroad in public, and hast a mind to bathe, make use of that bath which is appropriated to men, lest, by discovering thy body in an unseemly manner to women, or by seeing a sight not seemly for men, either thou be ensnared, or thou ensnare and entice to thyself those women who easily yield to such temptations. Take care, therefore, and avoid such things, lest thou admit a snare upon thine own soul.

Chapter VII – Concerning a bad woman

For let us learn what the sacred Word saith, in the book of Wisdom: My son, keep my words, and hide my commandments  with thee. Say unto Wisdom, thou art my sister, and make understanding familiar with thee; that she may keep thee from the strange and wicked woman, in case such an one accost thee with sweet words. For from the window of her house she looketh into the street to see if she can espy some young man among the foolish children, without understanding, walking in the market-place, in the meeting of the street near her house, and talking in the dusk of the evening, or in the silence and darkness of the night. A woman meeteth him with the appearance of a harlot, who stealeth away the hearts of young men. She rambleth about, and is dissolute. Her feet abide not in her house. Sometimes she is without, sometimes in the streets, and lieth in wait at every corner. Then she catcheth him, and kisseth him, and with an impudent face saith unto him, I have peace-offerings with me; this day do I pay my vows. Therefore came I forth to meet thee; earnestly I have desired thy face, and I have found thee. I have decked my bed with coverings; with tapestry from Egypt I have adorned it. I have perfumed my bed with saffron, and my house with cinnamon. Come, let us take our fill of love until the morning. Come, let us solace ourselves with love.

And it is added, With much discourse she seduced him; with snares from her lips she forced him. He goeth after her like a silly bird. And again: Do not hearken to a wicked woman; for though the lips of a harlot are like drops from a honey-comb, which for a while is smooth in thy throat, yet afterwards thou wilt find her more litter than gall, and sharper than any two-edged sword. And again: But get away quickly, and tarry not. Fix not thine eyes upon her. For she hath cast down many wounded, and they are innumerable whom she hath slain. But if thou regard not this warning, it saith, thou wilt repent at the last, when thy flesh and thy body are consumed, and wilt say, How have I hated instruction, and my heart hath avoided the reproof of the righteous! I have not hearkened to the voice of my instructer, nor inclined mine ear to my teacher. I was almost in all evil.

But we will make no more quotations; and if we have omitted any, be so prudent as to select the most valuable out of the Holy Scriptures, and confirm yourselves with them, rejecting all things that are evil, that so ye may be found holy with God in eternal life.

Chapter VIII – Concerning the subjection of a wife to her husband, and that she must be loving and modest

Let the wife be obedient to her own husband, because the husband is the head of the wife. But Christ is the head of that  husband who walketh in the way of righteousness; and the head of Christ is God, even the Father. Therefore, wife, next after the Almighty, our God and Father, the Lord of the present world and of the world to come, the Maker of everything that breatheth, and of every power, and after his beloved Son, our Lord Jesus Christ, through whom glory be to God, do thou fear thy husband, and reverence him, pleasing him alone, rendering thyself acceptable to him in the several affairs of life; so that on thine account thy husband may be deemed happy, according to the Wisdom of Solomon, which speaketh thus:

Who can find a virtuous woman? For such a one is more precious than costly stones. The heart of her husband doth safely trust in her, so that she shall have no need of spoil. For she doeth good to her husband all the days of her life. She buyeth wool and flax, and worketh profitable things with her hands. She is like the merchants’  ships; she bringeth her food from far. She riseth while it is yet night, and giveth meat to her household, and food to her maidens. She considereth a field, and buyeth it. With the fruit of her hands she planteth a vineyard. She girdeth her loins with strength, and strengthened her arms. She tasteth that it is good to labor; her lamp goeth not out the whole night. She stretcheth out her arms for useful work, and layeth her hands to the spindle. She openeth her hands to the needy; yea, she reacheth forth her hands to the poor. Her husband taketh no care of the affairs of his house; for all that are with her are clothed with double garments. She maketh coats for her husband, garments of silk and purple. Her husband is eminent in the gates, when he sitteth with the elders of the land. She maketh fine linen, and selleth it to the Pheniciam, and girdles to the Canaanites. She is clothed with glory and beauty; and she rejoiceth in the last days. She openeth her mouth with wisdom and discretion, and putteth her words in order. The ways of her household are strict; she eateth not the bread of idleness. She will open her mouth with wisdom and caution; and upon her tongue are the laws of mercy. Her children rise up, and praise her for her riches, and her husband joineth in her praises. Many daughters have obtained wealth, and done worthily, but thou surpassest and excellest them all. May lying flatteries and the vain beauty of a wife be far from thee. For a religious wife is blessed. Let her praise the fear of the Lord; give her of the fruit of her lips; and let her husband be praised in the gates.

And again: A virtuous wife is a crown to her husband.

And again: Many wives have built a house.

Ye have learned what great commendations a prudent and loving wife receiveth from the Lord God. If thou desirest to be one of the faithful, and to please the Lord, wife, do not beautify thyself in order to please other men, nor imitate the wearing of a harlot’s plaited locks, or garments, or shoes, to entice those who are allured by such things. For although thou doest not these reprehensible acts with design of sinning thyself, but only for the sake of ornament and beauty, yet thou wilt not so escape future punishment; as having compelled another to be so attracted to thee as to desire thee, and as not having taken care both to avoid sin thyself, and to prevent others from stumbling. But if thou yield thyself up, and commit the crime, thou art both guilty of thine own sin, and the cause of the ruin of the other’s soul also. Besides, when thou hast committed lewdness with one man, and beginnest to despair, thou wilt again turn away from thy duty, and follow others, and grow past feeling; as saith the divine Word: When a wicked man cometh into the depth of evil, he becometh a scorner, and then disgrace and reproach come upon him. For such a woman afterwards, being wounded, ensnareth without restraint the souls of the foolish.

Let us learn, therefore, how the divine Word plainly describeth and condemneth such women, saying, I hated a woman who is a snare and net to the heart of men, worse than death. Her hands are fetters. And in another passage: As a jewel of gold in a swine’s snout, so is beauty in a wicked woman. And again: As a worm in wood, so doth a wicked woman destroy her husband. And again: It is better to dwell in the corner of the house-top, than with a contentious and angry woman. Ye, therefore, who are Christian women, imitate not such as these.

But thou who designest to be faithful to thine own husband, take care to please him alone. And when thou art in the streets, cover thy head; for by such a covering thou wilt avoid being viewed by idle persons. Paint not thy face, which is God’s workmanship; for there is no part of thee which wanteth ornament, inasmuch as all things which God hath made are very good. But the lascivious additional adorning of what is already good is an affront to the bounty of the Creator. Look downward when thou walkest abroad, veiling thyself as becometh women.

Chapter IX – That a woman must not bathe with men

Avoid also that disorderly practice of bathing in the same place with men. For many are the nets of the evil one. And let not a Christian woman bathe with an hermaphrodite. For if she is to veil her face and conceal it with modesty from strange men, how can she bear to enter naked into the bath together with men? But if the bath be appropriated to women, let her bathe orderly, modestly, and moderately. But let her not bathe without occasion, nor much, nor often, nor in the middle of the day, nor, if possible, every day. And let the tenth hour of the day be the set time for such seasonable bathing. For it is convenient that thou who art a Christian woman shouldst ever constantly avoid the exciting of curiosity, which hath many eyes.

Chapter X – Concerning a contentious and brawling woman

But as to a spirit of contention, be sure to curb it as to all men, but principally as to thy husband; lest, if he be an unbeliever or a heathen, he may have an occasion of stumbling, and blaspheme God, and thou be partaker of a woe from God. For he saith, Woe to him by whom my name is blasphemed among the Gentiles; and lest, if thy husband be a Christian, he be forced, by his knowledge of the Scriptures, to say that which is written in the book of Wisdom: It is better to dwell in the wilderness, than with a contentious and angry woman.

Ye wives, therefore, demonstrate your piety, by your modesty and meekness, to all without the church, whether they be women or men, in order to their conversion and improvement in the faith. And since we have warned you and instructed you briefly, whom we esteem our sisters, daughters, and members, as being wise yourselves, persevere all your lives in an unblamable course of life. Seek to know those kinds of learning by which ye may arrive at the kingdom of our Lord, and please him, and so rest forever and ever. Amen.

END OF BOOK I


BOOK II – Concerning Bishops, Presbyters, And Deacons

Chapter I – That a Bishop must be well instructed, and experienced in the Word

BUT concerning Bishops, we have heard from our Lord that a Pastor, who is to be ordained a Bishop for the churches in every parish, must be blameless, unreprovable, free from all kinds of wickedness common among men, and not under fifty years of age. For such a man, in good part, is past youthful irregularities, and the slanders of them that are without, as well as the reproaches which are sometimes cast upon many persons by certain false brethren, who do not consider the word of God in the Gospel, Whosoever shall speak an idle word, shall give account thereof to the Lord in the day of judgment. And again: By thy words thou shalt be justified, and by thy words thou shalt be condemned. Let him, therefore, be well instructed and skilful in the Word, and of competent age.

But if, in a small parish, one advanced in years is not to be found, let some younger person, who hath a good report among his neighbors, and is esteemed by them worthy of the office of a Bishop; who, from his youth, hath carried himself with meekness and regularity, like a much older person; after examination and a general good report, be ordained in peace. For Solomon at twelve years of age was king of Israel, and Josiah at eight years of age reigned righteously; and in like manner Joash governed the people at seven years of age. Wherefore, although the person be young, let him be meek, gentle, and quiet. For the Lord God saith by Isaiah, Upon whom will I look  but upon him who is humble and quiet, and always trembleth at my words? In like manner it is in the Gospel also, Blessed are  the meek, for they shall inherit the earth. Let him also be merciful; for it is said, Blessed are the merciful, for they shall obtain  mercy. Let him also be one of a good conscience, purified from all evil, and wickedness, and unrighteousness. For it is said again, Blessed are the pure in heart, for they shall see God.

Chapter II – What ought to be the character of a Bishop, and of the rest of the Clergy

Let him, therefore, be sober, prudent, decorous, firm, not easily perturbed, not given to wine, no striker, but gentle; not a  brawler, not covetous; not a novice, lest, being puffed up with pride, he fall into condemnation, and the snare of the  devil. Forevery one who exalteth himself shall be abased. A Bishop, moreover, ought to be a man who hath been the husband  of one wife, who also herself hath had no other husband, ruling  well his own house. In this manner let examination be made when he is to receive ordination, and to be placed in his bishopric, whether he be grave, faithful, decorous; whether he hath a grave and faithful wife, or hath formerly had such a one; whether he hath educated his children piously, and hath brought them up in  the nurture and admonition of the Lord; whether his domestics fear and reverence him, and are all obedient to him; for if those who are immediately about him for worldly concerns are seditious and disobedient, how will others, not of his family, when they are under his management, become obedient to him?

Chapter III – In what things a Bishop is to be examined before he is ordained

Let examination also be made, whether he be unblamable as to the concerns of this life. For it is written, Search diligently to ascertain whether he who is to be ordained for the priesthood, be free from blemish. On which account, let him also be void of anger; for Wisdom saith, Anger destroyeth even the prudent. Let him also be merciful, of a generous and loving temper; for our Lord saith, By this shall all men know that ye are my disciples, if ye love one another. Let him also be ready to give; a lover of the widow and stranger, ready to serve and minister; indefatigable, undaunted; and let him know who is the most worthy of his assistance.

Chapter IV – That charitable distributions are not to be made to every widow, but that sometimes a woman who hath a husband is to be preferred; and that no distributions are to be made to one who is given to gluttony, drunkenness, and idleness

For if there be a widow who is able to support herself, and another woman who is not a widow, but is needy by reason of sickness, or the bringing up of many children, or infirmity of her hands, let him stretch out his hand in charity rather to this latter. But if anyone be in want by gluttony, drunkenness, or idleness, he doth not deserve to be assisted, nor to be a member of the church of God. For the Scripture, speaking of such persons, saith, The slothful hideth his hand in his bosom, and is not able to bring it to his mouth. And again: The sluggard foldeth up his hands, and eateth his own flesh. Forevery drunkard and whoremonger shall come to poverty, and every drowsy person shall be clothed with tatters and rags. And in another passage, If thou give thine eyes to bowls and cups, thou shalt afterwards walk more naked than a pestle. For, certainly, idleness is the mother of famine.

Chapter V – That a Bishop must be no accepter of persons in judgment; that he must be gentle in his conversation, and temperate in his diet

A Bishop must be no accepter of persons. He must not fear any; nor basely flatter a rich man; nor forsake, nor domineer over, a poor man. For God saith to Moses, Thou shalt not accept the person of the rich, nor shalt thou pity a poor man in his  cause; for the judgment is the Lord’s. And again: Thou  shalt with exact justice follow that which is right. Let a Bishop be frugal, and contented with a little in his meat and drink, that he may be ever in a sober frame, and disposed to instruct and admonish the ignorant; and let him not be lavish in his expenses, nor a pamperer of himself, nor given to pleasure, nor fond of delicacies. Let him be patient and gentle in his admonitions, well instructed himself, pondering and diligently studying the Lord’s books, and reading them frequently, that so he may be able carefully to interpret the Scriptures, expounding the Gospel in correspondence with the Prophets and with the Law; and let the expositions from the Law and the Prophets correspond with the Gospel. For the Lord Jesus saith, Search the Scriptures, for they are they which testify of me. And again: For Moses wrote of me.

But above all, let him carefully distinguish between the original Law and the additional precepts, and show which are the laws for believers, and which the bonds for unbelievers; lest any should fall under those bonds. Be careful, therefore, Bishop, to study the word of God, that thou mayest be able to explain everything exactly, and that thou mayest copiously nourish thy people with much doctrine, and enlighten them with the light of the Law. For God saith,  Enlighten yourselves with the light of knowledge, while there is yet opportunity.

Chapter VI  – That a Bishop must not be given to filthy lucre, nor be a surety, nor an advocate

Let not a Bishop be given to filthy lucre, especially before the Gentiles; rather suffering than offering injuries; not covetous, nor rapacious; no purloiner, no admirer of the rich, nor hater of the poor; no evil speaker, nor false witness; not given to anger, no brawler; not entangled with the affairs of this life; not a surety for anyone, nor an accuser in suits about money; not ambitious, not double-minded, nor double-tongued; not ready to hearken to calumny or evil-speaking; not a dissembler, not addicted to the heathen festivals, not given to vain deceits, not eager after worldly things, nor a lover of money. For all these things are opposite to God, and pleasing to demons. Let the Bishop earnestly give all these precepts in charge to the laity also, persuading them to imitate his deportment. For the Scripture saith, Make ye the children of Israel pious. Let him be prudent, humble, apt to admonish with the instructions of the Lord, well-disposed, one who hath renounced all the wicked projects of this world, and all heathenish lusts. Let him be orderly, sharp in observing the wicked and taking heed of them, but yet a friend to all; just and discerning; and, whatsoever qualities are commendable among men, let the Bishop possess them in himself.

For if the Pastor be unblamable as to any wickedness, he will compel his disciples, and, by his manner of life, press them to become worthy imitators of his own actions; as the prophet somewhere saith, And it will be, As is the priest, so is the people. For our Lord and Master Jesus Christ, the Son of God, began first to do, and then to teach; as Luke somewhere saith: Which Jesus began to do and to teach. Wherefore he saith, Whosoever shall do and teach, he shall be called great in the kingdom of God. For it becometh you, Bishops, to be guides and watchmen to the people, as ye yourselves have Christ for your guide and watchman. Be ye, therefore, good guides and watchmen to the people of God.

For the Lord saith by Ezekiel, speaking to every one of you: I have given thee for a watchman to the house of Israel, and thou shall hear the word from my mouth, and shalt observe, and shalt declare it from me. When I say unto the wicked, Thou shalt surely die, if thou dost not speak to warn the wicked from his wickedness, that wicked man shall die in his iniquity, and his blood will I require at thy hand. But if thou warn the wicked from his way, that he may turn from it, and he do not turn from it, he shall die in his iniquity, and thou hast delivered thy soul. In the same manner, if the sword of war be approaching, and the people set a watchman to watch, and he see the same approach, and do not give warning, and the sword come and take one of them, he is taken away in his iniquity; but his blood shall be required at the watchman’s hand, because he did not blow the trumpet. But if he blow the trumpet, and he who heareth it take not warning, and the sword come and take him away, his blood shall be upon himself, because he heard the trumpet, and took not warning. But he who hath taken warning hath delivered his soul; and the watchman, because he gave warning, shall surely live.

The sword here is the judgment; the trumpet is the holy Gospel; the watchman is the Bishop, who is set in the church, who is obliged in his preaching to testify and vehemently to forewarn concerning that judgment. If ye do not declare and testify this to the people, the sins of those who are ignorant of it will be found upon you. Wherefore, warn and reprove with boldness those who are perverse through want of instruction; teach the ignorant; confirm those that understand; bring back those that go astray. If we repeat the very same things on the same occasions, brethren, we shall not do amiss. For by frequent hearing it is to be hoped that some will be made ashamed, and at least do some good action, and avoid some wicked one. For saith God by the prophet, Testify  those things to them; perhaps they will hear thy voice. And again: If perhaps they will hear, if perhaps they will submit.

Moses also saith to the people, If hearing thou wilt hear the  Lord God, and do that which is good and right in his eyes. And again: Hear, Israel, the Lord thy God is one Lord. And our Lord is often recorded in the Gospel to have said,  He that hath ears to hear, let him hear. And wise Solomon saith, My son, hear the instruction of thy father, and reject not the laws of thy mother. And, indeed, to this day men have not heard; for, while they seem to have heard, they have not heard aright; as appears by their having left the one and only true God, and their being drawn unto destruction and dangerous heresies, concerning which we shall speak again.

Chapter VII – What ought to be the character of the initiated

Be it known to you, beloved, that those who are baptized into the death of our Lord Christ, ought no longer to commit sin. For as those who are dead cannot practise wickedness any longer, so those who are dead with Christ cannot act in a sinful manner. It is incredible, therefore, brethren, that anyone who hath received the washing of life, perpetrateth the dissolute acts of transgressors. But he who sinneth after his baptism, unless he repent, and forsake his sins, will be condemned to hell.

Chapter VIII – Concerning a person falsely accused; or, on the other hand, a person convicted

If, now, anyone be maliciously prosecuted by the heathen, because he will not go along with them to the same excess of riot, let him know that such a one is blessed of God, as our Lord saith in the Gospel: Blessed are ye when men shall reproach you, or persecute you, or say all manner of evil against you falsely for my sake. Rejoice and be exceeding glad, for your reward is great in heaven. If, therefore, anyone be slandered and falsely accused, such a one is blessed; for the Scripture saith, A man that is a reprobate is not tried by God. But if anyone be convicted, having done a wicked action, such a one not only hurteth himself, but occasioneth the whole body of the church and its doctrine to be blasphemed; as if we Christians did not practise those things which we declare to be good and honest; and we ourselves shall be reproached by the Lord, that, They say, and do not. Wherefore the Bishop must boldly reject such as these on full conviction, unless they change their life.

 

Chapter IX – That a Bishop ought not to receive bribes

For the Bishop must not only himself give no offence, but must be no respecter of persons; in kindness admonishing those that sin. But if he himself hath not a good conscience, and is a respecter of persons and a receiver of bribes, he will spare the open offender, permitting him to continue in the church, and disregarding the voice of God and the Lord, which saith, Thou shalt execute  right judgment. Thou shalt not accept persons in judgment. Thou shalt not justify the wicked. Thou shalt not receive gifts against anyone’s life; for gifts do blind the eyes of the wise, and pervert the words of the righteous. And elsewhere he saith, Put away from among yourselves that wicked  person. And Solomon, in his Proverbs, saith, Cast out a  pestilent fellow from the congregation, and strife will go out along with him.

Chapter X – That a Bishop who, by wrong judgment, spareth an offender, is himself guilty

But he who doth not consider these things, will, contrary to justice, spare him who deserveth punishment; as Saul spared  Agag, and Eli his sons, who knew not the Lord. Such a  one profaneth his own dignity, and that church of God which is in his parish. Such a one is esteemed unjust before God and good men, as affording occasion of scandal to many of the newly baptized and to the catechumens, as also to the youth of both sexes; and to him a woe belongeth, and a millstone about his neck, and  drowning, on account of his guilt. For, observing what a person their ruler is, through his wickedness and neglect of justice, they will grow skeptical, and, indulging the same disease, will be compelled to perish with him; as was the case of the people joining with Jeroboam, and those who were in the conspiracy  with Corah.

But if the offender see that the Bishop and Deacons are innocent and unblamable, and the flock pure, he will either not venture to despise their authority, and to enter into the church of God at all, as one smitten by his own conscience; or if he value nothing, and venture to enter in, either he will be convicted immediately, as Uzza at the ark, when he touched it to support it, and as Joshua, | Achan when he stole the accursed thing, and as Gehazi  when he coveted the money of Naaman; and so will be immediately punished; or else he will be admonished by the Pastor, and drawn to repentance. For when he looketh round the whole church, one by one, and can spy no blemish, either in the Bishop, or in the people who are under his care, he will be put to confusion, and pricked at the heart, and in a peaceable manner will go his way, with shame and many tears; and the flock will remain pure. He will apply himself to God with tears, and will repent of his sins, and have hope. Nay, the whole flock, at the sight of his tears, will be instructed, because a sinner avoideth destruction by repentance.

Chapter XI – How a Bishop ought to judge offenders

On this account, therefore, Bishop, endeavor to be pure in thine actions, and to adorn thy place and dignity, as sustaining the character of God among men in ruling over all men, over priests, kings, rulers, fathers, children, masters, and in general over all those who are subject to thee; and so sit in the church, when thou speakest, as having authority to judge offenders. For to you, Bishops, is it said, Whatsoever ye shall bind on earth, shall be bound in heaven; and whatsoever ye shall loose on earth, shall be loosed in heaven.

Chapter XII – An Instruction how a Bishop ought to behave himself to the penitent

Do thou, therefore, Bishop, judge with authority, like God; yet receive the penitent. For God is a God of mercy. Rebuke those that sin; admonish those that do not turn; exhort those that stand to persevere in the things that are commendable; receive the penitent; because the Lord God hath promised with an oath to afford remission to the penitent for what things they have done amiss. And he saith by Ezekiel, Speak unto them, as I live, saith the Lord, I would not the death of a sinner, but that the wicked turn from his evil way, and live. Tarn ye, therefore, from your evil ways; for why will ye die, house of Israel? Here the Word affordeth hope to sinners, that, if they repent, they shall have hope of salvation; lest, despairing, they yield themselves up to their transgressions; but, having hope of salvation, they may be converted, and come to God with tears on account of their sins: so shall they receive pardon from him, as from a merciful Father.

Chapter XIII – That we ought to beware how we make trial of any sinful course

Yet it is very necessary that those who are innocent should continue so, and not make an experiment what sin is; that they may not have occasion for trouble, sorrow, and those lamentations which are in order to forgiveness. For how dost thou know, man, when thou sinnest, whether thou shalt live any number of days in this present state, that thou mayest have time to repent? For the time of thy departure out of this world is uncertain; and if thou die in sin, there will remain no repentance for thee; as God saith by David, In the grave, who will confess to thee? It becometh us, therefore, to be ready in the doing of our duty, that so we may await our passage into another world without sorrow. Wherefore also the sacred Word, speaking to thee by the wise Solomon, exhorteth, Prepare thy works against thine exit, and provide  all beforehand in the field; lest some of the things necessary to thy journey be wanting; as the oil of piety was deficient in the five foolish virgins mentioned in the Gospel, when they, on account of their having extinguished their lamps of divine knowledge, were shut out of the bride-chamber. Wherefore, he who valueth the security of his soul will take care to be out of danger, by keeping free from sin, that so he may preserve to himself the advantage of his former good works. Do thou, therefore, so judge as executing judgment for God. For, as the Scripture saith, The judgment is the Lord’s. In the first place, therefore, condemn the guilty person with authority; afterwards try to bring him home with mercy and compassion, and readiness to receive him, promising him salvation if he will change his course of life, and come to repentance; and when he is penitent, do thou with thoughtfulness and solemnity receive him, remembering the Lord, who hath said there is joy in heaven over one sinner that repenteth.

Chapter XIV – Concerning those who affirm that a penitent is not to be received into the church; and concerning a righteous person, though he converse with a sinner

But if thou refuse to receive him that is penitent, thou exposest him to those who lie in wait to destroy, forgetting what David saith, Deliver not my soul, which confesseth to thee, unto destroying beasts. Wherefore Jeremiah, when he is exhorting men to repentance, saith, Shall not he that falleth arise? Or he that turneth away, cannot he return? Wherefore have my people gone back by a shameless backsliding? And they are hardened in their purpose. Turn, ye backsliding children, and I will heal your backslidings. Receive, therefore, him that is penitent, without any doubting. Be not hindered by those who unmercifully say that we must not be found with such, nor so much as speak to them. For these counsels are from men that are unacquainted with God and his providence, and from unreasonable judges and inexorable beasts. They are ignorant that we ought to avoid society with offenders, not in discourse, but in actions. For the righteousness of the righteous shall be upon him, and the wickedness of the wicked shall be upon him. And again, If a land sinneth against me by trespassing grievously, and I stretch out my hand upon it, and break the staff of bread upon it, and send famine upon it, and destroy man and beast therein; though these three men, Noah, Job, and Daniel, were in the midst of it, they shall only save their own souls by their righteousness, saith the Lord God.

The Scripture hath most clearly shown, that a righteous man that is with a wicked man doth not perish with him. For in the present world the righteous and the wicked are mingled together in the common affairs of life, but not in holy communion; and in this the friends of God are guilty of no sin. For they do but imitate their Father who is in heaven, who maketh his sun to rise on the righteous and on the unrighteous, and sendeth his rain on the evil and on the good; and the righteous man undergoeth no peril on this account. For they who conquer, and they who are conquered, are in the same place of running; but only they who have nobly contended are where the garland is bestowed. And, No one  is crowned, unless he strive lawfully. Foreveryone shall give account of himself, and God will not destroy the righteous with the wicked; for with him it is a constant rule, that innocence is never punished. For neither did he drown Noah, nor burn up Lot, nor destroy Rahab for company. And if ye desire to know how this matter was among us, Judas was one of us, and participated with us in the ministry; and Simon the magician received the seal of the Lord; yet, both the one and the other proving wicked, the former hanged himself; and the latter, as he flew in the air in a manner unnatural, was dashed against the earth. Moreover, Noah and his sons with him were in the ark; but Ham, who alone was wicked, received punishment in his son. But if fathers are not punished for their children, nor children for their fathers, it is thence clear that neither will wives be punished for their husbands, nor servants for their masters, nor one relation for another, nor one friend for another, nor the righteous for the wicked. But everyone will be required an account of his own doing. For neither was punishment inflicted on Noah for the world; nor was Lot destroyed by fire for the Sodomites; nor was Rahab slain for the inhabitants of Jericho; nor Israel for the Egyptians. For not a person’s dwelling with the wicked, but his agreeing with them in disposition, condemneth him. We ought not, therefore, to hearken to those who call for death, and hate mankind, and love accusations; and, under fair pretences, bring men to death. For one man shall not die for another, but everyone is held with the chains of his own sins. And, Behold  the man, and his work is before his face. Now, we ought to assist those who are with us, and are in danger, and fall; and, as far as lieth in our power, to bring them back to sobriety by our exhortations, and to save them from death. For they that are whole need not a physician, but they that are sick. Since it is not pleasing in the sight of your Father that one of these little ones should perish. For we ought not to establish the will of hard-hearted men, but the will of the God and Father of the universe, which is revealed to us by Jesus Christ our Lord, to whom be glory forever. Amen.

For it is not equitable that thou, Bishop, who art the head, shouldst submit to the tail; that is, to some seditious person among the laity unto the destruction of another, but to God alone. It is thy privilege to govern those under thee, but not to be governed by them. For neither doth a son, who is subject by the course of generation, govern his father; nor a servant, who is subject by law, govern his master; nor doth a scholar govern his teacher; nor a soldier, his king; nor any of the laity, his Bishop. For, that there is no reason to suppose such as converse with the wicked, in order to their instruction in the Word, to be denied by or to partake of their sins, Ezekiel, as it were on purpose, preventing the suspicions of ill-disposed persons, saith thus: Why do ye speak this proverb concerning the land of Israel? The fathers have eaten sour grapes, and the children’s teeth are set on edge. As I live, saith the Lord God, ye shall not henceforth have occasion to use this proverb in Israel. For all souls are mine; in like manner as the soul of the father, so also the soul of the son is mine. The soul that sinneth, it shall die. But the man who is righteous, and doeth judgment and justice (and so the prophet reckoneth up the rest of the virtues, and then addeth for a conclusion, such a one is just), he shall surely live, saith the Lord God. And if he beget a son who is a robber, a shedder of blood, and walketh not in the way of his righteous father (and when the prophet had added what followeth, he addeth in the conclusion), he shall certainly not live; he hath done all this wickedness; he shall surely die; his blood shall be upon him. Yet they will ask thee. Why? Doth not the son bear the iniquity of the father, or his righteousness, having exercised righteousness himself? And thou shalt say unto them, The soul that sinneth, it shall die. The son shall not bear the iniquity of the father, and the father shall not bear the iniquity of the son. The righteousness of the righteous shall be upon him; and the wickedness of the wicked shall be upon him. And a little after he saith, When the righteous turneth away from his righteousness and committeth iniquity, all his righteousness, by reason of all his wickedness which he hath committed, shall not be remembered. In his iniquity which he hath committed, and in his sin which he hath sinned, in them shall he die. And a little after he addeth, When the wicked turneth away from his wickedness which he hath committed, and doeth judgment and justice, he hath preserved his soul; he hath turned away from all his ungodliness which he hath done, he shall surely live, he shall not die. And afterwards, I will judge every one of you according to his ways, house of Israel, saith the Lord.

Chapter XV – That the Priest must neither overlook offences, nor be rash in punishing them

Observe, ye who are our beloved sons, how merciful, yet righteous, the Lord our God is; how gracious and kind to men; and yet, most certainly, He will not acquit the guilty; but he admitteth  the returning sinner, and reviveth him, leaving no room for suspicion to such as would be savage in judging, and utterly reject offenders, and not vouchsafe them so much as any exhortations which might bring them to repentance. In contradiction to such, God. by Isaiah, saith to the Bishops, Comfort ye, comfort ye my people, ye  Priests; speak ye comfortably to Jerusalem. It therefore behooveth you, upon hearing these words of his, to encourage those who have offended, and lead them to repentance, and afford them hope, and not vainly suppose that ye shall be partakers of their offences on account of love to such persons. Receive the penitent with alacrity, and rejoice over them, and with mercy and bowels of compassion judge the sinners.

For if a person was walking by the side of a river, and ready to stumble, and thou shouldst push him and thrust him into the river, instead of offering him thy hand for his assistance, thou wouldst be guilty of the murder of thy brother; whereas thou oughtest rather to lend thy helping hand, as he was ready to fall, lest he perish without remedy; that both the people may take warning, and the offender may not utterly perish. It is thy duty, Bishop, neither to overlook the sins of the people, nor to reject those who are penitent, that thou mayest not unskilfully destroy the Lord’s flock, nor dishonor his new name, which is put on his people, and thou thyself be reproached as those ancient Pastors were, of whom God speaketh thus to Jeremiah: Many shepherds have destroyed my vineyard; they have polluted my heritage; and in another passage, My anger is waxed hot against the shepherds, and against the lambs shall I have indignation; and elsewhere, Ye are the Priests that dishonor my name.

Chapter XVI – Of Penance, The manner of it, and rules about it

When thou seest the offender, with severity command him to be cast out; and, as he is going out, let the deacons also treat him with severity, and then let them go and seek for him, and detain him out of the church; and when they come in, let them entreat thee for him. For our Saviour himself entreated his Father for those who had sinned; as it is written in the Gospel, Father, forgive them, for they know not what they do. Then order the offender to come in; and if upon examination thou find that he is penitent, and fit to be received at all into the church, when thou hast afflicted him his days of fasting, according to the degree of his offence, as two, three, five, or seven weeks, so set him at liberty, and speak such things to him as are suitable to be said in way of reproof, instruction, and exhortation to a sinner for his reformation; that so he may continue privately in his humility, and pray to God to be merciful to him, saying, If thou, Lord, shouldst mark iniquities, Lord, who should stand? For with thee there is propitiation. Of this sort of declaration is that which is said in the book of Genesis to Cain: Thou hast sinned, be quiet; that is, do not go on in sin. For that a sinner ought to be ashamed for his own sin, that oracle of God delivered to Moses concerning Miriam is a sufficient proof, when he prayed that she might be forgiven. For saith God to him, If her father had spit in her face, should she not be ashamed?  Let her be shut out of the camp seven days to do so with offenders, when they profess their repentance; namely, to separate them, some determinate time, according to the proportion of their offence; and afterwards, like fathers to children, receive them again upon their repentance.

Chapter XVII – That a Bishop must be unblamable, and a pattern for those who are under his charge

But if the Bishop himself be an offender, how will he be able any longer to prosecute the offence of another? Or how will he be able to reprove another, while either he or his deacons, by the accepting of persons or the receiving of bribes, have not a clear conscience? For when the ruler asketh, and the judge receiveth, judgment is not brought to perfection; but when both are companions of thieves, and regardless of doing justice to the  widows, those who are under the Bishop will not be able to support and vindicate him. For they will say to him what is written in the Gospel, Why beholdest thou the mote that is in thy brother’s  eye, but considerest not the beam that is in thine own eye?

Let the Bishop, therefore, with his deacons, dread to hear any such thing; that is, let him give no occasion for it. For an offender, when he seeth any other doing as bad as himself, will be encouraged to do the very same things; and then the wicked one, taking occasion from a single instance, worketh in others (which God forbid); and by that means the flock will be destroyed. For the more offenders there are, the greater is the mischief that is done by them. Sin which passeth without correction groweth worse and worse, and spreadeth to others; since a little leaven leaveneth the whole lump; and one thief spreadeth the wickedness over a whole nation; and dead flies spoil the whole pot of sweet  ointment; and when a king hearkeneth to unrighteous counsel, all the servants under him are wicked. So one scabby sheep, if not separated from those that are whole, infecteth the rest with the same distemper; and a man infected with the plague is to be avoided by all men; and a mad dog is dangerous to everyone that he toucheth. If therefore we neglect to separate the transgressor from the church of God, we shall make the Lord’s house a den of thieves. For it is the Bishop’s duty not to be silent in the case of offenders, but to convince them, to admonish them, to press them down, to afflict them with fastings; that so he may strike a pious dread into the rest. For the Scripture saith, Make ye the children of Israel pious. The Bishop must be one who discourageth sin by his exhortations, and setteth a pattern of righteousness, and proclaimeth those good things which are prepared by God, and declareth that wrath which will come at the day of judgment; lest he contemn and neglect the plantation of God, and, on account of his carelessness, hear that which is said in Hosea: Why have ye held your peace at impiety, and have reaped the fruit thereof?

Chapter XVIII – That a Bishop must take care that his people do not sin, considering that he is a watchman

Let the Bishop, therefore, extend his concern to all; to those who have not offended, that they may continue innocent; and to those who have offended, that they may repent. For to you the Lord saith, Take heed that ye despise not one of these little ones. It is your duty also to give remission to the penitent. For as soon as one who hath offended saith in the sincerity of his soul, I have sinned against the Lord, the Holy Spirit answereth, The Lord also hath forgiven thy sin; be of good cheer; thou shalt not die. Be sensible, therefore, Bishop, of the dignity of thy place; that, as thou hast received the power of binding, so hast thou also that of loosing. Having therefore the power of loosing, come forth and behave thyself in this life as becometh thy place, knowing that thou hast a great account to give. For to whom, as the Scripture saith, men have entrusted much, of him they will require the more. For no man is free from sin, excepting him who was made man for us; since it is written, No man is pure from filthiness, no, not though he be but a day old. On which account, the lives and conversations of the ancient holy men and patriarchs are described; not that we may reproach them from our reading, but that we ourselves may repent, and have hope that we also shall obtain forgiveness. For their blemishes are to us both security and admonition, because we hence learn, when we have offended, that if we repent, we shall have pardon; since it is written, Who can boast that he hath a clean heart, and who  dareth affirm that he is pure from sin? No man, therefore, is without sin. Do thou therefore labor to the utmost of thy power to be unblamable; and be careful in respect to all, lest anyone be made to stumble on thine account, and thereby perish. For the layman is solicitous only for himself, but thou for all, as having a greater burden and carrying a heavier load. For it is written, And the Lord said unto Moses, Thou and Aaron shall bear  the sins of the priesthood.

Since, therefore, thou art to give an account of all, take care of all. Preserve those that are sound; admonish those that sin; and when thou hast afflicted them with fasting, give them ease by remission; and when with tears the offender beggeth readmission, receive him, and let the whole church pray for him; and, when by imposition of thy hand thou hast admitted him, give him leave to abide afterwards in the flock.

But the drowsy and the careless convert, strengthen, exhort, heal; knowing how great a reward thou shalt have for doing so, and how great danger thou wilt incur if thou neglect these duties. For Ezekiel speaketh thus to those overseers who take no care of the people:

Woe unto the shepherds of Israel, for they have fed themselves; the shepherds feed not the sheep, but themselves. Ye eat the milk, and are clothed with the wool; ye slay the strong; yc do not feed the sheep. The weak have ye not strengthened, nor have ye healed that which was sick, nor have ye bound up that which was broken, nor have ye brought again that which was driven away, nor have ye sought that which was lost; but with force and insult have ye ruled over them; and they were scattered, because there was no shepherd; and they became meat to all the beasts of the forest. And again: The shepherds did not search for my sheep; and the shepherds fed themselves, but they fed not my sheep. And a little after: Behold, I am against the shepherds, and I will require my sheep at their hands, and cause them to cease from feeding my sheep; nor shall the shepherds feed themselves any more. And I will deliver my sheep out of their hands, and they shall not be meat for them.

And he also addeth, speaking to the people, Behold, I will judge between sheep and sheep, and between rams and rams. Seemed it a small thing unto you to have eaten up the good pasture, and to have trodden down with your feet the residue of your pasture, and that the sheep have eaten what was trodden down with your feet? And a little after he addeth, And ye shall know that I am the Lord, and ye, the sheep of my pasture, are my men, saith the Lord God.

Chapter XIX – That a shepherd who is careless of his sheep, incurreth penalty; and that a sheep which doth not obey the shepherd, is punished

Hear, ye Bishops, and hear, ye of the laity, how God speaketh: I will judge between ram and ram, and between sheep and sheep. And he saith to the shepherds, Ye shall be judged for your unsldlfulness, and for destroying the sheep. That is, I will judge between one Bishop and another, and between one lay person and another, and between one ruler and another (for these sheep and these rams are not irrational, but rational creatures); lest at any time a lay person should say, I am a sheep, and not a sheep herd, and I am not concerned for myself; let the shepherd look to that; for he alone will be required to give an account for me. For as that sheep which will not follow its good shepherd is exposed to the wolves unto its destruction; so that which followeth a bad sheep herd is also exposed to unavoidable death, since his shepherd will devour him. Wherefore, care must be had to avoid destructive shepherds.

Chapter XX – How the governed are to obey the Bishops who are set over them

As to a good shepherd, let the lay person honor him, love him, revere him as his Lord, as his Master, as a high-priest of God, as a teacher of piety. For he that heareth him heareth Christ, and he that rejecteth him rejecteth Christ. And he who doth not receive Christ, doth not receive his God and Father; for, saith he, He that  heareth you heareth me, and he that rejecteth you rejecteth me, and he that rejecteth me rejecteth him that sent me.

In like manner, let the Bishop love the laity as his children, fostering and cherishing them with affectionate diligence; as eggs in order to the hatching of young ones; or as young ones, taking them in his arms, and rearing them into birds; admonishing all men, reproving all who stand in need of reproof; reproving, but not striking; pressing them down to make them ashamed, but not overthrowing them; warning them in order to their conversion, chiding them in order to their reformation and better course of life; watching the strong , that is, keeping him firm in the faith who is already strong; feeding the people peaceably; strengthening the weak, that is, confirming with exhortation that which is tempted; healing that which is sick, that is, curing by instruction that which is weak in the faith through doubtfulness of mind; binding up that which is broken, that is, binding up by comfortable admonitions that which is gone astray, or wounded, bruised, or broken by sins, and put out of the way; easing it of its offences, and giving hope: one that is thus invigorated, restore to the church; bring back to the flock. Bring again that which is driven away, that is, do not permit that which is in its sins, and is cast out by way of punishment, to continue excluded; but receiving it, and bringing it back, restore it to the flock, that is, to the people of the undefiled church. Seek for that which is lost, that is, do not suffer that which despondeth of its salvation, by reason of the multitude of its offences, utterly to perish. Search thou for that which is grown sleepy, drowsy, and sluggish, and that which is unmindful of its own life, through the depth of its sleep, and which is at a great distance from its own flock, so as to be in danger of falling among the wolves, and being devoured by them. Bring it back by admonition; exhort it to be watchful; and insinuate hope, not permitting it to say that which was said by some, Our impieties are upon us, and we pine away in them; how shall we then live?

As far as possible, therefore, let the Bishop make the offence his own, and say to the sinner, Do thou but return, and I will undertake to suffer death for thee, as our Lord suffered death for me and for all men. For the good shepherd layeth down his life for the sheep; but he that is a hireling, and not the shepherd, whose own the sheep are not, seeth the wolf coming, that is, the devil, and leaveth the sheep and fleeth, and the wolf catcheth them. We must know, therefore, that God is very merciful to those who offend, and hath promised repentance with an oath. But he who hath offended, and is unacquainted with this promise of God concerning repentance, and doth not understand his long-suffering and forbearance; and besides, is ignorant of the Holy Scriptures, which proclaim repentance, and hath never learned them, perisheth through his folly.

But do thou, like a compassionate shepherd, and a diligent feeder of the flock, search out, and keep an account of the flock. Seek that which is wanting, as the Lord God our gracious Father hath sent his own Son, the good Shepherd and Saviour, our Master Jesus, and I hath  commanded him to leave the ninety and nine upon the mountains , and to go in search after that which was lost; and, when he had found it, to take it upon his shoulders, and to carry it into the flock, rejoicing that he had found that which was lost.

In like manner be obedient, Bishop, and seek that which was lost; guide that which wandereth out of the right way; bring back that which is gone astray. For thou hast authority to bring them back, and to deliver those that are broken-hearted, by remission. By thee the Saviour saith to him who is discouraged under the sense of his sins, Thy sins are forgiven thee; thy faith hath saved thee; go in peace. But this peace and haven of tranquillity is the church of Christ, into which do thou, when thou hast loosed them from their sins, restore them, being now sound and unblamable, of good hope, diligent, laborious in good works. As a skilful and compassionate physician, heal all such as wander in the ways of sin; for they that are whole have no need of a physician, but they that are sick. For the Son of Man came to save and to seek that which was lost. Since thou art, therefore, a physician of the Lord’s church, provide remedies suit able to every patient’s case. Cure them, heal them by all means possible; restore them sound to the church. Feed the flock, not with insolence and contempt, as lording it over them, but as a gentle shepherd, gathering the lambs into thy bosom, and gently leading those which are with young.

Chapter XXI – That it is a dangerous thing to judge without hearing both sides, or to determine punishment against a person before he is convicted

Be gentle, gracious, mild; without guile, without falsehood; not rigid, not insolent, not severe, not arrogant, not unmerciful, not puffed up, not a man-pleaser, not timorous, not double-minded; not one that insulteth over the people that are under thee; not one that concealeth the divine laws, and the promises to repentance; not hasty in thrusting out and expelling, but cautious; not delighting in severity, nor rash. Do not admit less evidence to convict anyone than that of three witnesses, and those of known and established reputation. Inquire whether they do not accuse out of ill-will or envy; for there are many that delight in mischief, that are forward in discourse, slanderous, haters of the brethren, making it their business to scatter the sheep of Christ; whose affirmation if thou admittest without a careful scanning, thou wilt disperse thy flock, and betray it to be devoured by wolves, that is, by demons and wicked men, or rather not men, but wild beasts in the shape of men, by the heathen, by the Jews, and by the impious heretics. For those destroying wolves soon address themselves to anyone that is cast out of the church, and esteem him as a lamb delivered for them to devour, reckoning his destruction their own gain. For he that is their father, the devil, is a murderer.

He also who is separated unjustly by thy want of care in judging, will be overwhelmed with sorrow, and be disconsolate, and so will either wander among the heathen, or be entangled in heresies, and so be altogether estranged from the church, and from hope in God, and will be entangled in wickedness, whereby thou wilt be guilty of his perdition. For it is not fair to be too hasty in casting out an offender, but slow in receiving him when he returneth; to be forward in cutting off, but unmerciful when he is sorrowful, and ought to be healed. For of such as these the divine Scripture saith, Their feet run to mischief; they are hasty to shed innocent blood. Destruction and misery are in their ways; and the way of peace they have not known. The fear of God is  not before their eyes. Now, the way of peace is our Saviour Jesus Christ, who hath taught us, saying, Forgive, and ye shall be forgiven; give, and it shall be given to you. That is, give remission of sins, and your offences shall be forgiven you. As also he instructed us by his prayer to say unto God, For give us our debts, as we forgive our debtors.

If, therefore, ye do not forgive offenders, how can ye expect the remission of your own sins? Do ye not rather bind yourselves more firmly, by pretending in your prayers to forgive, when ye really do not forgive? Will ye not be confronted with your own words, when ye say ye forgive, and do not forgive? For know ye, that he who casteth out one that hath not behaved himself wickedly, or who will not receive him that returneth, is a murderer of his brother, and sheddeth his blood, as Cain did that of his brother Abel; and his blood crieth to God, and will be required. For a righteous man unjustly slain by anyone will be in rest with God forever. The same is the case of him who, without cause, is separated by his Bishop. He who hath cast him out as a pestilent fellow, when he was innocent, is more furious than a murderer. Such a one hath no regard to the mercy of God, nor is mindful of his goodness to those that are penitent, not keeping in his eye the examples of those who, having been once great offenders, received forgiveness upon their repentance. On which account, he who casteth off an innocent person is more cruel than he that murdereth the body. In like manner, he who doth not receive the penitent scattereth the flock of Christ, being really against him. For as God is just in judging sinners, so is he merciful in receiving them when they return; for David, the man after God’s own heart, sang to him both of mercy and of judgment.

Chapter XXII – That David, the Ninevites, Hezekiah, and his son Manasseh, are eminent examples of repentance

It is thy duty, Bishop, to have before thine eyes the examples of those that have gone before, and to apply them skilfully to the cases of those who need words of severity or of consolation. Besides, it is reasonable that, in thine administration of justice, thou shouldst follow the will of God; and as God dealeth with sinners, and with those who return, that thou shouldst act accordingly in thy judging. Now did not God, by Nathan, reproach David for his offence? And yet, as soon as he said that he repented, he delivered him from death, saying, Be of good dicer, thou shalt  not die. So also when God had caused Jonah to be swallowed up by the sea and the whale, upon his refusing to preach to the Ninevites; when yet he prayed to him out of the belly of the whale, he retrieved his life from corruption.

And when Hezekiah had been puffed up for a while, yet, as soon as  he prayed with lamentation, he remitted his offence. Moreover, ye Bishops, hearken to an instance useful on this occasion. For it is written thus in the fourth book of Kings and the second book of Chronicles: And Hezekiah died, and Manasseh his son reigned. He was twelve years old when he began to reign; and he reigned fifty and five years in Jerusalem, and his mother’s name was Hephzibah. And he did evil in the sight of the Lord; and he did not abstain from the abominations of the heathen, whom the Lord destroyed from the face of the children of Israel. And Manasseh returned, and built the high places which Hezekiah his father had overthrown; and he reared pillars for Baal, and set up an altar for Baal, and made groves, as did Ahab, king of Israel. And he made altars in the house of the Lord, of which the Lord spake to David and to Solomon his son, saying, Therein will I put my name. And Manasseh set up altars, and by them served Baal, and said, My name shall continue forever. And he built altars to the host of heaven, in the two courts of the house of the Lord; and he made his children pass through the fire in the valley of the son of Hinnom; and he consulted enchanters, and dealt with wizards and familiar spirits, and with conjurers, and observers of times, and with Teraphim; and he sinned exceedingly in the eyes of the Lord, to provoke him to anger; and he set a molten and a graven image, the image of his grove, which he made in the house of the Lord, wherein the Lord had chosen to put his name in Jerusalem the holy city forever, and had said, I will no more remove my foot from the land of Israel, which I gave to their fathers; only if they will observe to do according to all that I have commanded them, and according to all the precepts that my servant Moses commanded them. And they hearkened not. And Manasseh seduced them to do more evil before the Lord than did the nations whom the Lord cast out from the face of the children of Israel. And the Lord spake concerning Manasseh, and concerning his people, by the hand of his servants the prophets, saying, Because Manasseh, king of Judah, hath done all these wicked abominations in a higher degree than the Amorite did who was before him, and hath made Judah to sin with his idols; thus saith the Lord God of Israel, Behold, I bring evils upon Jerusalem and Judah, that whosoever heareth of them, both his ears shall tingle. And I will stretch over Jerusalem the line of Samaria, and the plummet of the house of Ahab; and I will blot out Jerusalem, as a tablet is blotted out by wiping it. And I will turn it upside down, and I will give up the remnant of mine inheritance, and will deliver them into the hands of their enemies; and they shall become a prey and a spoil to all their enemies; because of all the evils which they have done in mine eyes, and have provoked me to anger from the day that I brought their fathers out of the land of Egypt, even until this day. Moreover, Manasseh shed innocent blood very much, till he had filled Jerusalem from one end to another; besides his sins wherewith he made Judah to sin in doing evil in the sight of the Lord.

And the Lord brought upon him the captains of the host of the king of Assyria; and they caught Manasseh in bonds, and they bound him in fetters of brass, and brought him to Babylon; and he was bound and shackled with iron all over in the house of the prison.; and bread made of bran was given unto him scantily, and by weight, and water mixed with vinegar, but a little and by measure, so much as would keep him alive, and he was in straits and sore affliction.

And when he was violently afflicted, he besought the face of the Lord his God, and humbled himself greatly before the face of the Lord God of his fathers. And he prayed unto the Lord, saying:

Lord, Almighty God of our fathers, Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, and of their righteous seed; who hast made heaven and earth, with all the ornament thereof; who hast bound the sea by the word of thy commandment; who hast shut up the deep, and sealed it by thy terrible and glorious name; whom all things fear, and they trem ble before thy power. For the majesty of thy glory cannot be borne; and thine angry threatening towards sinners is insupportable. But thy merciful promise is unmeasurable and unsearchable; for thou art the most high Lord, of great compassion, long-suffering, very merciful, and repentest thee at the calamities of men. Thou, Lord, according to thy great goodness, hast promised forgiveness to them that have sinned against thee; and of thine infinite mercy hast appointed repentance unto sinners, that they may be saved. Thou, therefore, Lord, that art the God of the just, hast not appointed repentance to the just, as to Abraham, and Isaac, and Jacob, who have not sinned against thee; but thou hast appointed repentance unto me that am a sinner; for I have sinned above the number of the sands of the sea. My transgressions, Lord, are multiplied, my transgressions are multiplied; and I am not worthy to behold and see the height of heaven, for the multitude of mine iniquities. I am bowed down with many iron bands, so that I cannot lift up my head, nor have any release; for I have provoked thy wrath, and done evil be fore thee. I did not thy will, nor kept thy commandments. I have set up abominations, and have multiplied offences. Now, therefore, I bow the knee of my heart, imploring thy grace. I have sinned, Lord, I have sinned, and I acknowledge mine iniquities. Wherefore,

1 humbly beseech thee, forgive me, Lord, forgive me, and destroy me not with mine iniquities. Be not angry with me forever, by reserving evil for me; nor condemn me into the lower part of the earth. For thou art the God, even the God of them that repent, and in me thou wilt show all thy goodness; for thou wilt save me that am unworthy, according to thy great mercy. Therefore I will praise thee forever all the days of my life; for all the powers of the heavens do praise thee, and thine is the glory forever and ever. Amen.

And the Lord heard his voice, and had compassion upon him; and there appeared a flame of fire about him, and all the iron shackles and chains fell off; and the Lord healed Manasseh from his affliction, and brought him back to Jerusalem unto his kingdom; and Manasseh knew that the Lord is God alone. And he worshipped the Lord God alone, with all his heart, and with all his soul, all the days of his life; and he was esteemed righteous; and he took away the strange gods, and the graven image out of the house of the Lord, and all the altars which he had built in the house of the Lord, and all the altars in Jerusalem; and he cast them out of the city. And he repaired the altar of the Lord, and sacrificed thereon peace-offerings and thank-offerings. And he spake to Judah to serve the Lord God of Israel. And he slept in peace with his fathers; and Amon his son reigned in his stead. And he did evil in the sight of the Lord, according to all things that Manasseh his father had done in the former part of his reign; and he provoked the Lord his God to anger.’

Ye have heard, our beloved children, how the Lord God for a while punished him that was addicted to idols, and had slain many innocent persons; and vet that he received him when he repented, and forgave him his offences, and restored him to his kingdom. For he not only forgiveth the penitent, but reinstateth them in their former dignity.

Chapter XXIII – Amon may be an example to such as sin with a high hand

There is no sin more grievous than idolatry; for it is an impiety against God; and yet even this sin hath been forgiven, upon sincere repentance. But if anyone sin in direct opposition, and on purpose to try whether God will punish the wicked or not, such a one shall have no remission, although he say with himself, All is well, and I will walk according to the conversation of mine evil heart. Such a one was Amon, the son of Manasseh. For the Scripture saith, And Amon reasoned an evil reasoning of transgression, and said, My father from his childhood was a great transgressor, and repented in his old age; and now I will walk as my soul listeth; and afterwards I will return unto the Lord. And he did evil in the sight of the Lord above all that were before him. And the Lord God soon destroyed him utterly from his good land. And his servants con spired against him, and slew him in his own house; and he reigned two years only.

Chapter XXIV – That Christ Jesus our Lord came to save sinners by repentance

Take heed, therefore, ye of the laity, lest anyone of you fix the reasoning of Amon in his heart, and be suddenly cut off, and perish. In the same manner, let the Bishop take all the care he can that those who are yet innocent may not fall into sin. And let him heal and receive those who turn from their sins. But if he is pitiless, and will not receive the repenting sinner, he will sin against the Lord his God, pretending to be more just than God’s justice, and not receiving him whom He hath received through Christ; for whose sake he sent his Son upon earth to men, as a man; for whose sake God was pleased that he who was the Maker of man and woman should be born of a woman; for whose sake he did not spare him from the cross, from death and burial; but permitted him to die who by nature could not suffer; his beloved Son, God the Word; the angel of his great council; that he might deliver those from death who were obnoxious to death. Him do those provoke to anger who do not receive the penitent. For he was not ashamed of me, Matthew, who was formerly a publican; and admitted Peter, who had through fear denied him three times, but had appeased him by repentance, and had wept bitterly; nay, he made him a shepherd to his own lambs. Moreover, he ordained Paul, our fellow apostle, to be of a persecutor an apostle, and declared him a chosen vessel, even when he had heaped many mischiefs upon us before, and had blasphemed his sacred name. He saith also to another, a woman that was a sinner, Thy sins  are many, are forgiven; for thou lovedst much. And when the elders, setting before him another woman who had sinned, had left the sentence to him, and were gone out, our Lord, the searcher of hearts, inquiring of her whether the elders had condemned her, and being answered No, he said unto her, Go thy way, therefore, for neither do I condemn thee.

Ye Bishops, this Jesus, our Saviour, our King, and our God, ought to be set before you as a pattern; and him ye ought to imitate, in being meek, quiet, compassionate, merciful, peaceable, free from anger, apt to teach, and diligent to convert, willing to receive and to comfort; no strikers, not soon angry, not injurious, not arrogant, not supercilious, not wine-bibbers, not drunkards, not vainly expensive, not lovers of delicacies, not extravagant; using the gifts of God, not as another’s, but as one’s own; as good stewards appointed over them, as those who will be required by God to give an account of the same. Let the Bishop esteem such food and raiment sufficient as suit necessity and decency. Let him not make use of the Lord’s goods as another’s, but moderately; for the laborer is worthy of his reward. Let him not be luxurious in diet, nor fond of idle furniture; but let him desire those things only which belong to his condition.

Chapter XXV – Of first-fruits and tithes; and after what manner the Bishop is him

self to partake of them, or to distribute them to others

Let him use those tenths and first-fruits which are given according to the command of God, as a man of God. Let him dispense in a right manner the freewill offerings which are brought in on account of the poor, the orphans, the widows, the afflicted, and strangers in distress, as having that God for the examiner of his accounts who hath committed the disposition to him. Moreover, distribute with righteousness to all those who are in want; and use, yourselves, the things which belong to the Lord, but do not abuse them; eating of them, but not eating them all up by yourselves. Communicate with those that are in want, and thereby show yourselves unblamable before God. For if ye shall consume them by yourselves, ye will be reproached by God, who saith, as to insatiable and selfish devourers. Ye eat up the milk, and clothe yourselves with the wool; and in another passage, Must ye alone live upon the earth. On which account ye are commanded in the law, Thou shalt love thy neighbor as thyself.

Now we say these things, not as if ye might not partake of the fruits of your labors; for it is written, Thou shalt not muzzle the mouth of the ox which treadeth out the corn; but that ye should do it with moderation and righteousness. As therefore the ox that laboreth in the threshing-floor without a muzzle, eateth indeed, but doth not eat all up; so do ye who labor in the threshing-floor, that is, in the church of God, eat of the church; which was also the case of the Levites, who served in the tabernacle of the testimony, which was in all things a type of the church.

Moreover, also, its very name implied that that tabernacle was fore-appointed for a testimony of the church. Here, therefore, the Levites, who attended upon the tabernacle, partook of those things which were offered to God by all the people, namely, gifts, offerings, and first-fruits, and tithes, and sacrifices, and oblations, without disturbance, they and their wives, and their sons, and their daughters. Since their employment was the ministration of the tabernacle, therefore they had not any lot or inheritance in the land among the children of Israel, because the oblations of the people were the lot of Levi, and the inheritance of their tribe.

Ye, therefore, at the present day, Bishops, are to your people priests and Levites, ministering to the holy tabernacle, the holy catholic church; who stand at the altar of the Lord your God, and offer to him reasonable and unbloody sacrifices, through Jesus, the great High Priest. Ye are to the laity, prophets, rulers, governors, and kings; the mediators between God and his faithful people, who receive and declare his word, well acquainted with the Scriptures. Ye are the voice of God, and witnesses of his will, who bear the sins of all, and intercede for all; whom, as ye have heard, the Word severely threateneth, if ye hide from men the key of knowledge, who are liable to perdition, if ye do not declare his will to the people that are under you; who shall have a sure reward from God, and unspeakable honor and glory, if ye duly minister to the holy tabernacle. For as yours is the burden, so ye receive, as your fruit, the supply of food and other necessaries. For ye imitate Christ the Lord; and, as he bare the sins of us all upon the tree, at his crucifixion, the innocent for those who deserved punishment; so also ye ought to make the sins of the people your own. For concerning our Saviour, it is said in Isaiah, He beareth our sins, and is afflicted for us. And again, He bare the sins of many, and was delivered for their offences. As therefore ye are patterns for others, so ye have Christ for your pattern; as therefore he himself is the pattern for you all, so are ye for the laity under you. Think not that the office of a Bishop is an easy or light burden. As therefore ye bear the weight, so ye have a right to partake of the fruits before others, and to impart to those that are in want, as having to give an account to Him who without bias will examine your accounts.

For they who attend upon the church ought to be maintained by the church, as being priests, Levites, presidents, and ministers of God. As it is written in the book of Numbers concerning the priests: And the Lord said unto Aaron, Thou and thy sons; and the house of thy family, shall bear the iniquities of the sanctuary and of your priesthood. Behold, I have given unto you the charge of the first-fruits. From all that are sanctified to me by the children of Israel; I have given them for a reward to thee, and to thy sons after thee, by an ordinance forever. This shall be yours out of the holy things, out of the oblations, and out of the gifts, and out of all the sacrifices, and out of every trespass-offering and sin-offering, and all that they render unto me out of all their holy things; they shall belong to thee, and to thy sons. In the sanctuary shall they eat them. And a little after: All the first-fruits of the oil, and of the wine, and of the wheat, and all that they shall give unto the Lord, to thee have I given them; and all that is first ripe, to thee have I given it, and every devoted thing. Every first-born of man and of beast, clean and unclean, and the breast and the right shoulder of a sacrifice, appertain to the priests, and to the rest who continue with them, namely, the Levites.

Hear this, ye of the laity also, the elect church of God. For the people were formerly called, the people of God, and a holy nation. Ye, therefore, are the holy and sacred church of God, enrolled in heaven, a royal priesthood, a holy nation, a peculiar people, a bride adorned for the Lord God, a great church, a faithful church. Hear attentively now what was said formerly: Oblations and tithes belong to Christ, our High Priest, and to those who minister to him. Tithes of salvation are the first letter of the name of Jesus. Hear, thou holy catholic church, who hast escaped the ten plagues, and hast received the ten commandments, and hast learned the law, and hast kept the faith, and hast believed in Jesus, and art named after his name, and art established, and shinest in the consummation of his glory. Those which were then the sacrifices are now prayers, and intercessions, and thanksgivings. Those which were then first-fruits, and tithes, and offerings, and gifts, are now oblations, which are presented by holy Bishops to the Lord God, through Jesus Christ, who hath died for them. For these are your high priests, as the presbyters are your priests; and your present deacons are instead of the Levites, as are also your readers, your singers, your porters, your deaconesses, your widows, your virgins, and your orphans. But he who is above all these is the high priest.

Chapter XXVI – According to what pattern and dignity every order of the clergy is appointed by God

The Bishop is the minister of the Word, the keeper of knowledge, the mediator between God and you in the several parts of your divine worship. He is the teacher of piety; and, next after God, he is your father, who hath begotten you again to the adoption of sons by water and the Spirit. He is your ruler and governor; he is your king and potentate; he is, next after God, your earthly god, who hath a right to be honored by you. For concerning him and such as he, it is that God pronounceth, I have said, Ye are gods, and ye are all children of the Most High; and, Ye shall not speak evil of the gods.

Let the Bishop, therefore, preside over you as one honored with the authority of God, which he is to exercise over the clergy, and by which he is to govern all the people. But let the deacon minister to him as Christ doth to his Father, and let him serve him unblamably in all things, as Christ doeth nothing of himself, but doeth always those things that please his Father. Let also the deaconess be honored by you in the place of the Holy Ghost, and not do nor say anything without the deacon; as neither doth the Comforter say nor do anything of himself, but giveth glory to Christ by waiting for his pleasure. And as we cannot believe on Christ without the teaching of the Spirit, so let not any woman address herself to the deacon or to the Bishop without the deaconess. Let the presbyters be esteemed by you to represent us the apostles, and let them be the teachers of divine knowledge; since our Lord, when he sent us, said, Go ye, and make disciples of all nations, baptizing  them in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost; teaching them to observe all things whatsoever I have commanded you. Let the widows and orphans be esteemed as representing the altar of burnt-offering; and let the virgins be honored as representing the altar of incense, and the incense itself.

Chapter XXVII – That it is a horrible thing for a man to thrust himself into any sacerdotal office, as did Corall and his company, Saul, and Uzziah

As therefore it was not lawful for one of another tribe, that was not a Levite, to offer anything, or to approach the altar without the priest; so also do ye nothing without the Bishop. But if anyone doeth anything without the Bishop, he doeth it to no purpose. For it will not be esteemed as of any avail to him. For as Saul, when he had offered without Samuel, was told, It will not avail for thee; so every person among the laity, doing anything without the priest, laboreth in vain. And as Uzziah the king, who was not a priest, and yet would exercise the functions of the priests, was smitten with leprosy for his transgression; so every lay-person shall be punished who despiseth God, and, raging against his priests, snatcheth the honor to himself; not imitating Christ, who glorified not himself to be made a High Priest, but waited till he heard from his Father, The Lord sware, and will not repent, Thou art a Priest forever after the order of Melchisedek. If, therefore, Christ did not glorify himself without God the Father, how dareth any man thrust himself into the priesthood who hath not received that dignity from his superior, and do those things which it is lawful only for the priests to do? Were not the followers of Corah,  even they who were of the tribe of Levi, consumed with fire, because they rose up against Moses and Aaron, and meddled with such things as did not belong to them? And Dathan and Abiram went down quick into hell; and the rod that budded put a stop to the madness of the multitude, and showed who was the high priest ordained by God.

Ye ought, therefore, brethren, to bring your sacrifices and your oblations to the Bishop, as to your high priest, either by yourselves or by the deacons; and bring to him not those only, but also your first-fruits, and your tithes, and your free-will offerings. For He knoweth who they are that are in affliction, and giveth to every one as is convenient, so that one may not receive alms twice or oftener the same day or the same week, while another hath nothing at all. For it is reasonable rather to supply the wants of those who are really in distress, than of those who only appear to be so.

Chapter XXVIII – Of an entertainment; and how each distinct order of the clergy is to be treated by those who invite them to it

If any determine to invite elder women to an entertainment of love or a feast, as our Saviour hath denominated it, let them most frequently send to her whom the deacons know to be in distress.

But let what is the pastor’s due, I mean the first-fruits, be set apart in the feast for him (even though he be not at the entertainment), as being your priest, and in honor of that God who hath entrusted him with the priesthood. But whatever be the portion given to each of the elder women, let double be given to the deacons, in honor of Christ. Let also a double portion be set apart for the presbyters, as for those who labor about the Word and doctrine, on account of the apostles of our Lord, whose place they sustain as the counsellors of the Bishop, and the crown of the church. For they are the sanhedrim and senate of the church. If there be a reader there, let him receive a single portion, in honor of the prophets; and let the singer and the porter have as much.

Let the laity, therefore, pay to each distinct order the proper honor, in gifts and in respectful deportment. But let them not on all occasions trouble their ruler; but let them signify their desires by those who minister to him, that is, by the deacons, with whom they may be more free. For neither may we address ourselves to Almighty God, but only by Christ. In the same manner, therefore, let the laity make known all their desires to the Bishop by the deacon; and accordingly let them act as he shall direct them. For there was no holy thing offered or done in the temple formerly without the priest: for the priest’s lips shall keep knowledge, and they shall seek the Law at his mouth; as the prophet somewhere saith; for he is the messenger of the Lord Almighty. For if the worshippers of demons, in their hateful, abominable, and impure performances till this very day, imitate the sacred rules (it is a wide comparison indeed, and there is a vast distance between their abominations and God’s sacred worship), they neither offer nor do anything in their delusive acts of worship, without their pretended priest; but they esteem him as the very mouth of their idols of stone, waiting to see what commands he will lay upon them. And whatsoever he commandeth them, that they do; and without him they do nothing; and they honor their pretended priest himself, and esteem his name as venerable in honor of lifeless statues, and in order to the worship of wicked spirits. If these heathens, therefore, who give glory to lying vanities, and place their hope on nothing that is firm, endeavor to imitate the sacred rules, how much more reasonable is it that ye, who have a most certain faith and undoubted hope, and who expect glorious, and eternal, and never-failing promises, should honor the Lord God in those who are set over you, and esteem the Bishops to be the mouth of God!

Chapter XXIX – What is the dignity of a Bishop and of a Deacon

For if Aaron, because he declared to Pharaoh the words of God from Moses, is called a prophet, and Moses himself is called a god to Pharaoh, on account of his being at once a king and a high priest, as God saith to him, I have made thee a god to Pharaoh, and Aaron thy brother shall be thy prophet; why do not ye also esteem the mediators of the word to be prophets, and revere them as gods?

Chapter XXX – After what manner the Laity are to be obedient to the Deacon

For now the Deacon is to you Aaron; and the Bishop, Moses. If, therefore, Moses was called a god by the Lord, let the Bishop be honored among you as a god, and the Deacon as his prophet. For as Christ doeth nothing without his Father, so neither doeth the Deacon anything without his Bishop. And as the Son without his Father is nothing, so is the Deacon nothing without his Bishop. And as the Son is subject to his Father, so is every Deacon subject to his Bishop; and as the Son is the messenger and prophet of the Father, so is the Deacon the messenger and prophet of his Bishop. Wherefore, let all things that he is to do with anyone be made known to the Bishop, and by him be perfected.

Chapter XXXI – That the Deacon must not do anything without the Bishop

Let him not do anything at all without his Bishop, nor give anything without his consent. For if he give to anyone as to a person in distress, without the Bishop’s knowledge, he will give it so that it must tend to the reproach of the Bishop, and will accuse him as careless of the distressed. But he that casteth reproach on his Bishop, either by word or by deed, opposeth God, not hearkening to what he saith, Thou shalt not speak evil of the gods.  For he did not make that law concerning deities of wood and of stone, which are abominable, because they are falsely called gods; but concerning the priests and the judges, to whom God also said, Ye are gods and children of the Most High.

Chapter XXXII – That the Deacon must not make any distributions without the consent of the Bishop, because that will turn to the reproach of the Bishop

If, therefore, Deacon, thou knowest anyone to be in distress, put the Bishop in mind of him, and so give to him; but do nothing in a clandestine way, tending to his reproach, lest thou raise a murmur against him. For the murmur will not be against him, but against the Lord God. And the Deacon, with the rest, will hear what Aaron and Miriam heard, when they spake against Moses, How is it that ye were not afraid to speak against my servant  Moses? And again, Moses saith to those who rose up against him, Your murmuring is not against us, but against the Lord our God. For if he that calleth one of the laity Raca, or fool, shall be punished as doing injury to the name of Christ, how dareth any man speak against his Bishop, by whom the Lord gave the Holy Spirit among you upon the laying on of his hands; by whom ye have learned the sacred doctrines, and have known God, and have believed in Christ; by whom ye were known of God; by whom ye were sealed with the oil of gladness and the ointment of understanding; by whom ye were declared to be the children of light; by whom the Lord in your illumination testified by the imposition of the Bishop’s hands, and sent out his sacred voice upon every one of you, saying, Thou art my son, this day have I begotten thee. By thy Bishop, man, God adopteth thee for his child. Acknowledge, son, that right hand which was a mother to thee. Love him who, after God, is become a father to thee, and honor him.

Chapter XXXIII – After what manner the Priests are to be honored and to be reverenced as our spiritual parents

For if the Divine Oracle saith concerning our parents according to the flesh, Honor thy father and thy mother, that it may be well with thee; and, He that curseth his father or his mother, let him die the death; how much more should the Word exhort you to honor your spiritual parents, and to love them as your benefactors and ambassadors with God, who have regenerated you by water, and endued you with the fulness of the Holy Spirit, who have fed you with the word as with milk, who have nourished you with doctrine, who have confirmed you by their admonitions, who have imparted to you the saving body and precious blood of Christ, who have loosed you from your sins, who have made you partakers of the holy and sacred Eucharist, who have admitted you to be partakers and fellow-heirs of the promise of God! Reverence these, and honor them with all kinds of honor; for they have received from God the power of life and death in judging sinners and condemning them to the death of eternal fire, as also in loosing the penitent from their sins, and restoring them to a new life.

Chapter XXXIV – That the Priests are to be preferred before the Rulers and Kings

Account these worthy to be esteemed your rulers and kings, and bring them tribute as to kings. For by you they and their families ought to be maintained. As Samuel made constitutions for the people concerning a king, in the first book of Kings, and Moses, concerning priests, in Leviticus; so do we also make constitutions for you concerning Bishops. For if there the multitude distributed the inferior services in proportion to so great a king, ought not therefore the Bishop much more now to receive of you those things which are divinely determined for the sustenance of himself, and of the rest of the clergy with him? But, if anything further ought to be said, let the Bishop receive more than the other received of old. For he only managed the affairs of the soldiery, being intrusted with war and peace for the preservation of men’s bodies; but the other is intrusted with the exercise of the priestly office in relation to God. in order to preserve both body and soul from dangers. By how much, therefore, the soul is more valuable than the body, so much the priestly office is beyond the kingly. For it bindeth and looseth those that are worthy of punishment or of remission. Wherefore, ye ought to love the Bishop as your father, and fear him as your king, and honor him as your lord, bringing to him your fruits and the works of your hands, for a blessing upon you, giving to him your first-fruits, and your tithes, and your oblations, and your gifts, as to the priest of God; the first-fruits of your wheat, and wine, and oil, and autumnal fruits, and wool, and all things which the Lord God giveth thee. And thine offering shall be accepted as a savor of a sweet smell to the Lord thy God; and the Lord will bless the works of thy hands, and will multiply the good things of thy land. For a blessing is upon the head of him  that giveth.

Chapter XXXV – That both the Law and the Gospel prescribe offerings

Now ye ought to know, that although the Lord hath delivered you from the additional bonds, and hath brought you out of them to your refreshment, and doth not permit you to sacrifice irrational creatures for sin-offerings, and purifications, and scape-goats, and continual washings and sprinklings, yet hath he nowhere freed you from those oblations which ye owe to the priests, nor from doing so to the poor. For the Lord saith to you in the Gospel, Unless your righteousness abound more than that of the Scribes and Pharisees, ye shall by no means enter into the kingdom of heaven. Now herein will your righteousness exceed theirs, if ye take greater care of the priests, the orphans, and the widows: as it is written, He hath scattered abroad, he hath given to the poor, his righteousness remaineth forever. And again, By acts of righteousness and faith, iniquities are purged. And again, Every bountiful soul is blessed.

So, therefore, shalt thou do as the Lord hath appointed, and shalt give to the priest what things are due to him, the first-fruits of thy floor and of thy wine-press, and sin-offerings, as to the mediator between God and such as stand in need of purification and forgiveness. For it is thy duty to give, and his to administer, as being the administrator and disposer of ecclesiastical affairs.

Yet thou shalt not call thy Bishop to account, nor watch his administration, how he performeth it, when, or to whom, or where, or whether he do it well or ill, or indifferently; for he hath one who will call him to an account, the Lord God, who put this administration into his hands, and thought him worthy of the priesthood of so great dignity.

Chapter XXXVI – Mention of the ten commandments; and after what manner they prescribe

Have before thine eyes the fear of God, and always remember the ten commandments of God: to love the one and only Lord God with all thy strength; to give no heed to idols, or such like, as being lifeless gods, or irrational beings, or demons. Consider the manifold workmanship of God, which received its beginning through Christ. Thou shalt observe the Sabbath, on account of Him who ceased from his work of creation, but ceased not from his work of providence. It is a rest for meditation of the law, not for idleness of the hands. Reject every unlawful lust, everything destructive to men, and all anger. Honor thy parents, as the authors of thy being. Love thy neighbor as thyself. Communicate the necessaries of life to the needy. Avoid swearing falsely, and swearing often, and in vain; for thou shalt not be held guiltless. Appear not before the priests empty; and offer thy free-will offerings continually. Moreover, do not neglect the church of Christ; but go thither in the morning before all thy work, and again meet there in the evening, to return thanks to God that he hath preserved thy life. Be diligent, and constant, and laborious in thy calling. Offer to the Lord thy free-will offerings; for saith he, Honor the Lord with the fruit of thine honest labors. If thou art not able to cast anything considerable into the sacred treasury, yet at least bestow upon the strangers one or two or five mites. Lay up for thyself heavenly treasure, which neither the moth nor thieves can destroy. And, in doing this, judge not thy Bishop, nor any of thy neighbors among the laity; for if thou judge thy brother, thou becomest a judge, without being constituted such by anybody; for the priests only are intrusted with the power of judging. For to them it is said, Judge righteous judgment; and again, Approve yourselves to be exact money-changers. For to you this is not intrusted; for, on the contrary, it is said to those who are not of the dignity of magistrates or ministers, Judge not, and ye shall  not be judged.

Chapter XXXVII – Concerning accusers and false accusers; and how a judge is not rashly either to believe them or to disbelieve them, but after an accurate examination

But it is the duty of the Bishop to judge rightly; as it is written, Judge righteous judgment; and elsewhere, Why do ye  not even of yourselves, judge what is right? Be ye therefore as skilful dealers in money. For as these reject bad money, but take to themselves what is current: in the same manner it is the Bishop’s duty to retain the unblamable, but either to heal, or, if they be past cure, to cast off those that are blameworthy, so as not to be hasty in cutting off, nor to believe all accusations. For it sometimes happeneth that some, either through passion or envy, insist on a false accusation against a brother; as did the two elders in the case of Susanna, in Babylon, and the Egyptian woman in the case of Joseph. Do thou, therefore, as a man of God, not rashly receive such accusations, lest thou take away the innocent, and slay the righteous. For he that will receive such accusations is the author of anger, rather than of peace. But where there is anger, there the Lord is not. For that anger, which is the friend of Satan, I mean that which is excited unjustly by the means of false brethren, never suffereth unanimity to be in the church. Wherefore, when ye know such persons to be foolish, quarrelsome, passionate, and delighting in mischief, do not give credit to them; but observe such as they are, when ye hear anything from them against their brother. For murder is nothing in their eyes, and they cast a man down in such a way as one would not suspect.

Do thou, therefore, consider diligently the accuser, wisely observing his conversation, what, and of what sort, it is; and in case thou find him a man of veracity, do according to the doctrine of the Lord; and, taking him who is accused, rebuke him privately, that he may repent. But, if he be not persuaded, take with thee one or two more, and thus show him his fault, and admonish him with mildness and instruction; for wisdom will rest upon a heart that is good, but is not understood in the heart of the foolish.

Chapter XXXVIII – That they who sin are to be privately reproved, and the penitent to be received, according to the constitution of our Lord

If, therefore, he be persuaded by the mouth of you three, it is well. But if anyone harden himself, Tell it to the church. But if he neglect to hear the church, let him be to thee as a heathen man and a publican; and receive him no longer into the church as a Christian, but reject him as a heathen. But if he be willing to repent, receive him. For the church doth not receive a heathen or a publican to communion, before they every one repent of their former iniquities. For our Lord Jesus, the Christ of God, hath appointed place for the acceptance of men upon their repentance.

Chapter XXXIX – Examples of Repentance

For I, Matthew, one of the twelve who speak to you in this doctrine, am an apostle, having myself been formerly a publican, but now have obtained mercy through believing, and have repented of my former practices, and have been accounted worthy to be an apostle, and preacher of the word. And Zaccheus, whom the Lord received upon his repentance and prayers to him, was also himself in the same manner a publican at first. And besides, even the soldiers and multitude of publicans, who came to hear the word of the Lord concerning repentance, heard this from the prophet John, after he had baptized them, Do nothing more than that which is appointed you. In like manner, life is not refused to the heathen, if they repent, and cast away their unbelief.

Esteem, therefore, every one that is convicted of any wicked action, and has not repented, as a publican or a heathen. But if he afterwards repent, and turn from his error, then as we receive them into the church indeed to hear the word, but do not receive them to communion, until they, having received the seal, are made complete Christians; so do we also permit such as these to enter only to hear, until they show the fruit of repentance, that, by hearing the word, they may not utterly and irrecoverably perish. But let them not be admitted to communion in prayer; and let them depart after the reading of the Law, and the Prophets, and the Gospel, that by such departure they may be made better in their course of life, by endeavoring to meet every day about the public assemblies, and to be frequent in prayer, that they also may be at length admitted, and that those who behold them may be affected, and be more secured by fearing to fall into the same condition.

Chapter XL – That we are not to be implacable towards him who hath once or twice offended

But yet do not thou, Bishop, presently abhor any person who hath fallen into one or two offences, nor shalt thou exclude him from the word of the Lord, nor reject him from common intercourse; since neither did the Lord refuse to eat with publicans and sinners; and, when he was accused by the Pharisees on this account, he said, They that are well have no need of a physician , but they that are sick. Converse and dwell, therefore, with those who are separated from you for their sins, and take care of them, comforting them, and confirming them, and saying, Be strengthened, ye weak hands and feeble knees. For ye ought to comfort those that mourn, and afford encouragement to the faint-hearted, lest by immoderate sorrow they degenerate into distraction; since he that is faint-hearted is exceedingly distracted.

Chapter XLI – How we ought to receive the penitent, and how to bear with them that sin, and when to cut them off from the church

But if anyone return, and show forth the fruit of repentance, then Deceive him to prayer, as the lost son, the prodigal, who had consumed his father’s substance with harlots; who fed swine, and desired to be fed with husks, and could not obtain them. When this son repented, and returned to his father, and said, I have sinned against Heaven and before thee, and am no more worthy to be called thy son; the father, full of affection to his child, received him with music, and restored to him his former robe, and ring, and shoes, and slew the fatted calf, and made merry with his friends.

Do thou, therefore, Bishop, act in the same manner; and as thou receivest a heathen, after thou hast instructed and baptized him, so do thou let all join in prayers for this man, and restore him by imposition of hands to his ancient place among the flock, as one purified by repentance. And that imposition of hands shall be to him instead of baptism. For, by the laying on of our hands, the Holy Ghost was given to believers. And, in case someone of those brethren who had stood immovable accuse thee because thou art reconciled to him, say to him, Thou art always with me, and all that I have is thine. It was meet to make merry and be glad; for this thy brother was dead, and is alive again; he was lost, and is found.

For that God doth not only receive the penitent, but restoreth them to their former dignity, holy David is a sufficient witness; who, after his sin in the matter of Uriah, prayed to God, and said, Restore unto me the joy of thy salvation, and uphold me  with thy free spirit. And again, Turn thy face from my sins, and blot out all mine offences. Create in me a clean heart, God, and renew a right spirit in mine inward parts. Cast me not away from thy presence, and take not thy holy spirit from me.

As a compassionate physician, therefore, do thou heal all that sin, making use of saving methods of cure; not only cutting and searing, or using corrosives, but binding up, and dressing with lint, and using gentle healing medicines, and sprinkling comfortable words. If it be a hollow wound or great gash, nourish it with a suitable plaster, that it may be filled up, and become even with the rest of the whole flesh. If it be foul, cleanse it with corrosive powder, that is, with the words of reproof. If it have proud flesh, cut it down with a sharp plaster, the threats of judgment. If it spread farther, sear it, and cut off the putrid flesh, subduing it with fastings. But if, after all that thou hast done, thou perceivest that from the feet to the head there is no room for a fomentation, or oil, or bandage, but that the malady spreadeth, and preventeth all cure, as a gangrene, which corrupteth the entire member; then, with a great deal of consideration, and the advice of other skilful physicians, cut off the putrified member, that the whole body of the church be not corrupted. Be not therefore ready and hasty to cut off, nor do thou easily have recourse to the saw, with its many teeth; but first use a lancet to lay open the wound, that the inward cause, whence the pain is derived, being drawn out, may keep the body free from pain. But if thou seest anyone past repentance, and he hath become insensible, then, with sorrow and lamentation, cut off from the church the incurable. For, Put away from among yourselves that wicked person. And, Ye shall make the children of Israel circumspect. And, again, Thou shalt not accept the persons of the rich in judgment. And, Thou shalt not pity a poor man in his cause; for the judgment is the Lord’s.

Chapter XLII – That a Judge must not be a respecter of persons

But if the slanderous accusation be false, and ye that are the pastors, with the deacons, admit that falsehood for truth, either by acceptance of persons or by receiving bribes, as willing to do that which will be pleasing to the devil; and so ye thrust out him that is accused, but is clear of the crime; ye shall give an account in the day of the Lord. For it is written, The innocent and the righteous thou shalt not slay. Thou shalt not take gifts to smite the soul; for gifts blind the eyes of the wise , and destroy the words of the righteous. And, again, They that justify the wicked for gifts , and take away the righteousness of the righteous from him.

Take care, therefore, lest by any means ye become accepters of persons, and thereby fall under this voice of the Lord. Be careful therefore not to condemn any unjustly, and so to assist the wicked. For, Woe to him that calleth evil good, and good evil, bitter sweet, and sweet bitter; that putteth light for darkness, and darkness for light. For if ye condemn others unjustly, ye pass sentence against yourselves. For the Lord saith, With what judgement ye judge, ye shall be judged; and as ye condemn, ye shall be condemned.

If, therefore, ye judge without respect of persons, ye will discover that accuser who beareth false witness against his neighbor, and will prove him to be a sycophant, a spiteful person, and a murderer, causing perplexity (by accusing the man as if he were wicked) , inconstant in his words, contradicting himself in what he affirmeth, and entangled with the words of his own mouth. For his own lips are a dangerous snare to him. Whom, when thou hast convicted him of speaking falsely, thou shalt judge severely, and shalt deliver him to the fiery sword, and thou shalt do to him as he wickedly purposed to do to his brother. For, as much as in him lay, he slew his brother, by forestalling the ears of the  judge. Now, it is written, that He that sheddeth man’s  blood, for that his own blood shall be shed. And, Thou  shalt take away from thee that innocent blood which was shed without cause.

Chapter XLIII – How false accusers are to be punished

Thou shalt, therefore, cast him out of the congregation as a murderer of his brother. Sometime afterwards, if he say that he repenteth, mortify him with fastings; and afterwards ye shall lay your hands upon him, and receive him; but still securing him, that he do not disturb anyone a second time. But if, when he is admitted again, he be alike troublesome, and will not cease to disturb, and to quarrel with his brother, spying faults out of a contentious spirit, cast him out as a pernicious person, that he may not lay waste the church of God. For such a one is a raiser of disturbances in cities; for he, though he be within, doth not become the church, but is a superfluous and vain member, casting a blot, as far as in him lieth, on the body of Christ. For if such men as are born with superfluous members of their body, which hang to them, as fingers, or excrescences of flesh, cut them away from themselves on account of their unseemliness, and nothing that is unseemly cometh any more, the man recovering his natural good shape by means of the surgeon; how much more ought ye, the pastors of the church (for the church is a perfect body and sound members, such as believe God, in the fear of the Lord and in love), to do the like, when there is found in it a superfluous member, with wicked designs, and render ing the rest of the body unseemly, and disturbing it with sedition, and war, and evil speaking; causing fears, disturbances, blots, calumnies, accusations, disorders, and doing the like works of the devil, as if he were ordained by the devil to cast reproach on the church by slanders, and much disorder, and strife, and division!

Such a one, therefore, when he is a second time cast out of the church, is justly cut off entirely from the congregation of the Lord. And now the church will be more beautiful than it was before, when it had a superfluous, and, to itself, a disagreeable member. Wherefore, henceforward it will be free from blame and reproach, and become clear of such wicked, deceitful, abusive, unmerciful, traitorous persons, of such as are haters of those that are good, lovers of pleasure, affecters of vain glory, deceivers, and pretenders to wisdom, such as make it their business to scatter, or rather utterly to disperse, the lambs of the Lord.

Do thou, therefore, Bishop, together with thy subordinate clergy, endeavor rightly to divide the word of truth. For the Lord saith, If ye walk cross-grained to me, I will walk cross-grained to you. And elsewhere, With the holy thou wilt be holy, and with the perfect man thou wilt be perfect, and with the reward thou wilt be rewarded. Proceed, therefore, in a holy manner, that ye may rather appear worthy of praise from the Lord, than, on the contrary, of reproach.

Chapter XLIV – That the Deacon is to ease the burden of the Bishops, and to order the smaller matters himself

Being, therefore, unanimous among yourselves, ye Bishops, be at peace with one another; be sympathetic, and be filled with brotherly love. Feed the people with care; teach, with one consent, those that are under you to be of the same sentiments, and to be of the same opinions, about the same matters, that there may be no schisms among you, that ye may be one body, and one spirit, perfectly joined together in the same mind, and in the same judgment, according to the appointment of the Lord.

And let the Deacon refer all things to the Bishop, as Christ doth to his Father. But let him order such things as he is able by himself, receiving power from the Bishop, as the Lord did from his Father the power of creation and providence. But the weighty matters let the Bishop judge. But let the Deacon be the Bishop’s ear, and eye, and mouth, and heart, and soul, that the Bishop may not be distracted with many cares, but with such only as are more considerable; as Jethro appointed for Moses, and his counsel was received.

Chapter XLV – That contentions and quarrels are unbecoming Christians

It is indeed a beautiful encomium for a Christian to have no contest with anyone. But if, by any management or temptation, a contest arise with anyone, let him endeavor that it may be composed, though thereby he be obliged to lose somewhat; and let it not come before a heathen tribunal. Still further, ye are not to permit that the rulers of this world pass sentence against your people. For by them the devil contriveth mischief to the servants of God, and causeth a reproach to be cast upon us, as though we had not one wise man that is able to judge between his brethren, or to decide their controversies.

Chapter XLVI – That believers ought not to go to law before unbelievers; nor ought any unbeliever to be called for a witness against believers

Let not the heathen, therefore, know of your differences with one another, nor receive ye unbelievers as witnesses against yourselves, nor be judged by them; nor owe them anything on account of imposts or taxes; but, Render to Caesar the things that are  Caesar’s, and unto God the things that are God’s, as taxes or tribute, or what was levied on every Jew; as our Lord, by giving a piece of money, was freed from disturbance. Choose, therefore, rather to suffer harm, and to endeavor after those things that make for peace, not only among the brethren, but also among the unbelievers. For, by suffering loss in the affairs of this life, thou wilt be sure not to suffer in the concerns of piety, and wilt live religiously, and according to the command of Christ. But if brethren have lawsuits one with another, which God forbid, ye who are the rulers ought thence to learn that such as these perform the work, not of brethren in the Lord, but rather of public enemies; and one of the parties will be found to be mild, gentle, and the child of light; but the other, unmerciful, insolent, and covetous.

He, therefore, who is condemned, let him be punished, let him be separated, let him undergo the punishment of his hatred to his brother. Afterward, when he repenteth, let him be received; and so, when they have learned prudence, they will ease your judicatures. It is also a duty to forgive each other’s trespasses; not the duty of those that judge, but of those that have quarrels; as the Lord determined when I, Peter, asked him, How oft shall my brother sin against me, and I forgive him? Till seven times? He replied, I say not unto thee, until seven times, but until seventy times seven. For so would our Lord have us to be truly his disciples, and never to have anything against anyone; as, for instance, anger without measure, passion without mercy, covetousness without justice, or hatred without reconciliation. By your instruction draw those who are angry to friendship, and those who are at variance to agreement. For the Lord saith, Blessed are the peace-makers,  for they shall be called the children of God.

Chapter XLYII – That the judicatures of Christians ought to be held on the second day of the week

Let your judicatures be held on the second day of the week, that, if any controversy arise about your sentence, having an interval till the Sabbath, ye may be able to set the controversy right, and to bring the contending parties to peace, against the Lord’s day.

Let also the deacons and presbyters be present at your judicatures, to judge without acceptance of persons, as men of God, with righteousness. When, therefore, both the parties are come, according as the Law saith, they shall both stand in the middle of the court; and when ye have heard them, give your votes religiously, endeavoring to make them both friends before the sentence of the Bishop, that judgment against the offender may not go abroad into the world; knowing that he (the Bishop) hath in the court the Christ of God, observing and approving his judgment. But if any persons are accused by anyone, and their fame suffereth, as if they did not walk uprightly in the Lord; in like manner, ye shall hear both parties, the accuser and the accused, but not with prejudice, nor with hearkening to one party only, but with righteousness, as passing a sentence concerning eternal life or death. For, saith God, He shall prosecute that which is right justly. For he that is justly punished and separated by you is rejected from eternal life and glory. He becometh dishonorable among holy men, and one condemned of God.

Chapter XLVIII – That the same punishment is not to be inflicted forevery offence, but different punishments for different offenders

Do not pass the same sentence forevery sin, but one suitable to each crime, distinguishing, with much prudence, all the several sorts of offences, the small and the great. Treat a wicked action after one manner, and a wicked word after another, and a base intention still otherwise. So also in the case of a contumely or a suspicion. And some thou shalt curb by threatenings alone; some thou shalt punish by fines to the poor; some thou shalt mortify with fastings; and others thou shalt separate, according to the greatness of their several crimes. For the Law did not allot the same punishment to every offence, but had a different regard to a sin against God, against the priest, against the temple, or against the sacrifice, from a sin against the king or ruler, or a soldier, or a fellow-subject; and so were the offences different which were against a servant, or a possession, or an irrational creature. And again, sins were differently rated, according as they were against parents and kinsmen, and those differently which were done on purpose, from those that happened involuntarily. Accordingly the punishments were different; as death, either by crucifixion or by stoning; fines, scourgings, or the suffering of the same mischiefs which the criminal had done to others.

Wherefore do ye also allot different penalties to different offences, lest any injustice should happen, and provoke God to indignation. For of what unjust judgment soever ye are the instruments, of the same ye shall receive the reward from God. For with what judgment ye judge, ye shall be judged.

Chapter XLIX – What are to be the characters of accusers and witnesses

When, therefore, ye are seated in your tribunal, and the parties are both of them present (for we will not call them brethren, until they receive each other in peace), examine diligently concerning those who appear before you; and first concerning the accuser, whether this be the first person he hath accused, or whether he hath advanced accusations against some others before; and whether this contest and accusation do not arise from some quarrel of the parties; and what is the general conduct of the accuser. Yet, though he be of a good conscience, do not give credit to him alone; for that is contrary to the Law. But let him have others to join in his testimony, and those of the same course of life. As the Law saith, At the, mouth of two or three witnesses everything shall be established.

But why did we say that the life of the witnesses was to be inquired after, of what sort it is? Because it frequently happeneth that two and more testify for mischief, and with joint consent prefer a lie, as did the two elders against Susanna, in Babylon, and sons as  transgressors against Naboth, in Samaria, and the multitude of the Jews against our Lord, at Jerusalem, and against Stephen, his first martyr. Let the witnesses, therefore, be meek, free from anger, full of equity, kind, prudent, continent, free from wickedness, faithful, religious; for the testimony of such persons is firm on account of their character, and true on account of their deportment. But as to those of a different character, receive not their testimony, although they seem to agree together in their evidence against the accused. For it is ordained in the Law, Thou shalt not be with a multitude for wickedness. Thou shalt not receive a vain report. Thou shalt not consent with a multitude to pervert judgment.

Ye ought also particularly to know him that is accused, what he is in his course of life and in his deportment, whether he hath a good report as to his life, whether he hath been unblamable, whether he hath been zealous in holiness, whether he is a lover of the widows, a lover of the strangers, a lover of the poor, and a lover of the brethren; whether he is not given to filthy lucre; whether he is not an extravagant person, or a spendthrift; whether he is sober, and free from luxury, or a drunkard, or a glutton; whether he is compassionate and liberal.

Chapter L – That former offences sometimes render subsequent ones credible

For if he hath been before addicted to wicked works, the accusations which are now brought against him will thence, in some measure, appear to be true, unless justice do plainly plead for him. For it may be, that, though he had formerly been an offender, yet that he may not be guilty of this crime of which he is accused. Wherefore, be thoroughly cautious about such circumstances, and so render your sentences, when pronounced against an offender convicted, safe and firm. And if, after his separation, he beg pardon, and fall down before the Bishop, and acknowledge his fault, receive him. But suffer not a false accuser to go unpunished, lest he either calumniate another who liveth virtuously, or encourage some other person to do like himself. On the other hand, indeed, suffer not a person convicted to go off clear, lest another be ensnared in the same crimes. For neither shall a witness of mischiefs be unpunished, nor shall he that offendeth be without censure.

Chapter LI – Against judging without hearing both sides

We said before that judgment ought not to be given upon hearing only one of the parties. For if ye hear one of them when the other is not present, and so cannot make his defence to the accusation brought against him, and rashly give your notes for condemnation, ye will be found guilty of that man’s destruction, and partakers with the false accuser before God, the just Judge. For, As he that holdeth the tail of a dog, so is he that presideth at unjust judgment.

But if ye become imitators of the elders in Babylon, who, when they had borne witness against Susanna, unjustly condemned her to death, ye will become obnoxious to their judgment and condemnation. For the Lord, by Daniel, delivered Susanna from the hand of the ungodly, but condemned to the fire those elders who were guilty of her blood; and he reproacheth you by him, saying, Are ye so foolish, ye children of Israel? Without examination, and without knowing the truth, ye have condemned a daughter of Israel. Return again to the place of judgment; for these men have borne false witness against her.

Chapter LII – The caution observed at heathen tribunals before the condemnation of criminals, affordeth Christians a good example

Consider even the judicatures of this world, by whose power we see murderers, adulterers, wizards, robbers of sepulchres, and thieves, brought to trial; for those that preside, when they have received their accusations from those that brought them, ask the malefactor whether those things are so. And though he acknowledge the crime, they do not presently send him out to punishment, but for several days they make inquiry concerning him, with a full council, and with the veil interposed. And he that is to pass the final decree and suffrage of death against him, lifteth up his hands to the sun, and solemnly amrmeth that he is innocent of the blood of the man. Though they are heathens, and know not the Deity, nor the vengeance which will fall upon men from God, on account of those that are unjustly condemned, yet they avoid such unjust judgments.

Chapter LIII – That Christians ought not to have contentions one with another

But ye who know who our God is, and what are his judgments, how can ye bear to pass an unjust judgment, since your sentence will be immediately known to God? And if ye have judged righteously, ye will be deemed worthy of the recompenses of righteousness, both now and hereafter; but, if unrighteously, ye will partake of the like. We therefore advise you, brethren, rather to deserve commendation from God than rebukes; for the commendation of God is eternal life to men, as is his rebuke everlasting death.

Be ye, therefore, righteous judges, peace-makers, and without anger. For He that is angry without a cause is obnoxious  to the judgment. But if it happen, that by anyone’s contrivance ye are angry at any body, Let not the sun go down upon your wrath. For, saith David, Be angry, and sin not; that is, be soon reconciled, lest your wrath continue so long that it turn to a settled hatred, and work sin. For the souls of those  that bear a settled hatred are to death, saith Solomon. But our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ saith in the Gospels, If thou  bring thy gift to the altar, and there rememberest that thy brother hath aught against thee, leave there thy gift before the altar, and go thy way; first be reconciled to thy brother, and then come and offer thy gift. Now the gift is every one’s eucharistical prayer and thanksgiving. If, therefore, thou hast anything against thy brother, or he hath anything against thee, neither will thy prayers be heard, nor will thy thanksgivings be accepted, by reason of that hidden anger. But it is your duty, brethren, to pray continually; yet, because God heareth not those who are at enmity with their brethren by unjust quarrels, even though they should pray three times an hour, it is our duty to compose all our enmity and bitterness of soul, that we may be able to pray with a pure and unpolluted heart. For the Lord commanded us to love even our enemies, and by no means to hate our friends. And the lawgiver saith, Thou shalt not hate tliy brother in thy mind. Thou shalt certainly reprove thy brother, and not incur sin on his account. Thou shalt not hate an Egyptian, for thou wast a sojourner with him. Thou shalt not hate an Idumaean, for he is thy brother. And David saith, If I have repaid those that requited me evil.

Wherefore, if thou wilt be a Christian, follow the Law of the Lord: Loose every band of wickedness. For the Lord hath given thee authority to remit to thy brother those sins which he hath committed against thee, as far as seventy times seven, that is, four hundred and ninety times. How often, therefore, hast thou remitted to thy brother, that thou art unwilling to do it now? when thou hast heard Jeremiah saying, Do not any of you impute the wickedness of his neighbor in your hearts. But thou rememberest injuries, and keepest enmity, and comest into judgment, and art suspicious of his anger, and thy prayer is hindered.

Nay, if thou hast remitted to thy brother four hundred and ninety times, do thou still multiply thine acts of gentleness more to do good for thine own sake. Although he may not do so, yet do thou endeavor to forgive thy brother for God’s sake, that thou mayest be the son of thy Father who is in heaven; and, when thou prayest, mayest be heard of God.

Chapter LIV – That the Bishops must by their Deacon put the people in mind of the obligation they are under to live peaceably together

Wherefore, Bishops, when ye are to go to prayer, after the lessons, and the psalmody, and the instruction out of the Scriptures, let the Deacon stand nigh you, and with a loud voice say, Let no one have any quarrel against another; let no one come in hypocrisy; that, if there be any controversy found among any of you, they may be affected in conscience, and may pray to God, and be reconciled to their brethren.

For if, upon coming into anyone’s house, we are to say, Peace be to this house, like sons of peace bestowing peace on those who are worthy, as it is written, To them that are nigh, and to them that are far off, whom the Lord knoweth to be his; much more is it incumbent on those that enter into the church of God before all things to pray for the peace of God. But if one pray for it upon others, much more let himself be within the same, as a child of light; for he that hath it not within himself is not fit to bestow it upon others. On which account, before all things, it is our duty to be at peace in our own minds; for he that doth not find any disorder in himself, will not quarrel with another, but will be peaceable, friendly, gathering the Lord’s people, and a fellow-worker with him, in order to increase the number of those that shall be saved in unanimity. For those who contrive enmities, and strifes, and contests, and lawsuits, are wicked, and aliens from God.

Chapter LV – An enumeration of several instances of Divine Providence, and how, in every age from the beginning, God hath invited all men to repentance

For God, being a God of mercy from the beginning, called every generation to repentance, by righteous men and prophets. He instructed those before the flood by Abel, and Shem, and Seth; also by Enos, and by Enoch, that was translated; those at the flood, by Noah; the inhabitants of Sodom, by hospitable Lot; those after the flood, by Melchisedek, and the patriarchs, and Job, the beloved of God; the Egyptians, by Moses; the Israelites, by him, and Joshua, and Caleb, and Phineas, and the rest; those after the Law, by angels and prophets; and the same, by his own incarnation proceeding from the Holy Spirit and from the Virgin; those a little before his bodily appearance, by John, his forerunner; and the same, by the same person after Christ’s birth, saying, Repent  ye, for the kingdom of heaven is at hand; those after his passion, by us the twelve apostles, and Paul, the chosen vessel.

We, therefore, who have been accounted worthy of being the witnesses of his appearance, together with James, the brother of our Lord, and the seventy-two disciples, and his seven deacons, have heard from the mouth of our Lord Jesus Christ, and by exact knowledge declare what is the will of God, that good, and accept able, and perfect will, which is made known to us by Jesus; that none should perish, but that all men, with one accord, should believe in him, and send up to him harmonious praise, and thus have ever lasting life.

Chapter LVI – That it is the will of God that men should be of one mind in matters of religion, like the heavenly powers

For this is that which our Lord taught us, when we pray, to say to his Father, Thy will be done, as in heaven, so upon earth; that as the heavenly natures of the incorporeal powers do all glorify God with one consent, so also upon earth, all men, with one mouth and one purpose, may glorify the only, the one and true God, by Christ, his only-begotten.

It is therefore his will that men should praise him with unanimity, and adore him with one consent. For this is his will in Christ, that those who are saved by him may be many; but that ye do not occasion any loss or diminution to him, nor to the church, nor lessen the number by one soul of man, as destroyed by you, which might have been saved by repentance; and which, therefore, perisheth not only by its own sin, but also by your treachery, whereby ye fulfil that which is written, He that gathereth not with me scattereth.

Such a one is a disperser of the sheep, an adversary, an enemy of God, a destroyer of those lambs whose shepherd was the Lord; and we were the collectors out of various nations and tongues, by much pains and danger, and perpetual labor, by watchings, by fastings, by lyings on the ground, by persecutions, by stripes, by imprisonments, that we might do the will of God, and fill the feast-chamber with guests to sit down at his table, that is, the holy catholic church, with joyful and chosen people, singing hymns and praises to God, who hath called them by us to life. And ye, as much as in you lieth, have dispersed them.

Moreover, do ye also of the laity be at peace with one another; endeavoring, like wise men, to increase the church, and to turn back, and tame, and restore those who seem wild. For this is the greatest reward by his promise from God, If thou fetch out  the worthy and precious from the unworthy, thou shalt be as my mouth.

Chapter LVII – An exact description of a church, and the clergy; and what things particular everyone is to do in the solemn assemblies of the clergy and laity for religious worship

But be thou, Bishop, holy, unblamable, no striker, not soon angry, not cruel; but one that buildeth up, a converter, apt to teach, firm in enduring evil, of a gentle mind, meek, long-suffering, ready to exhort, ready to comfort, as a man of God.

When thou callest an assembly of the church, as one that is the commander of a great ship, appoint the assemblies to be made with all possible skill; charging the Deacons, as mariners, to prepare places for the brethren, as for passengers, with all due care and decorum.

And first, indeed, let the building be long, with its head to the east, with its vestries on both sides at the east end; and so it will be like a ship. In the middle let the Bishop’s throne be placed; and on each side of him let the Presbytery sit down; and let the Deacons stand near at hand, in close and small girt garments; for they are like the mariners and managers of the ship. Through the care of these, let the laity sit in the other part, with all quietness and good order; and let the women sit by themselves, keep ing silence. In the middle let the Reader stand upon some high place. Let him read the books of Moses, of Joshua the son of Nun, of the Judges, and of the Kings, and of the Chronicles, and those written after the return from the captivity; and besides these, the books of Job and of Solomon, and of the sixteen prophets. But when there have been two lessons severally read, let some other person sing the hymns of David, and let the people join at the conclusions of the verses. Afterwards, let our Acts be read, and the Epistles of Paul, our fellow-worker, which he sent to the churches under the guidance of the Holy Spirit; and afterwards let a Deacon or a Presbyter read the Gospels, both those which I, Matthew, and John have delivered to you, and those which Luke and Mark, the fellow-workers of Paul, received and left to you.

And while the Gospel is read, let all the presbyters and deacons, and all the people, stand up in great silence; for it is written, Be  silent and hear, Israel. And again, But do Thou stand there and hear.

In the next place, let the Presbyters, one by one, not all together, exhort the people, and the Bishop in the last place, as being the commander.

Let the Porters stand at the entries of the men, and observe them. Let the Deaconesses also stand at those of the women, like ship-men. For the same description and pattern was both in the tabernacle of the testimony and in the temple of God. But if anyone be found sitting out of his place, let him be rebuked by the Deacon, as a messenger of the fore-ship, and be removed into the place proper for him. For the church is not only like a ship, but also like a sheep-fold; for as the shepherds place all the irrational animals distinctly, I mean goats and sheep, according to their kind and age; and still every one runneth together, like to his like; so is it to be in the church. Let the young persons sit by themselves, if there be a place for them; if not, let them stand up. But let those who are already stricken in years sit in order. As to the children that stand, let their fathers and mothers take them to themselves. Let the younger women also sit by themselves, if there be a place for them; but, if there be not, let them stand behind the women. Let those women who are married, and have children, be placed by themselves. But let the virgins, and the widows, and the elder women, stand first of all, or sit; and let the Deacon be the disposer of the places, that every one of those that come in may go to his proper place, and may not sit at the entrance. In like manner let the Deacon oversee the people, that no one may whisper, nor slumber, nor laugh, nor nod. For in the church all ought to stand wisely, and soberly, and attentively, having their attention fixed upon the word of the Lord.

After this, let all rise up with one consent, and, looking towards the east, after the catechumens and the penitents are gone out, pray to God eastward, who ascended up to the heaven of heavens to the east; remembering also the ancient situation of paradise in the east, whence the first man, when he had yielded to the persuasion of the serpent, and disobeyed the command of God, was expelled.

As to the Deacons, after the prayer is over, let some of them attend upon the oblation of the Eucharist, ministering to the Lord’s body. Let others of them watch the multitude, and keep them silent. But let that Deacon who is at the High Priest’s hand, say to the people, Let no one have any quarrel against another. Let no one come in hypocrisy. Then let the men give the men, and the women give the women, the Lord’s kiss. But let no one do it with deceit, as Judas betrayed the Lord with a kiss.

After this let the Deacon pray for the whole church, for the whole world, and the several parts of it, and the fruits of it; for the priests and the rulers, for the high priest and the king, and for universal peace. After this, let the High Priest pray for peace upon the people, and bless them in these words: The Lord bless  thee, and keep thee; the Lord make his face to shine upon thee, and give thee peace. Let the Bishop pray for the people, and say, Save thy people, Lord, and bless thine inheritance, which thou hast obtained with the precious blood of thy Christ, and hast called a royal priesthood and a holy nation.

Then let the sacrifice follow, all the people standing, and praying silently; and, when the oblation hath been made, let every rank by itself partake of the Lord’s body and precious blood, in order, and approach with reverence and holy fear, as to the body of their King. Let the women approach with their heads covered, as is becoming the order of women. Moreover, let the door be watched, lest there come in any unbeliever, or one not yet initiated.

Chapter LVIII – Of commendatory letters in favor of strangers, lay persons, clergymen, and Bishops; and that those who come into the church assemblies are to be received without regard to their quality

If anyone, a brother or a sister, come in from another parish, bringing recommendatory letters, let the Deacon be the judge of that affair, inquiring whether they are of the faithful, and of the church; whether they are not denied by heresy; and, besides, whether the sister is a married woman or a widow. And when he is satisfied in these questions, that they are really of the faithful, and of the same sentiments in the things of the Lord, let him conduct every one to the place proper for him. And if a Presbyter come from another parish, let him be received to communion by the Presbyters; if a Deacon, by the Deacons; if a Bishop, let him sit with the Bishop, and be allowed the same honor with himself. And thou, Bishop, shalt desire him to speak to the people words of instruction; for the exhortation and admonition of strangers is very acceptable, and exceedingly profitable. For, as the Scripture saith, No prophet is accepted in his own country. Thou shalt also permit him to offer the Eucharist. But if, out of reverence to thee, and as a wise man, to preserve the honor belonging to thee, he will not offer, at least thou shalt compel him to give the blessing to the people.

But if, after the congregation are seated, any other person come upon you, of good fashion and character in the world, whether he be a stranger, or one of your own country, neither do thou, Bishop, if thou art speaking the word of God, or hearing him that singeth, or that readeth, accept persons so far as to leave the ministry of the word, that thou mayest appoint an upper place for him; but continue quiet, not interrupting thy discourse nor thine attention; but let the brethren receive him by the Deacons. And if there be not a place, let the Deacon, by speaking, but not in anger, cause some younger person to rise, and place the stranger there. And it is but reasonable that one who loveth the brethren should do so of his own accord: but, if he refuse, let him raise him up by force, and set him behind all; that the rest may be taught to give place to those who are more honorable. Nay, if a poor man, or one of a low family, or a stranger, come upon you, whether he be old or young, and there be no place, the Deacon shall find a place even for these, with all his heart; that, instead of accepting persons before men, his ministration may be well pleasing to God. The very same thing let the Deaconess do for those women that come, whether they be poor or rich.

Chapter LIX – That every Christian ought to frequent the church diligently, both morning and evening

When thou instructest the people, Bishop, command and exhort them to come constantly to church, morning and evening, every day, and by no means to forsake it on any account, but to assemble together continually; nor to diminish the church by withdrawing themselves, and causing the body of Christ to be without its members. For it is spoken not only concerning the priests, but let every one of the laity hearken to it, as concerning himself; considering that it is said by the Lord, He that is not with  me is against me, and he that gathereth not with me scattereth abroad. Do not ye, therefore, scatter yourselves abroad, who are the members of Christ, by not assembling together; since, according to his promise, ye have Christ, your Head, present, and communicating to you. Be not careless of yourselves, nor deprive your Saviour of his own members, nor divide his body, nor disperse his members, nor prefer the occasions of this life to the Word of God; but assemble yourselves together every day, morning and evening, singing psalms, and praying in the Lord’s house, in the morning saying the sixty-second psalm, and in the evening the hundred and fortieth; but principally on the Sabbath-day, and on the day of our Lord’s resurrection, which is the Lord’s day, meet more diligently, sending up praise to God that made the universe by Jesus, and sent him to us, and condescended to let him suffer, and raised him from the dead. Otherwise what apology to God will he make, who doth not assemble on that day to hear the saving word concerning the resurrection? On which day we pray thrice, standing, in memory of him who arose in three days; and on which are the reading of the prophets, the preaching of the gospel, the oblation of the sacrifice, and the gift of the holy food.

Chapter LX – The vain zeal which the Heathen and the Jews show, in frequenting their temples and synagogues, is a proper example and motive to excite Christians to frequent the church

What, moreover, but an adversary to God can he be who taketh pains about temporary things night and day, but taketh no care of things eternal? Who taketh care of washings and temporary food every day, but doth not take care of interests that endure forever? How can such a one, even now, avoid hearing that word of the Lord, The Gentiles are justified more than you, as he saith by way of reproach to Jerusalem, Sodom is justified rather than thou. For if the Gentiles every day, when they arise from sleep, run to their idols to worship them, and first of all pray to them, before all their work and all their labors; and in their feasts and in their solemnities do not keep away, but attend upon them; and not only those at the place, but those living far distant, do the same; and in their public shows all come together, as into a synagogue; in the same manner, those who are vainly called Jews, resting from work after every period of six days, come together into their synagogue on the seventh day, never leaving nor neglecting either rest from labor or assembling together; while yet they are deprived of the efficacy of the word in their unbelief; nay, and of the force of that name Judah, by which they call themselves; for Judah is interpreted confession; but these, having un justly occasioned the suffering on the cross, do not confess to God, so as to be saved on their repentance; if, therefore, those who are not saved frequently assemble together for such purposes as do not profit them, what apology to the Lord God wilt thou make, who forsakest his church, not imitating so much as the heathen, but by thine absence growest slothful, or turnest apostate, or committest iniquity? To whom the Lord saith by Jeremiah, Ye have not kept mine ordinances; nay, ye have not walked according to the ordinances of the heathen, and ye have in a manner exceeded them. And again, Israel hath justified his soul more than treacherous Judah. And afterwards, Will the Gentiles change their gods, which are not gods? Wherefore pass over to the isles of Chittim, and behold, and send to Kedar, and observe diligently whether such, things have been done. For those nations have not changed their ordinances. But, saith he, my people have changed its glory for that which will not profit.

How, therefore, will anyone make his apology, who hath despised or absented himself from the church of God?

Chapter LXI – That we must not prefer the affairs of this life to those which concern the worship of God

But if anyone bring forward the pretence of his own work, and so is a despiser, offering pretences for his sins, let such a one know that the trades of the faithful are works by the by; but the worship of God is their great work. Follow, therefore, your trades, as by the by, for your maintenance, but make the worship of God your main business; as also our Lord said, Labor not for the meat  which perisheth, but for that which endureth unto everlasting life. And, again, This is the work of God, that ye believe on him  whom he hath sent.

Endeavor, therefore, never to forsake the church of God. But, if anyone neglect it, and go either into a polluted temple of the heathen, or into a synagogue of the Jews, or of the heretics, what apology will such a one make in the day of judgment, who hath forsaken the oracles of the living God, that are living and quickening, and able to deliver from eternal punishment, and hath gone into a house of demons, or into a synagogue of the murderers of Christ, or the congregation of the wicked? not hearkening to him that saith, I have hated the congregation of the wicked, and I will not enter with the ungodly. I have not sat with the assembly of vanity, nor will I sit with the ungodly. And again, Blessed is the man that hath not walked in the counsel of  the ungodly, nor stood in the way of sinners, and hath not sat in the seat of the scornful; but his delight is in the law of the Lord, and in his law will he meditate day and night. But thou, forsaking the gathering together of the faithful, the church of God, and his laws, hast respect to those dens of thieves, calling those things holy which he hath called profane, and making those things unclean which he hath sanctified. And not only so, but thou already runnest after the pomps of the Gentiles, and hastenest to their theatres, being desirous to be reckoned one of those that enter into them, and to partake of unseemly, not to say abominable words; not hearkening to Jeremiah, who saith, Lord, I have not sat in their assemblies, for they are scorners; but I was afraid, because of thy hand; nor to Job, who speaketh in like manner, if I have gone at any time with the scornful; for I shall be weighed in a just balance. But why wilt thou be a partaker of the heathen oracles, which are nothing but dead men, declaring, by the inspiration of the devil, deadly things, and such as tend to subvert the faith, and to draw to polytheism those that attend to them?

Do ye, therefore, who attend to the laws of God, esteem those laws more honorable than the necessities of life, and pay a greater respect to them, and run together to the church of the Lord. which he hath purchased with the blood of Christ, the beloved, the first-born of every creature. For this church is the daughter of the Highest, which hath been in travail of you by the word of grace, and hath formed Christ in you; of whom ye are made partakers. and thereby become his holy and chosen members, not having spot or wrinkle, or any such thing; but as being holy and unspotted in the faith, ye are complete in him, after the image of God that created you.

Chapter LXII – That Christians must abstain from all the impious practices of the heathen

Take heed, therefore, not to join yourselves in your worship with those that perish, which is the assembly of the Gentiles, to your deceit and destruction. For there is no fellowship between God and the devil. For he that assemble th himself with those that savor the things of the devil, will be esteemed one of them, and will inherit a woe.

Avoid also unbecoming spectacles, I mean the theatres and the pomps of the heathen, their enchantments, observations of omens, soothsayings, purifications, divinations, observations of birds, their necromancies, and invocations. For it is written, There is  no divination in Jacob, nor soothsaying in Israel. And again, Divination is iniquity. And elsewhere, Ye shall not be soothsayers, and follow observers of omens, nor diviners, nor dealers with familiar spirits. Ye shall not preserve  alive wizards. Wherefore Jeremiah exhorteth, saying, Walk  ye not according to the ways of the heathen, and be not afraid of the signs of heaven. So that it is the duty of a believer to avoid the assemblies of the impious heathen and Jews, and of the rest of the heretics, lest, by uniting ourselves to them, we bring snares upon our own souls; that we may not, by joining in their feasts, which are celebrated in honor of demons, be partakers with them in their impiety. Ye are also to avoid their public meetings, and those sports which are celebrated in them. For a believer ought not to go to any of those public meetings, unless to purchase a slave, and save a soul; and at the same time to buy such other things as suit our necessities.

Abstain, therefore, from all idolatrous pomp and display, the festival assembly, competitions, duels, and all shows belonging to demons.

Chapter LXIII – That no Christian who will not work must eat; as Peter and the rest of the apostles were fishermen; Paul and Aquila, tent-makers; and Jude, the son of James, a husbandman

Let the young persons of the church endeavor to minister diligently in all necessaries. Attend to your business with all becoming seriousness, that so ye may always have sufficient to support yourselves, and those that are needy, and not burden the church of God. For we ourselves, besides our attention to the word of the Gospel, do not neglect our inferior employments; for some of us are fishermen, some tent-makers, some husbandmen, that so we may never be idle. So saith Solomon somewhere, Go to the ant,  thou sluggard, and consider her ways diligently, and become wiser than she. For she, having neither field, overseer, nor ruler , prepareth her food in the summer, and layeth up a great store in the harvest. Or else go to the bee, and learn how laborious she is, and her work how valuable it is, whose labors both kings and private men make use of for their health. She is desirable and glorious: though she be weak in strength, yet, by honoring wisdom, she is improved. How long wilt thou lie on thy bed, sluggard? When wilt thou awake out of thy sleep? Thou sleepest a while, thou liest down a while, thou slumberest a while, thou foldest thy hands on thy breast to sleep a while. Then poverty cometh on thee like an evil traveller, and want as a swift racer. But if thou be diligent, thy harvest shall come as a fountain; and want, as a bad man, shall fly from thee. And again, He that manageth his own land shall be filled with bread. And elsewhere he saith, The slothful hath folded his hands together, and hath eaten his own flesh. And afterwards, The sluggard hideth his hand; he will not be  a Wasp to bring it to his mouth. And again, By slothfulness of the hands a fool will be brought low.

Labor, therefore, continually; for the lot of the slothful is not to be healed. But if anyone do not work, let him not eat among you. For the Lord our God hateth the slothful, and no one of those who worship him ought to be idle.

End of book II


BOOK III – Concerning Widows

Chapter I – That those who are chosen widows ought to be not under sixty years of age

Choose your widows not under sixty years of age, that in some measure the suspicion of a second marriage may be prevented by their age. But if ye admit one younger into the order of widows, and she cannot bear her widowhood in her youth, and marrieth, she will procure indecent reflections on the glory of the order of the widows, and shall give an account to God; not because she married a second time, but because she hath waxed wanton against Christ, and not kept her promise. Wherefore, such a promise ought not to be rashly made, but with great caution. For it is better for her not to vow, than to vow and not to pay. But if any younger woman, who hath lived only a little while with her husband, and hath lost him by death, or some other occasion, remain by herself, having the gift of widowhood, she will be found to be blessed, and to be like the widow of Serepta, belonging to Sidon, with whom the holy prophet of God, Elijah, was entertained as a guest. Such a one may also be compared to Anna, the daughter of Phanuel, of the tribe of Aser, who departed not from the temple, but continued in supplications and prayers, night and day; who was fourscore years old, and had lived with a husband seven years from her virginity; who glorified the coming of Christ, and gave thanks to the Lord, and spake concerning him to all those who looked for redemption in Israel. Such a widow will have a good report, and will be honored, having both glory with men upon earth, and eternal praise with God in heaven.

Chapter II  – That we must avoid the choice of younger widows, because of suspicion

But let not the younger widows be placed in the order of widows, lest, under pretence of inability to be continent in the flower of their age, they accede to a second marriage, and become embarrassed. But let them be assisted and supported, that so they may not, under pretence of being deserted, come to a second marriage, and so be ensnared in an unseemly embarrassment. For ye ought to know this, that once marrying according to the law, is righteous, as being according to the will of God; but second marriages, after the promise, are wicked; not on account of the marriage itself, but be cause of the falsehood. Third marriages are indications of incontinency. But such marriages as are beyond the third, are manifest fornication and unquestionable uncleanness. For God, in the creation, gave one woman to one man; for they two shall be one flesh.

But to the younger women let a second marriage be allowed, after the death of their first husband, lest they fall into the condemnation of the devil, and many snares, and foolish lusts, which are hurtful to souls, and which bring upon them punishment rather than rest.

Chapter III – Of what character the widows ought to be, and how they ought to be supported by the Bishop

But the true widows are those who have had only one husband, having a good report among the generality for good works; widows indeed, sober, chaste, faithful, pious, who have brought up their children well, and have entertained strangers unblamably; who are to be supported, as devoted to God.

Besides, do thou, Bishop, be mindful of the needy, both reaching out thy helping hand, and making provision for them, as the steward of God, distributing seasonably the oblations to every one of them, to the widows, the orphans, the friendless, and those who are tried with affliction.

Chapter IV – That we ought to be charitable to all sorts of persons in want

For what if some are neither widows nor widowers, but stand in need of assistance, either through poverty, or some disease, or the maintenance of a great number of children? It is thy duty to oversee all people, and to take care of them all. For they that bestow gifts do not immediately, and without the use of discretion, give them to the widows, but barely bring them in, calling them free-will offerings, that so thou, who knowest those that are in affliction, mayest, as a good steward, give them their portion of the gift.

For God knoweth the giver, though thou distributest it to those in want, when he is absent. And he hath the reward of well-doing, but thou the blessedness of a just distribution of it. But do thou tell them who was the giver, that they may pray for him by name. For it is our duty to do good to all men, not fondly preferring one or another, whoever they may be. For the Lord saith, Give to every one that asketh thee. It is evident that it is meant of every one that is really in want, whether he be friend or foe, whether he be a kinsman or a stranger, whether he be single or married.

For in all the Scripture the Lord giveth us exhortations in respect to the needy, saying, first by Isaiah, Deal thy bread to the  hungry, and bring the poor who have no covering into thy house. If thou seest the naked, do thou cover him; and thou shalt not overlook those who are of thine own family and seed. And then by Daniel he saith to the potentate, Wherefore, king, let my connsel please thee, and purge thy sins by acts of mercy, and thine iniquities by bowels of compassion to the needy. And he saith by Solomon, By acts of mercy and of faith, iniquities are purged.

And he saith again by David, Blessed is he that hath regard to the poor and needy; the Lord shall deliver him in the evil day. And again, He hath dispersed abroad; he hath given  to the needy; his righteousness remaineth forever. And Solomon saith, He that hath mercy on the poor lendeth to the Lord; according to his gift it shall be paid him again. And afterwards, He that stoppeth his ear, that he may not hear him that is in want, he also himself shall call, and there shall be none to hear him.

Chapter V – That the widows are to be very careful of their deportment

Let every widow be meek, quiet, gentle, sincere, free from anger; not talkative, not clamorous, not hasty of speech, not given to evil-speaking, not captious, not double-tongued, not a busy-body. If she see or hear anything that is not right, let her be as one that doth not see, and as one that doth not hear; and let the widow mind nothing but to pray for those that give, and for the whole church; and when she is asked anything by anyone, let her not easily answer, except questions concerning faith, and righteousness, and hope in God; remitting to the rulers those that desire to be instructed in the doctrines of godliness. Let her answer only so as may tend to subvert the error of polytheism, and demonstrate the doctrine concerning the monarchy of God. But of the remaining doctrines, let her not answer anything rashly, lest, by saying anything unlearnedly, she should cause the Word to be blasphemed.

For the Lord hath taught us, that the Word is like a grain of mustard seed, which is of a fiery nature; and, if anyone useth it unskilfully, he will find it bitter. For in the mystical points we ought not to be rash, but cautious. For the Lord exhorteth us, saying, Cast not your pearls before swine, lest they trample them with their feet, and turn again and rend you. For unbelievers, when they hear the doctrine concerning Christ not explained as it ought to be, but defectively, and especially that concerning his incarnation or his passion, will rather reject it with scorn, and laugh at it as false, than praise God for it. And so the aged women will be guilty of rashness, and of causing blasphemy, and will inherit a woe – For, saith he, Woe to him by whom my name is blasphemed among the gentiles.

Chapter VI – That women ought not to teach, because it is unseemly; and what women followed our Lord

We do not permit our women to teach in the church, but only to pray, and to hear those that teach. For our Master and Lord, Jesus Christ himself, when he sent us, the twelve, to make disciples of the people and of the nations, did nowhere send out women to preach, although he did not want such: for there were with us the mother of our Lord, and his sisters; also Mary Magdalen; and Mary, the mother of James; and Martha and Mary, the sisters of Lazarus; Salome, and certain others. For, had it been necessary for women to teach, he himself would have first commanded these also to instruct the people with us. For, if the head of the wife be the man, it is not reasonable that the rest of the body should govern the head.

Let the widow, therefore, own herself to be the altar of God, and let her sit in her house, and not enter into the houses of the faithful, under any pretence, to receive anything; for the altar of God never runneth about, but is fixed in one place. Let, therefore, the virgin and the widow be such as do not run about, or gad to the houses of those who are alien from the faith. For such as these are gadders and impudent; they do not make their feet to rest in one place, because they are not widows, but purses ready to receive, triflers, evil speakers, counsellors of strife, without shame, impudent; who, being such, are not worthy of him that called them. For they do not come to the common resting place of the congregation on the Lord’s day, as those that are watchful. But they either slumber, or trifle, or allure men, or beg, or ensnare others, bringing them to the evil one; not suffering them to be watchful in the Lord; but taking care that they go out as vain as they came in, because they do not hear the Word of the Lord either taught or read. For of such as these the prophet Isaiah saith, Hearing ye shall hear,  and shall not understand, and seeing ye shall see, and not perceive; for the heart of this people is waxen gross.

Chapter VII – What are the characters of widows, falsely so called

In the same manner, therefore, the ears of the hearts of such widows as these are stopped, so that they will not sit within in their cottages to speak to the Lord, but will run about with the design of getting, and, by their foolish prattling, fulfil the desires of the adversary. Such widows, therefore, are not affixed to the altar of Christ.

For there are some widows who esteem gain in their business; and. since they ask without shame, and receive without being satisfied, they render the generality more backward in giving. For when they ought to be content with their subsistence from the church, as having moderate desires; on the contrary, they run from the house of one of their neighbors to that of another, and disturb them, heaping up to themselves plenty of money, and lend at bitter usury; and are solicitous only about Mammon, whose bag is their god; who prefer eating and drinking before all virtue, saying, Let us eat and drink, for to-morrow we die; who esteem these things as if they were durable, and not transitory. For she that useth herself to nothing but talking of money, worshipped Mammon instead of God; that is, she is a servant to gain, but cannot be pleasing to God, nor resigned to his worship; not being able to intercede with him, because her mind and disposition run after money; for where the treasure is, there will the heart be also. For she is thinking in her mind whither she may go to receive, or that a certain woman, her friend, hath forgotten her, and she hath somewhat to say to her. She that thinketh of such things as these will no longer attend to her prayers, but to that thought which offereth itself; so that, although sometimes she may wish to pray for someone, she will not be heard, because she doth not offer her petition to the Lord with the whole heart.

But she that will attend to God will sit within, and mind the things of the Lord, day and night, offering her sincere petition with a mouth ready to utter the same without ceasing. As, therefore, Judith, most famous for her wisdom, and of a good report for her modesty, prayed to God night and day for Israel; so also the widow who is like her, will offer her intercession, without ceasing, for the church of God; and he will hear her, because her mind is fixed on this thing alone, and is disposed to be neither insatiable nor expensive; when her eye is pure, and her hearing clean, and her hands undefiled, and her feet quiet, and her mouth prepared for neither gluttony nor trifling, but speaking the things that are fit, and partaking of only such things as are necessary for her maintenance. So being grave, and giving no disturbance, she will be pleasing to God; and, as soon as she asketh anything, the gift will anticipate her; as he saith, While thou art speaking, I will say, Behold I am here. Let such a one also be free from the love of money, free from arrogance, not given to filthy lucre, not insatiable nor gluttonous; but continent, meek, giving nobody disturbance, pious, modest, sitting at home, singing, and praying, and reading, and watching, and fasting; speaking to God continually in songs and hymns. And let her take wool, and assist others, rather than herself be in need of anything; being mindful of that widow who is honored with the Lord’s testimony, who, coming into the temple, cast into the treasury two mites, which make a farthing. And Christ our Lord and Master, and Searcher of hearts, saw her, and said, Verily I say unto you, that this widow hath cast into the treasury more than they all. For all they have cast in of their abundance; but this woman of her penury hath cast in all the living that she had.

The widows, therefore, ought to be grave, obedient to their Bishops, and their Presbyters, and their Deacons, and besides these to the Deaconesses, with piety, reverence, and fear; not usurping authority, nor desiring to do anything beyond the constitution, without the consent of the Deacon; as suppose the going to anyone to eat or drink with him, or to receive anything from any body; but, if without direction she do anyone of these things, let her be punished with fasting, or else let her be separated on account of her rashness.

Chapter VIII – That a widow ought not to accept of alms from the unworthy; nor ought a Bishop , nor any other of the faithful

For how doth such a one know of what character the person is from whom she receiveth; or from what sort of ministration he supplieth her with food, whether it doth not arise from rapine, or some other ill course of life, while the widow is unmindful, that, if she receive in a way unworthy of God, she must give an account forevery one of these things. For neither will the priests at any time receive a free-will offering from such a one, as suppose from a rapacious person, or from a harlot. For it is written, Thou shalt not covet those things that are thy neighbor’s; and, Thou shalt not offer the hire of a harlot to the Lord God. From  such as these no offerings ought to be accepted, nor indeed from those that are separated from the church.

Let the widows also be ready to obey the commands given them by their superiors, and let them do according to the appointment of the Bishop, being obedient to him as to God. For he that receiveth from one so deserving of blame, or from one excommunicated, and prayeth for him while he purposeth to go on in a wicked course, and while he is not willing at any time to repent, holdeth communion with him in prayer, and grieveth Christ, who rejecteth the unrighteous; and he confirmeth them by means of the unworthy gift, and is denied with them, not suffering them to come to repentance, so as to fall down before God with lamentation, and pray to him.

Chapter IX – That women ought not to baptize; because it is impious , and contrary to the doctrine of Christ

Now as to women’s baptizing, we let you know, that there is no small peril to those that undertake it. Therefore we do not advise you to do it; for it is dangerous, or, rather, wicked and impious. For if the man be the head of the woman, and he be originally ordained for the priesthood, it is not just to abrogate the order of the creation, and, leaving the ruler, to come to the subordinate body. For the woman is the body of the man, taken from his side, and subject to him, from whom also she was separated for the procreation of children. For the Scripture saith, He shall ride over thee. For the man is ruler of the woman, as being her head. But if in the foregoing Constitutions we have not permitted them to teach, how will anyone allow them, contrary to nature, to perform the office of a priest? For this is one of the ignorant practices of the Gentile atheism, to ordain women priests to the female deities; not one of the constitutions of Christ.

But, if baptism were to be administered by women, certainly our Lord would have been baptized by his own mother, and not by John; or, when he sent us to baptize, he would have sent along with us women also for this purpose. But now he hath nowhere, either by constitution or by writing, delivered to us any such thing; as knowing the order of nature and the decency of the action; as being the Creator of nature, and the Legislator of the constitution.

Chapter X – That a Layman ought not to perform a priestly work, baptism, or sacrifice, or laying on of hands, or blessing

Nor do we permit the laity to perform any of the offices belonging to the priesthood; as, for instance, neither the sacrifice, nor baptism, nor the laying on of hands, nor the blessing, whether the himself, but he that is called of God. For such sacred offices are conferred by the laying on of the hands of the Bishop. But a person to whom such an office is not committed, but who seizeth upon it for himself, shall undergo the punishment of Uzziah.

Chapter XI – That none but a Bishop or a Presbyter , none even of the inferior ranks of the clergy, are permitted to do the offices of the Priests; that ordination belongeth wholly to the Bishop, and to no other person

Nay farther, we do not permit to the rest of the clergy to baptize; as, for instance, either to Readers, or Singers, or Porters, or Ministers, but only to the Bishops and Presbyters; yet so that the Deacons are to minister to them therein. But those who venture upon it shall undergo the punishment of the companions of Corah. We do not permit Presbyters, but only Bishops, to ordain Deacons, or Deaconesses, or Readers, or Servants, or Singers, or Porters. For this is the ecclesiastical order and harmony.

Chapter XII – The rejection of all uncharitable actions

Now concerning envy, or passion, or evil speaking, or strife, or the love of contention, we have already said to you, that these are alien from a Christian, and chiefly in the case of widows. But because the devil, who worketh in men, is in his conduct cunning, and full of various devices, he goeth to those that are not truly widows, as formerly to Cain; for some say they are widows, but do not perform the injunctions agreeable to the widowhood; as neither did Cain discharge the duties due to a brother. For they do not consider that it is not the name of widowhood that will bring them to the kingdom of God, but true faith and holy works.

But if anyone possesseth the name of widowhood, but performeth the works of the adversary, her widowhood will not be imputed; but she will be thrust out of the kingdom, and delivered to eternal punishment. For we hear that some widows are jealous, envious, calumniators, cavilling at the comforts of others. Such widows as these are not the disciples of Christ, nor of his doctrine. For it becometh them, when one of their fellow-widows is clothed by anyone, or receiveth money, or food, or drink, or shoes, at the sight of the refreshment of their sister, to say

Chapter XIII – How the widows are to pray for those who supply their necessities

Thou art blessed, God, who hast refreshed my fellow-widow. Bless, Lord, and glorify him who hath bestowed these things upon her; and let his good work ascend in truth to thee; and remember him for good in the day of his visitation. And as for my Bishop, who hath so well performed his duty to thee, and hath ordered such a reasonable alms to be bestowed on my fellow-widow, in need of clothing, do thou increase his glory, and give him a crown of rejoicing in the day when thy visitation shall be revealed.

In the same manner, let the widow who hath received the favor join with the other in praying for him who bestowed it.

Chapter XIV – That she who hath been kind to the poor ought not to boast, and tell abroad her name, according to the constitution of the Lord

But if any woman hath done a kindness, let her, as a prudent person, conceal her own name, not sounding a trumpet before her, that her alms may be with God in secret, as the Lord saith, When thou doest thine alms, let not thy left hand know what thy right hand doeth, that thine alms may be in secret. And let the widow pray for him that gave her the alms, whosoever he be, as she is the holy altar of Christ; and the Father, who seeth in secret, will reward openly him that did good.

But those widows who will not live according to the command of God, are solicitous and inquisitive what Deaconess it is that hath administered the charity, and what widows have received it. And when such a one hath learned those things, she murmureth at the Deaconess who distributed the charity, saying, Dost not thou see that I am in more distress and in greater want of thy charity? Why, therefore, hast thou preferred her before me? She saith these things foolishly, not understanding that this doth not depend on the will of man, but on the appointment of God. For if she is herself a witness that she was nearer, and proved herself in greater want and more in need of clothing, than the other, she ought to understand who it is that made this constitution, and to hold her peace, and not to murmur at the Deaconess who distributed the charity, but to enter into her own house, and to cast herself prostrate on her face, to make supplication to God that her sin may be forgiven her. For God commanded her who did the kindness not to proclaim it; and this widow murmured, because proclamation was not made, so that she might know, and run to receive; nay, did not only murmur, but also cursed her, forgetting him that said, He that blesseth thee is blessed, and he that curseth thee is cursed. But the Lord saith, When ye enter into a house, say, Peace be to this house; and if the son of peace be there, your peace shall rest upon it. But if it be not worthy, your peace shall return to you.

Chapter XV – That it doth not become us to revile our neighbors, because cursing is

contrary to Christianity

If, therefore, peace returneth upon those that sent it, nay, upon those that before had actually given it, because it did not find persons fit to receive it, much rather will a curse return upon the head of him that unjustly sent it, because he to whom it was sent was not worthy to receive it. For all those who abuse others without cause, curse themselves; as Solomon saith, As birds and sparrows fly away, so the curse causeless shall not come upon anyone. And again he saith, Those that bring reproaches are exceeding foolish. But as the bee, a creature as to its strength feeble, if she stingeth anyone, loseth her sting, and becometh a drone; in the same manner, ye also, whatsoever injustice I do to others, will bring it upon yourselves. He hath excavated and digged a pit; and he shall fall into the ditch that he hath made. And again, He that diggeth a pit for his neighbor shall fall into it. Let him, therefore, who would avoid a curse, not curse another. For what thou hatest should be done to thee, do not thou to another.

Wherefore admonish the widows that are feeble-minded, strengthen those of them that are weak, and praise such of them as walk in holiness. Let them rather bless, and not calumniate. Let them make peace, and not stir up contention. Nor let a Bishop, nor a Presbyter, nor a Deacon, nor anyone else of the sacerdotal catalogue, defile his tongue with calumny, lest he inherit a curse instead of a blessing. And let it also be the Bishop’s business and care, that no lay person utter a curse . For he ought to take care of the Clergy, of the Virgins, of the Widows, of the Laity.

For which reason, Bishop, do thou ordain thy fellow-workers, the laborers for life and for righteousness, such Deacons as are pleasing to God, such as thou provest to be worthy among all the people, and such as shall be ready for the necessities of their ministration. Ordain also a Deaconess, who is faithful and holy, for the ministrations to the women. For sometimes thou canst not send a Deacon, who is a man, to the women in certain houses, on account of the unbelievers. Thou shalt therefore send a woman, a Deaconess, on account of the imaginations of the bad.

And we stand in need of a woman, a Deaconess, for many occasions; and first in the baptism of women, the Deacon shall anoint their forehead with the holy oil, and after him the Deaconess shall anoint them. For there is no necessity that the women should be seen by the men; but only, in the laying on of hands, the Bishop shall anoint her head, as the priests and kings were formerly anointed, not because those who are now baptized are ordained priests, but as being Christians, or anointed, from Christ the Anointed; a royal priesthood and a holy nation; the  church of God, the pillar and ground of the present light; who formerly were not a people, but now are beloved and chosen; upon whom is called his new name, as Isaiah the prophet testifieth, And they shall call the people by his new name, which the Lord shall name for them.

Chapter XVI – Concerning the divine Initiation of holy Baptism

Thou, therefore, Bishop, according to that type, shalt anoint the head of those that are to be baptized, whether they be men or women, with the holy oil, for a type of the spiritual baptism. Then, either thou, Bishop, or a Presbyter that is under thee, shall pronounce over them the sacred name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit, and shall dip them in the water; and let a Deacon receive the man, and a Deaconess the woman, that so the conferring of this inviolable seal may be done with a becoming decency. And, after this, let the Bishop anoint those that are baptized with ointment.

Chapter XVII – What is the meaning of Baptism into Christ; and on what account everything therein is said and done

This baptism, therefore, is given into the death of Jesus. The water is instead of the burial; and the oil, instead of the Holy Ghost; the seal, instead of the cross; the ointment, the confirmation of the confession; the mention of the Father, as of the author and sender; the joint mention of the Holy Ghost, as of the witness; the descent into the water, the dying together with Christ; the ascent out of the water, the rising again with him. The Father is the God over all; Christ is the only-begotten God, the beloved Son, the Lord of glory; the Holy Ghost is the Comforter, who is sent by Christ, and is taught by him, and proclaimeth him.

Chapter XVIII – Of what character he ought to be who is Initiated

And let him who is to be baptized be free from all iniquity, one that is not disposed to sin; the friend of God, the enemy of the devil; the heir of God the Father, the fellow-heir of his Son; one that hath renounced Satan, and the demons, and Satan’s deceits; chaste, pure, holy, beloved of God, a son of God, praying as a son to his Father, and saying, as from the common congregation of the faithful, thus: Our Father who art in heaven, hallowed be thy name; thy kingdom come; thy will be done on earth, as it is in heaven. Give us this day our daily bread; and forgive us our debts, as we forgive our debtors; and lead us not into temptation, but deliver us from the evil one. For thine is the kingdom, and the power, and the glory forever. Amen.

Chapter XIX – Of what character a Deacon ought to be

Let the Deacons be in all things unspotted, as the Bishop himself is to be, only more active; in number according to the largeness of the church, that they may minister to the infirm, as workmen that are not ashamed; and let the woman appointed be diligent in taking care of the women. Moreover, let both the Deacons and the Deaconesses be ready to carry messages, to travel about, to minister and serve; as spake Isaiah concerning the Lord, saying, To justify the righteous, who serveth many faithfully.

Let all, therefore, know their proper place, and perform their duty diligently with one consent, with one mind, as knowing the reward of their ministration. But let them not be ashamed to minister to those that are in want; as even our Lord Jesus Christ came not to be ministered unto, but to minister, and to give his life a ransom for many. So therefore ought they also to do, and not to hesitate, if it should be needful to lay down their life for a brother. For our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ did not hesitate to lay down his life, as himself saith, for his friends. If, therefore, the Lord of heaven and earth underwent all his sufferings for us, how then do ye make a difficulty to minister to such as are in want; ye who ought to imitate him that under went for us servitude, and want, and stripes, and the cross? It is therefore a duty that we, too, serve the brethren, in imitation of Christ. For he saith, He that will be great among you, let him be your minister; and he that will be first among you, let him be your servant. For so did he really, and not in word only, fulfil the prediction of serving many faithfully. For when he had taken a towel, he girded himself. After that, he poureth water into a basin; and, as we were sitting at meat, he came and washed the feet of us all, and wiped them with the towel. By doing this he indicated to us the affectionateness of brotherly love, that we also might do the same to one another.

If, therefore, our Lord and Master so humbled himself, how can ye, the laborers of the truth and administrators of piety, be ashamed to do the same to such of the brethren as are weak and infirm? Minister, therefore, affectionately, not murmuring nor mutinying; for ye do not do it on account of man, but on account of God; and ye shall receive from him the reward of your ministry in the day of your visitation. Ye, therefore, who are Deacons, ought to visit all those who stand in need of being visited. And tell your Bishop of all those that are in affliction. For ye ought to be his soul and sensation; being active and attentive in all things to him, as to your Bishop, and father, and master.

Chapter XX – That a Bishop ought to be ordained by three or by two Bishops, but not by one; for that would be invalid

We command that a Bishop be ordained by three Bishops, or at least by two: but it is not lawful that he be set over you by one; for the testimony of two or three witnesses is more firm and secure.

But a Presbyter, and a Deacon, and the rest of the clergy, are to be ordained by one Bishop. Nor must either a Presbyter or a Deacon ordain from the laity into the clergy. But the Presbyter is only to teach, to offer, to baptize, and to bless the people; and the Deacon is to minister to the Bishop and to the Presbyters, that is, to do the office of a ministering Deacon, and not to meddle with the other offices.

END OF  BOOK III

 


BOOK IV – Concerning Orphans

Chapter I -That it is highly commendable to receive orphans kindly, and adopt them

WHEN any Christian is left an orphan, whether a boy or a girl, it is good that someone of the brethren, who is without a child, should take the lad, and esteem him in the place of a son; and that he who hath a son of an age corresponding with that of the maid, should connect her with him, when she is marriageable. For they who do so, perform a great work, and become fathers to the orphans, and shall receive the reward of this charity from the Lord God.

But if anyone that walketh in the way of man-pleasing, being rich, is ashamed of the orphan members, the Father of orphans and Judge of widows will make provision for the orphan; but himself shall have such an heir as will spend what was laid up by his parsimony. And it shall happen to him according as it is said, What things the holy people have not eaten, those shall the Assyrians eat. As also Isaiah saith, Your land strangers devour it in your presence.

Chapter II – How the Bishop ought to provide for the orphans

Do ye, therefore, Bishops, be solicitous about their maintenance, being in nothing wanting to them; exhibiting to the orphans the care of parents, and to widows the care of husbands; to those of suitable age, marriage; to the artificer, work; to the unable, commiseration; to the strangers, a house; to the hungry, food; to the thirsty, drink; to the naked, clothing; to the sick, visitation; to the prisoners, assistance. Besides these, have a greater care of the orphans, that nothing may be wanting to them; to the maid, indeed, till she arrive at the age of marriage, and ye give her in marriage to a brother; and assist ye the lad, that he may learn a trade, and may be maintained by the advantage arising from it, that, when he is dexterous in its management, he may thereby be enabled to buy himself the tools of his trade, so that he may no longer burden any of the brethren, or their sincere love to him, but may support himself. For, certainly, he is a happy man who is able to support himself, and doth not take up the place of the orphan, the stranger, and the widow.

Chapter III – Who ought to be supported, according to the Lords Constitution

Since even the Lord said, that the giver is happier than the receiver. For it is again said by him, Woe to those that have, and receive in hypocrisy, or who are able to support themselves, yet will receive of others; for both of them shall give an account to the Lord God in the day of judgment. But an orphan, who, by reason of his youth, or he who by the feebleness of old age, or the incidence of a disease, or the bringing up of many children, receiveth alms, such a one shall not only not be blamed, but shall be commended. For he shall be esteemed an altar to God, and be honored by God, since he is zealously and constantly praying for those that give to him; not receiving idly, but to the utmost of his power recompensing by his prayer what is bestowed upon him. Such a one, therefore, shall be blessed by God in eternal life. But he that hath, and receiveth in hypocrisy or through idleness, instead of working, and assisting others, shall be obnoxious to punishment before God, because he hath snatched away the morsel of the needy.

Chapter IV – Concerning the love of money

For he that hath money, and doth not bestow it upon others, nor use it himself, is like the serpent, which, they say, sleepeth over the treasures; and of him is that Scripture true which saith, He hath gathered riches of which he shall not taste; and they will be of no use to him when he perisheth justly. For it saith, Riches will not profit in the day of wrath. For such a one hath not believed in God, but in his own gold; esteeming that his god, and trusting therein. Such a one is a dissembler of the truth, an accepter of persons, unfaithful, cheating, fearful, unmanly, light, of no value, a complainer, ever in pain, his own enemy, and nobody’s friend. Such a person’s money shall perish, and a man that is a stranger shall consume it, either by theft, while he is alive, or by inheritance, when he is dead. For riches unjustly gotten shall be vomited up.

Chapter V – With what fear men ought to partake of the Lord’s oblations

We exhort, therefore, the widows and orphans to partake of those things that are bestowed upon them, with all fear and all pious reverence, and to return thanks to God, who giveth food to the needy, and lift up their eyes to him. For the Scripture saith, Who of you shalt  eat or who shalt drink without him? For he openeth his hand, and filleth every living thing with his kindness; giving wheat to the young men, and wine to the maidens, and oil for the joy of the living, grass for the cattle, and green herb for the service of men, flesh for the wild beasts, seeds for the birds, and suitable food for all creatures. Wherefore the Lord saith, Consider the fowls of heaven, that they sow not, neither do they reap, nor gather into barns, and your Father feedeth them. Are ye not much better than they? Be not therefore solicitous, saying, What shall we eat? or what shall we drink? For your Father knoweth that ye have need of all these things.

Since ye therefore enjoy such a providential care from him, and are partakers of the good things that are derived from him, ye ought to return praise to Him that receiveth the orphan and the widow, to Almighty God, through his beloved Son, Jesus Christ our Lord; through whom glory be to God in spirit and truth, forever. Amen.

Chapter VI – Whose oblations are to be received, and whose are not to be received

Now it behooveth the Bishop to know whose oblations he ought to receive, and whose he ought not. For he is to avoid corrupt dealers, and not receive their gifts. For a corrupt dealer shall not be justified from sin. For of them it was that Isaiah reproached Israel, and said, Thy corrupt dealers mingle wine with water. He is also to avoid fornicators; for, Thou shalt not offer the hire of a harlot to the Lord. He is also to avoid extortioners, and those that covet other men’s goods, and adulterers; for the sacrifices of such as these are abominable with God: also those that oppress the widow, and overbear the orphan, and fill prisons with the innocent, and abuse their own servants wickedly, I mean with stripes, and hunger, and hard service; nay, destroy whole cities. Do thou, Bishop, avoid such as these, and their odious oblations.

Thou shalt also refuse rogues, and such advocates as plead on the side of injustice, and idol-makers, and thieves, and unjust publicans, and those that deceive by false balances and deceitful measures, and a soldier that is a false accuser, and not content with his wages, but doeth violence to the needy; a murderer, an executioner, and an unjust judge, a subverter of causes, him that lieth in wait for men, a worker of abominable wickedness, a drunkard, a blasphemer, a Sodomite, an usurer, and every one that is vicious and opposeth the will of God. For the Scripture saith that with God all such as these are abominable. Those that receive from such persons, and thereby support the widows and the orphans, shall be obnoxious to the tribunal of God; as Adonias the prophet, in the book of Kings, when he disobeyed God, and both ate bread and drank water in the place which the Lord had forbidden him, because of the wickedness of Jeroboam, was slain by a lion.

For the bread which is distributed to the widows from labor is better, though it be short and little, than that from injustice and false accusation, though it be much and fine. For the Scripture saith, Better is a little to the righteous, than great riches of the sinners. Now, although a widow who eateth and is filled from the wicked, pray for them, she shall not be heard; for God, who knoweth the heart, with judgment hath declared concerning the unrighteous, saying, If Moses and Samuel stand before my face in their behalf, I will not hear them. And, Pray thou not for this people, and do not ask mercy for them, and do not intercede with me for them; for I will not hear thee.

Chapter VII – That the oblations of the unworthy, while they are such, do not only  not propitiate God, but, on the contrary, provoke him to indignation

And not these only, but those that are in sin, and have not repented, will not only not be heard when they pray, but will provoke God to anger, as putting him in mind of their own wickedness. Avoid, therefore, such ministrations, as you would the price of a dog, and the hire of a harlot; for both of them are forbidden in the laws. For neither did Elisha receive the presents of Kings, which were brought by Hazael, nor Ahijah those from Jeroboam. If now the prophets of God did not admit of presents from the ungodly, it is reasonable, Bishops, that neither should you. Nay, when Simon the magician offered money to me, Peter, and John, and endeavored to obtain the invaluable grace by purchase, we did not admit it, but bound him with everlasting maledictions, because he thought to possess the gift of God, not by a pious mind towards God, but by the price of money.

Avoid, therefore, such oblations to God’s altar as are not from a good conscience. For saith he, Abstain from all injustice, and thou shalt not fear, and trembling shall not come nigh thee.

Chapter VIII – That it is better to present to the widows from our own labors, though it be inconsiderable and few contributions, than to present those which are many and large, received from the ungodly; For it is better to perish by famine than to receive an oblation from the ungodly

But if ye say that those who give alms are such as these, and if we do not receive from them, whence shall we administer to the widows? and whence shall the poor among the people be maintained? Ye shall hear from us that for this purpose ye have received the gift of the Levites, the oblations of your people, that ye might have enough for yourselves, and for those that are in want, and that ye might not be so straitened as to receive from the wicked. But if the churches be so straitened, it is better to perish, than to receive anything from the enemies of God, to the reproach and abuse of his friends. For of such as these the prophet speaketh, Let not the oil of a sinner moisten my head.

Be ye therefore examiners of such persons, and receive from such as walk piously, and supply the afflicted. But receive not from those that are excommunicated, until they are thought worthy to become members of the church; but, if a gift be wanting, inform the brethren, and make a collection from them; and thence minister to the orphans and widows in righteousness.

Chapter IX – That the people ought to be exhorted by the Priest to do good to the

needy, as saith Solomon the Wise

Say unto the people under thee what Solomon the Wise saith, Honor the Lord out of thy just labors, and pay thy first-fruits to him out of thy fruits of righteousness, that thy garners may be filled with fulness of wheat, and thy presses may burst out with wine. Therefore maintain and clothe those that are in want, from the righteous labor of the faithful. And the sums of money collected, as we have before said, from them, appoint to be laid out in the redemption of the saints, the deliverance of slaves, and of captives, and of prisoners, and of those that have been abused, and of those who by tyrants have been condemned to single combat and death. For the Scripture saith, Deliver those that are led to death, and redeem those that are ready to be slain, do not spare.

Chapter X – A Constitution, that if anyone of the ungodly  force will cast money to the Priests, they spend it in wood and coals, but not in food

But if at any time ye be forced unwillingly to receive money from any ungodly person, lay it out in wood and coals, that so neither the widow nor the orphan may receive any of it, or be under the necessity of buying with it either food or drink, which it is unfit to do. For it is reasonable that such gifts of the ungodly be fuel for fire, and not food for the pious. And this method is plainly appointed by the Law, when it calleth a sacrifice kept too long a thing not fit to be eaten, and commandeth it to be consumed with fire. For such oblations are not evil in their nature, but on account of the mind of those that bring them. And this we ordain, that we may not repel those who come to us; for we know that intercourse with the pious hath often been very profitable to the ungodly, but that only religious communion with them is hurtful. Let so much, therefore, be spoken to you, beloved, in order to your security.

Chapter XI – Of Parents and Children

Ye fathers, educate your children in the Lord, bringing them up in the nurture and admonition of the Lord; and teach them such trades as are agreeable and suitable to the Word, lest they, becoming extravagant through opportunity, and remaining without correction from their parents, having had their liberty prematurely, break away from virtue. Wherefore be not afraid to reprove them, and to teach them wisdom with severity. For your corrections will not kill them, but rather preserve them. As Solomon saith some where in the book of Wisdom, Chasten thy son, and he will refresh thee; so wilt thou have good hope of him. Thou verily shalt smite him with the rod, and shalt deliver his soul from death. And again saith the same Solomon thus: He that spareth his rod hateth his son; and afterwards, Beat his sides while he is an infant, lest he be hardened, and disobey thee.

He, therefore, who neglecteth to admonish and instruct his son, hateth his own child. Do ye, therefore, teach your children the Word of the Lord. Moreover, bring them under, even with stripes, and make them subject from their infancy, teaching them the Holy Scriptures, both ours and divine, and delivering to them every sacred writing, not giving such liberty that they get the mastery, and act against your judgment; not permitting them to club together for a drinking party with their equals. For so they will be turned to disorderly courses, and will fall into fornication; and if this happen by the carelessness of their parents, those that begat them will be guilty of their souls. For if the offending children get into the company of debauched persons, by the negligence of those that begat them, they will not be punished alone; but their parents also will be condemned on their account. For this cause, endeavor, at the time when they are of an age fit for marriage, to join them in wedlock, and settle them together, lest, in the heat and fervor of their age, their course of life become dissolute, and ye be required by the Lord God to give an account in the day of judgment.

Chapter XII – Of Servants and Masters

But as to servants, what can we say more, than that the servant bring a good will to his master, with the fear of God, although he be impious and wicked; yet, indeed, let him not yield any compliance as to his worship. And let the master love his servant. Although he be his superior, let him consider wherein they are equal, even as he is a man. And he that hath a believing master, the master’s authority being preserved, let him love him, both as his master, and as of the same faith, and as a  father; not as an eye-servant, but as a lover of his master, as knowing that God will recompense him for his service. In like manner, let a master who hath a believing servant, the service being continued, love him as a son, or as a brother, on account of their communion in the faith.

Chapter XIII – In what things we ought to be subject to the rulers of this world

Be ye subject to all royal power and dominion, in things that are pleasing to God, as to the ministers of God, and the punishers of the wicked. Render all the fear that is due to them, all offerings, all customs, all honor, gifts and taxes. For this is God’s command, that ye owe nothing to anyone, but the pledge of love, which God hath commanded by Christ.

Chapter XIV – Concerning Virgins

Concerning virginity we have received no commandment; but we leave it to the power of those that are willing, as a vow; exhorting them so far in this matter, that they do not promise anything rashly; since Solomon saith, It is better not to vow, than to vow and not pay.

Let such a virgin, therefore, be holy in body and soul, as a temple of God, as a house of Christ, as a habitation of the Holy Spirit. For she that voweth ought to do such works as are suitable to her vow; and to show that her vow is real, and made on account of leisure for piety, not to cast a reproach on marriage. Let her not be a gadder abroad, nor one that rambleth about unseasonably; not double-minded; but grave, continent, sober, pure, avoiding the conversation of many, and especially of those that are of ill reputation.

END OF  BOOK IV


BOOK V – CONCERNING MARTYRS.

Chapter I – That it is reasonable for the faithful to supply, according to the constitution of the Lord, the wants of those who, by the unbelievers, are afflicted for the sake of Christ

IF any Christian, on account of the name of Christ, and love and faith towards God, be condemned by the ungodly to the games, to the beasts, or to the mines, neglect him not; but send to him from your labor and your very sweat, for his sustenance, and for a reward to the soldiers, that he may be eased, and be taken care of, that, as far as lieth in your power, your blessed brother may not be afflicted. For he that is condemned for the name of the Lord God is a holy martyr, a brother of the Lord, a son of the Highest, a receptacle of the Holy Spirit (by whom every one of the faithful hath received the illumination of the glory of the holy Gospel), in being accounted worthy of the incorruptible crown, and the testimony of Christ’s sufferings, and the fellowship of his blood, that he might be made conformable to the death of Christ, and be adopted as a child.

For this cause, all ye of the faithful, by your Bishop, minister to the saints from your substance and from your labor. But if anyone hath not, let him fast a day, and set apart what is thus saved, and order it for the saints. If, however, anyone hath abundance, let him minister more to them, according to the proportion of his ability. But, if he can possibly sell all his livelihood, and redeem them out of prison, he will be blessed, and a friend of Christ. For if he that giveth his goods to the poor be perfect, after a knowledge of divine things, much rather is he that giveth them on account of the martyrs. For such a one is worthy of God, and will do his will by supplying those who have confessed him before nations and kings, and the children of Israel; concerning whom our Lord declared, saying, Whosoever shall confess me before men, him will I also confess before my Father. And if these be such as to be attested to by Christ before his Father, ye ought not to be ashamed to go to them in the prisons. For if ye do this, it will be esteemed to you for a testimony; because their testimony was what they actually experienced, and yours will be your zealous good will, as being partakers of their combat. For the Lord speaketh somewhere to such as these, saying, Come , ye blessed of my Father, inherit the kingdom prepared for you from the foundation of the world. For I was hungry, and ye gave me to eat; I was thirsty., and ye gave me drink. I was a stranger, and ye took me in; naked, and ye clothed me. I was sick, and ye visited me. I was in prison, and ye came unto me. Then shall the righteous answer, and say, Lord, when saw we thee hungry, and fed thee? or thirsty, and gave thee drink? When saw we thee naked, and clothed thee? or sick, and visited thee? When saw we thee a stranger, and took thee in? or in prison, and came unto thee? And he will ansiver and say unto them, Inasmuch as ye have done it unto one of the least of these my brethren, ye have done it unto me. And these shall go away into life everlasting. Then shall he say unto them on his left hand, Depart from me, ye cursed, into everlasting fire, prepared for the devil and his angels. For I was hungry, and ye gave me no food. I was thirsty, and ye gave me no drink. I was a stranger, and ye took me not in; naked, and ye clothed me not; sick, and in prison, and ye visited me not. Then shall they also ansiver and say, ‘When saw we thee hungry, or thirsty, or a stranger, or naked, or sick, or in prison, and did not minister unto thee? Then shall he answer and say unto them, Verily, I say unto you, inasmuch as ye have not done it unto one of the least of these, neither have ye done it unto me. And these shall go away into everlasting punishment.

Chapter II – That we are to avoid intercourse with false brethren, when they continue in their perversity

But if anyone who calleth himself a brother is seduced by the evil one, and doeth wickedness, and is convicted, and condemned to death, as an adulterer or a murderer, depart from him, that ye may be secure, and none of you may be suspected as a partner in the abominable crime, and that no evil report may be spread abroad, as if all Christians took a pleasure in unlawful actions. Wherefore, keep far from them. But with all diligence assist those who, for the sake of Christ, are abused by the ungodly, and shut up in prison, or who are given over to death, or bonds, or banishment, in order to deliver your fellow-members from wicked hands. And if anyone who accompanieth with them is taken, and falleth under ill-treatment, blessed is he; because he is partaker with the martyr, and is one that imitateth the sufferings of Christ. For we ourselves also, when we often received stripes from Caiaphas, and Alexander, and Annas, went out rejoicing that we were counted worthy to suffer such things for our Saviour. Do ye also rejoice when ye suffer such things: for ye shall be blessed in that day.

Chapter III -That we ought to afford a helping hand to such as are plundered for the sake of Christ, although we should incur danger ourselves

Receive also those that are persecuted on account of the faith, and that flee from city to city on account of the Lord’s commandment; and assist them as martyrs, rejoicing that ye are made partakers of their persecution, knowing that they are declared by our Lord to be blessed. For himself saith, Blessed are ye when men shall reproach you, and persecute you, and say all manner of evil against you falsely for my sake. Rejoice and be exceeding glad, because your reward is great in heaven; for so persecuted they the prophets who were before us. And again, If they have persecuted me, they will also persecute you; and afterwards, If they persecute you in this city, flee ye to another. For in the world ye have tribulation; for they shall deliver you into the synagogues, and ye shall be brought before rulers and kings for my sake, and for a testimony to them. And, He that endureth unto the end, the same shall be saved. For he that is persecuted for the sake of the faith, and beareth witness to Christ, and endureth, this person is truly a man of God.

Chapter IV – That it is a horrible and destructive thing to deny Christ

But he that denieth his being Christ’s, that he may not be hated of men, and so loveth his own life more than the Lord, in whose hand his breath is, this person is wretched and miserable, as being detestable and abominable, who desireth to be the friend of men, but is the enemy of God, having no longer his portion with the saints, but with those that are accursed; choosing, instead of the kingdom of the blessed, that eternal fire which is prepared for the devil and his angels; not being any longer hated by men, but rejected by God, and cast out from his presence. For of such a one our Lord declared, saying, Whosoever shall deny me before men, and shall be ashamed of my name, I also will deny and be ashamed of him before my Father who is in heaven.

And again, he speaketh thus to ourselves, his disciples, He that loveth father or mother more than me, is not worthy of me; and he that loveth son or daughter more than me, is not worthy of me; and he that taketh not My cross and followeth after me, is not worthy of me. He that findeth his life shall lose it, and he that loseth his life for my sake shall find it. For what is a man profited if he shall gain the whole world, and lose his own soul? Or what shall a man give in exchange for his soul? And afterwards, Fear not them that kill the body, but are not able to kill the soul; but rather fear Him who is able to destroy both soul and body in hell.

Chapter V – That we ought to imitate Christ in suffering, and with zeal to follow his patience

Every one, therefore, who learneth any art, when he seeth his master, by his diligence and skill, perfecting his art, doth himself earnestly endeavor to make what he taketh in hand, similar to the article made by his master. If he is not able, he is not perfected in his work. We, therefore, who have a Master, our Lord Jesus Christ, why do we not follow his doctrine? Since he renounced repose, pleasure, glory, riches, pride, the power of revenge, his mother and brethren, nay, and moreover, his own life, on account of his piety towards his Father, and his love to us, the human family; and suffered not only persecution and stripes, reproach and mockery, but also crucifixion, that he might save the penitent, both Jews and Gentiles. If, therefore, he, for our sake, renounced his repose, was not ashamed of the cross, and did not esteem death inglorious, why do we not imitate his sufferings, and renounce, on his account, even our own life, with that patience which he giveth us? For he did all for our sake, but we for our own sake; for he doth not stand in need of us, but we stand in need of his mercy. He requireth only the sincerity and readiness of our faith, as saith the Scripture, If thou art righteous, what dost thou give to him? or what  will he receive at thy hand? Thy wickedness is to a man like thyself, and thy righteousness is to a son of man.

 

Chapter VI – That a believer ought neither rashly to run into danger, through security; nor to be over-timorous, through pusillanimity; but to fly away for fear; yet, if he fall into the enemy’s hand, to strive earnestly on account of the crown that is laid up for him

Let us therefore renounce our parents, and kinsmen, and friends, and wife, and children, and possessions, and all the enjoyments of life, when any of these things become an impediment to piety. For we ought to pray that we may not enter into temptation; but, if we be called to martyrdom, with constancy to confess his precious name; and if, on this account, we be punished, let us rejoice, as hastening to immortality. When we are persecuted, let us not think it strange. Let us not love the present world, nor the praises which come from men, nor the glory and honor of rulers; as some of the Jews wondered at the mighty works of our Lord, yet did not believe on him, for fear of the high priests and the rest of the rulers. For they loved the praise of men more than the praise of God.

But now, by avowing a good confession, we not only save our selves, but we confirm those who are newly illuminated, and strengthen the faith of the catechumens. But, if we remit any part of our confession, and deny godliness by the faintness of our persuasion, and the fear of a very short punishment, we not only deprive ourselves of everlasting glory, but we shall also become the causes of the perdition of others; and shall suffer double punishment, as affording suspicion, by our denial, that that truth in which we gloried so much before is an erroneous doctrine.

Wherefore, neither let us be rash and hasty to thrust ourselves into dangers; for the Lord saith, Pray that ye fall not into temptation; the spirit, indeed, is willing, but the flesh is weak; nor let us, when we do fall into dangers, be fearful or ashamed of our profession. For if a person, by the denial of his own hope, which is Jesus the Son of God, should be delivered from a temporary death, and the next day should fall dangerously sick upon his bed, with a malady in his bowels, his stomach, or his head, or any of the incurable diseases, as a consumption, or gangrene, or looseness, or iliac passion, or dropsy, or cholic, and have a sudden catastrophe, and depart this life; is he not deprived of the things present, and doth he not lose those which are eternal? Or, rather, is he not within the verge of eternal punishment, and gone into outer darkness, where shall be weeping and gnashing of teeth?

But he who is deemed worthy of the honor of martyrdom, let him rejoice with joy in the Lord, as obtaining thereby so great a crown, and departing out of this life by his confession. Nay, though he be but a catechumen, let him depart without trouble; for his suffering for Christ will be to him a more genuine baptism, because he dieth with Christ in reality, but the rest only in a figure. Let him therefore rejoice in the invitation of his Master; since it is thus ordained, Let every one be perfect, as his Master. Now, his and our Master, Jesus the Lord, was smitten for our sake. He under went reproaches and revilings, with long-suffering. He was spit upon; he was smitten on the face; he was buffeted; and when he had been scourged, he was nailed to the cross. He had vinegar and gall to drink; and when he had fulfilled all things that were written, he said to his God and Father, Into thy hands I commend my spirit. Wherefore, let him that desireth to be his disciple, earnestly follow his conflicts. Let him imitate his patience; knowing that, although he be burned in the fire by men, he will suffer nothing, as the three children; or, if he suffer anything, he shall receive a reward from the Lord, believing in the one and only true God and Father, through Jesus Christ, the great High Priest, and Redeemer of our souls, and Rewarder of our sufferings; to whom be glory forever. Amen.

Chapter VII – Several demonstrations concerning the Resurrection, concerning the

Sibyl, and what the Stoics say concerning the bird called Phoenix

For the Almighty God himself will raise us up through our Lord Jesus Christ, according to his infallible promise, and grant us a resurrection with all those that have slept from the beginning of the world. And we shall then be such as we now are, in our present form, without any defect or corruption; since we shall rise incorruptible. For whether we die at sea, or are scattered on the earth, or are torn to pieces by wild beasts and birds, he will raise us by his own power; because the whole world is held together by the hand of God. Moreover, he saith, A hair of your head shall not perish. Wherefore he exhorteth us, saying, In your patience possess ye your souls.

Besides, concerning the resurrection of the dead, and the recompense of reward for the martyrs, Gabriel saith to Daniel, And many of them that sleep shall arise out of the dust of the earth, some to everlasting life, and some to shame and everlasting contempt. And they that understand shall shine as the sun, and as the  firmament, and as the stars. Therefore the most holy Gabriel foretold that the saints should shine like the stars; for his sacred name testified to them that they might understand the truth.

Nor is a resurrection declared only for the martyrs, but for all men, righteous and unrighteous, godly and ungodly, that every one may receive according to his desert. For God, saith the Scripture, will bring every work into judgment, with every secret thing, whether it be good, or whether it be evil. This resurrection was not believed by the Jews, when of old they said, Our bones are withered, and we are gone. To whom God answered, and said, Behold, I open your graves, and will bring you out of them, and will put my spirit into you; and ye shall live, and ye shall know that I, the Lord, have spoken it, and will do it. And he saith by Isaiah, The dead shall rise, and those that are in the graves shall be raised up. And those that rest in the earth shall rejoice; for the dew which is from thee shall be healing to them.

There are, indeed, many and various things said concerning the resurrection, and concerning the continuance of the righteous in glory, and concerning the punishment of the wicked, their fall, rejection, condemnation, shame, eternal fire, and endless worm. And that, if it had pleased him that all men should be immortal, it was in his power, he showed in the examples of Enoch and Elijah, while he did not suffer them to have any experience of death. Or, if it had pleased him in every generation to raise those that died, that this also he was able to do he hath made manifest both by himself and by others; as when he raised the widow’s son by Elijah, and the Shunamite’s son by Elisha.

But we are persuaded that death is not a retribution of punishment, because even the saints have undergone it; nay, even the Lord of the saints, Jesus Christ, the life of them that believe, and the resurrection of the dead. On this account, therefore, as if [to exhibit a spectacle] for those who live in a great city, after the combats he bringeth a dissolution for a little while, that, when he raiseth up everyone, he may either reject or crown him. For he that made the body of Adam out of the earth will raise up the bodies of the rest, and that of the first man, after the dissolution, to  pay what is owing to the rational nature of man; we mean the continuance in being through all ages. He, therefore, who bringeth on the dissolution will himself also procure the resurrection. And he who said, The Lord took dust from the ground, and formed man, and breathed into his face the breath of life, and man became a living soul; and who added, after the disobedience, Earth thou art, and unto earth shalt thou return; himself promised us a resurrection afterwards, For, saith he, All that are in the graves shall hear the voice of the Son of God, and they that hear shall live.

Besides these arguments, we believe, even from the resurrection of our Lord, that there is to be a resurrection. For he himself who raised Lazarus, when he had been in the grave four days, and Jairus’s daughter, and the widow’s son; and who, by the command by the Father, raised himself in the space of three days, is the pledge of our resurrection. For, saith he, l am the resurrection and the life. He that brought Jonah, in the space of three days, alive and unhurt, out of the belly of the whale, and the three children out of the furnace of Babylon, and Daniel out of the mouth of the lions, will be in no want of power also to awake us.

But if the Gentiles laugh at us, and disbelieve our Scriptures, let at least their own prophetess, the Sibyl, oblige them to believe, who saith thus to them, in so many words:

But when all things shall be reduced to dust and ashes,

And the immortal God, who kindled the fire, shall have quenched it,

Bones and ashes God himself shall again form into a man,

And shall place mortals again as they were before.

And then, indeed, shall be a judgment, in which God himself will render justice,

Judging the world again; and whoever have impiously sinned,

These the earth again shall cover;

But all the pious shall live again in the world,

God giving spirit, life, and favor to them, the devout.

Then, moreover, all shall see themselves.

Orac. Sibyl B. IV. (end.)

If, therefore, this prophetess herself confesseth the resurrection, and doth not deny the restoration of all things, and distinguisheth the godly from the ungodly, it is in vain for them to deny our doctrine. Nay, indeed, they say they can show a resemblance of the resurrection (while they do not believe the things which they themselves declare). For they say that there is a bird, single in its kind, which affordeth a rich evidence of the resurrection. This bird, they affirm, is without a mate, and the only one in the creation. They call it a Phoenix, and relate that, every five hundred years, it cometh into Egypt, to what is called the altar of the sun, and bringeth with it a great quantity of cinnamon, and cassia, and balsam wood, and, standing towards the east, as they say, and praying to the sun, of its own accord, is burnt, and becometh dust; but that a worm ariseth again out of those ashes; and when this is warmed, it is formed into a new-born Phoenix; and when it is able to fly, it goeth to Arabia, which is beyond the Egyptian countries. If now, as even themselves say, a resurrection is exhibited by means of an irrational bird, why do they vainly disparage our accounts, when we profess that He who, by his power, bringeth that into being which was not in being before, is able also to restore this body, and raise it up again after its dissolution?

For, on account of this full assurance of hope, we undergo stripes, and persecutions, and deaths. Otherwise, we should to no purpose undergo such things, if we had not a full assurance of these promises, of which we profess ourselves to be the preachers. As, therefore, we believe Moses, when he saith, In the beginning God made the heaven and the earth; and we know that he was not in need of matter, but by his will alone brought those things into being which Christ was commanded to make; we mean the heaven, the earth, the sea, the light, the night, the day, the luminaries, the stars, the fowls, the fishes, the four-footed beasts, the creeping things, the plants, and the herbs; so also will he raise all men up by his will, not wanting any assistance. For it is the work of the same power to create the world and to raise the dead. And then he made man, who was not a man before, of different parts; giving to him a soul made out of nothing. But now he will restore the bodies, which have been dissolved, to the souls that are still in being; for the rising again belongeth to things laid down, not to things which have no being. The same Being, therefore, that made the original matter out of nothing, and out of it formed various bodies, will also vivify and again raise up those that are dead.

For he that formed man in the womb out of a little seed, and created in him a soul which was not in being before, as himself somewhere saith to Jeremiah, Before I formed thee in the womb, I knew thee; and elsewhere, I am the Lord who established the heaven, and laid the foundations of the earth, and formed the spirit of man in him; he himself will also raise up all men, as being his workmanship; as also the divine Scripture testifieth that God said to Christ, his only-begotten, Let us make man after our image, and after our likeness. And God made man; after the image of God made he him; male and female made he them. And the most divine and patient Job, of whom the Scripture saith, It is written that he shall rise again with those whom the Lord raiseth up, thus addresseth God: Hast thou not milked me like milk, and curdled me like cheese? Thou hast clothed me with skin and flesh, and hast formed me with bones and sinews. Thou hast granted me life and favor, and thy visitation hath preserved my spirit. Having these things within me, I know that thou canst do all things, and that nothing is impossible with thee. Wherefore, also, our Saviour and Master, Jesus Christ, saith, that what is impossible with men is possible with God. And David, the beloved of God, saith, Thy hands have made me, and fashioned me. And again, Thou knowest my frame; and afterwards, Thou hast fashioned me, and laid thy hand upon me. The knowledge of thee is declared to be too wonderful for me. It is very great; I cannot attain unto it. Thine eyes did see my substance, being yet imperfect; and all men shall be written in thy look. But also Isaiah saith in his prayer to him, We are the clay, and thou art the Framer of us. If, therefore, man be his workmanship, made by Christ, by him most certainly will he, after he is dead, be raised again, for the purpose of being either crowned for his good actions, or punished for his transgressions. But if, being the lawgiver, he judgeth with righteousness, as he punisheth the wicked, so doth he do good to and save the faithful. And those saints who, for his sake, have been slain by men, some of them he will cause to shine as the stars, and others he will make bright as the luminaries; as Gabriel said to Daniel.

All we of the faithful, therefore, who are the disciples of Christ, believe his promises. For he that hath promised, cannot lie. But, saith the blessed prophet David, The Lord is faithful in all his words, and holy in all his works. For he that framed for himself a body out of a virgin, is also the Former of other men. And he that raised himself from the dead, will also raise again all that are lying in death. He who raiseth wheat out of the ground, with many stalks from one grain; he who maketh the tree that is cut down, send forth fresh branches; he who made Aaron’s dry rod put forth buds, will himself also raise us up in glory. He who raised up to perfect health him that had the palsy, and healed him that had the withered hand; he who, from clay and spittle, supplied a defective part to him who was born blind, the same will also raise us up. He that satisfied five thousand men with five loaves and two fishes, and caused a remainder of twelve baskets; and out of the water made wine, and sent a piece of money out of a fish’s mouth, by me Peter, to those who demanded tribute; he also will raise the dead. For we testify all these things concerning him, and the prophets testify the other.

We, who have eaten and drunk with him, and have been spectators of his wonderful works, and of his life, and of his deportment, and of his words, and of his sufferings, and of his death, and of his resurrection from the dead, and who conversed with him forty days after his resurrection, and who received a command from him to  preach the Gospel to all the world, and to make disciples of all nations, and to baptize them into his death, by the authority of the God of the universe, who is his Father; and by the testimony of the Spirit, who is the Comforter, we teach you all these things which he appointed us by his constitutions, before he was received up in our sight into heaven, to him that sent him. And if ye will believe, ye shall be happy; but if ye will not believe, we shall be found innocent, and clear from your incredulity.

Chapter VIII – Concerning James, the brother of the Lord, and Stephen, the first Martyr

Now, concerning the martyrs, we say to you, that they are to be held in all honor with you, as we honor the blessed James, the Bishop, and the holy Stephen, our fellow-servant. For these are accounted by God to be blessed, and are honored by holy men, as being pure from all transgressions, immovable, when tempted to sin, or persuaded from good works; undoubtedly entitled to encomiums. Of whom also David said, Precious in the sight of the Lord is the  death of his holy ones; and Solomon, The memory of the just is with praise. Of whom also the prophet said, Righteous men are taken away.

Chapter IX – Concerning False Martyrs

These things we have said concerning those who, in truth, have been martyrs for Christ, but not concerning false martyrs, concerning whom the oracle saith, The name of the wicked is extinguished. For, A faithful witness will not lie, but an unfaithful witness inflameth lies. For he that departeth this life in testimony for the truth, without falsification, is a faithful martyr, worthy to be believed in those things in which he strove, by his own blood, for the word of piety.

Chapter X – A moral admonition that we are to abstain from vain talking, obscene talking, jesting, drunkenness, lasciviousness, and luxury

Moreover, we exhort you, brethren and fellow-servants, to avoid vain talk, and obscene discourses, and jesting, drunkenness, lasciviousness, luxury, and unbounded passions, with foolish talking; since neither on the Lord’s days, which are days of joy, do we permit you to speak or act anything unseemly. For the Scripture somewhere saith, Serve the Lord with fear, and rejoice unto him with trembling. Even your very rejoicings, therefore, ought to be done with fear and trembling. For a Christian who is faithful ought neither to repeat a heathen hymn, nor an obscene song; because he will be obliged, by that hymn, to make mention of the idolatrous names of demons; and, instead of the Holy Spirit, the wicked one will enter into him.

Chapter XI – An admonition, instructing men to avoid the abominable sin of Idolatry

Ye are also forbidden to swear by them, or to utter their abominable names through your mouth, and to worship them, or fear them as Gods; for they are not gods, but either wicked demons, or the ridiculous contrivances of men. For somewhere God saith concerning the Israelites, They have forsaken me, and sworn by them that are no gods; and afterwards, I will take away the names of the idols out of their mouth; and elsewhere, They have provoked me to jealousy with them that are no gods; they have provoked me to anger with their idols. And in all the Scriptures these things are forbidden by the Lord God.

Chapter XII – That we ought not to sing a heathen or an obscene song; nor to swear by an idol, because it is an impious thing, and contrary to the knowledge of God

But not only concerning idols do our holy statutes give us prohibitions, but also concerning the luminaries. They admonish us not to swear by them, nor to serve them. For they say, Lest when thou seest the sun and the moon, and the stars, thou shouldst be seduced to worship them; and elsewhere, Learn not to walk after the ways of the heathen, and be not afraid of the signs of heaven. For the stars and the luminaries were given to men to shine upon them, but not for worship; although the Israelites, by the perverseness of their temper, worshipped the creature instead of the Creator, and became injurious to their Maker, and admired the creature more than was fit. And sometimes they made a calf in the wilderness; sometimes they worshipped Baal-peor; another time, Baal, and Thammuz, and Astarte of Sidon; and again, Moloch and Chamos; another time, the sun, as it is written in Ezekiel; nay, and besides, irrational creatures, as, amongst the Egyptians, apes and the Mendesian goat; and gods of silver and gold, as in Judea. On account of all which things, he threatened them, and said by the prophet, Is it a small thing to the house of Judah to do these abominations, which they have done? For they have filled the land with their wickedness, to provoke me to anger. And behold, they are as those that mock. But I will act with anger; mine eye shall not spare, nor will I have mercy. And they shall cry in mine ears with a great voice, and I will not hearken unto them.

Consider, beloved, how manythings the Lord declareth against idolaters, and the worshippers of the sun and moon. Wherefore it is the duty of a man of God, as he is a Christian, not to swear by the sun, nor by the moon, nor by the stars, nor by the heaven, nor by the earth, nor by any of the elements, whether small or great. For if our Master charged us not to swear by the true God, that our word might be firmer than an oath, nor by heaven  itself, for that is a heathenish impiety, nor by Jerusalem, nor by the sanctuary of God, nor the altar, nor the gift, nor the gilding of the altar, nor one’s own head; for this custom is a piece of Jewish corruption, and on that account it was forbidden; and if he enjoined upon the faithful that their yea be yea, and their nay nay; and said that what is more than these is of the evil one; how much more blamable are those who appeal to deities falsely so called, as the objects of an oath, and who glorify imaginary beings instead of those that are real! whom God, for their perverseness, delivered over to foolishness, to do those things that are not convenient.

Chapter XIII – A catalogue of the feasts of the Lord which are to be kept; and

when each of them ought to observed

Brethren, observe the festival days, and first indeed the birth-day of our Lord, which is to be celebrated by you on the twenty-fifth of the ninth month. After which, let Epiphany be to you the most honorable, in which the Lord made to us a manifestation of his own divinity; but let this festival be observed on the sixth of the tenth month. Subsequently the Quadragesimal fast (Lent) is to be observed by you, as containing a memorial both of our Lord’s deportment and of his legislation. But let this fast be observed before the fast of the Passover, beginning from the second day of the week, and ending at the day of the Preparation. After which solemnities, breaking off your fast, begin the Holy Week of the Passover, fasting in the same all of you with fear and trembling, praying in those days for the perishing.

Chapter XIV – the Passion of our Lord, and what was done on each day of his sufferings; and concerning Judas; and that Judas was not present when the Lord delivered the mysteries to his disciples

For they began to hold a council against the Lord on the second day of the week, in the first month, which is Xanthicus; and the deliberation continued on the third day of the week; but on the fourth day, they determined to take away his life by crucifixion. And Judas knowing this, who for a long time had been perverted, but was then smitten by the devil himself with the love of money, although he had long been entrusted with the purse, and used to steal what was set apart for the needy, yet was not cast off by the Lord, through much long-suffering. Besides, when we were once feasting with him, being willing both to bring him back to his duty, and to instruct us in his own foreknowledge, he said, Verily,verily, I say unto you, that one of you will betray me. And every one of us saying, Is it I? and the Lord being silent, I, who was one of the twelve, and more beloved by him than the rest, arose up from lying in his bosom, and besought him to tell who it should be that should betray him. Yet neither then did our gracious Lord declare his name, but gave two signs of the betrayer; one by saying, He that dippeth with me in the dish; and a second, To whom I shall give the sop when I have dipped it. Although even he said, Master, is it I?, the Lord did not say yes, but Thou hast said. And being willing to terrify him in the matter, he said, Woe to that man by whom the Son of Man is betrayed. Good were it for him if he had never been born. And having heard these things, he went away, and said to the priests, What will ye give me, and I will deliver him unto you? And they bargained with him for thirty pieces of silver. And the Scripture was fulfilled which saith, And they took the thirty pieces of silver, the price of him that was valued, whom they of the children of Israel did value, and gave them for the house of the potter.

And on the fifth day of the week, when we had eaten the Passover with him, and when Judas had dipped his hand into the dish, and received the sop, and was gone out by night, the Lord said to us, The hour is come that ye shall be dispersed, and shall leave me alone. And every one vehemently affirming that we would not forsake him, I, Peter, adding this promise that I would even die with him, he said, Verily I say unto thee, before the cock croweth, thou shalt thrice deny that thou knowest me. And when he had delivered to us the representative mysteries of his precious body and blood, Judas not being present with us, he went out to the Mount of Olives, near the brook Cedron, where there was a garden; and we were with him, and sang a hymn, according to the custom; and being separated from us, he prayed earnestly to his Father, saying, Father, remove this cup away from me; yet not my will, but thine, be done. And when he had done this thrice, while we out of despondency were fallen asleep, he came and said, The hour is come, and the Son of Man is betrayed into the hands of sinners.

And behold, Judas, and with him a multitude of ungodly men, to whom he showeth the signal by which he was to betray him, a deceitful kiss. But they, when they had received the signal agreed on, took hold of the Lord; and, having bound him, they led him to the house of Caiaphas, the high priest, in which were assembled many, not the people, but a rabble, not a holy council of elders, but an assembly of the wicked, and senate of the ungodly, who did manythings against him, and left no kind of injury untried, spitting upon him, deriding him, beating him, smiting him on the face, reviling him, tempting him, seeking vain divination instead of true prophecies from him, calling him a deceiver, a transgressor of Moses, a destroyer of the temple, a taker away of sacrifices, an enemy to the Romans, an adversary to Caesar. And these reproaches did these bulls and dogs, in their madness, cast upon him, till it was very early in the morning; and then they led him away to Annas, who was father-in-law to Caiaphas; and when they had done the like things to him there, it being the day of the Preparation, they delivered him to Pilate, the Roman governor, accusing him of many and great things, none of which they could prove.

Upon which, the governor, being out of patience with them, said, I find no cause against him. But they brought two false witnesses, and wished thus to substantiate a slanderous accusation against him; but, these being found disagreeing, they referred the matter to loyalty, saying, This fellow saith that he is a king, and forbiddeth to give tribute to Caesar. And themselves became accusers, and witnesses, and judges, and authors of the sentence, saying Crucify him, crucify him; that it might be fulfilled which is written by the prophets concerning him, Unjust witnesses were gathered together against me, and in justice lied to itself. And again, Many dogs compassed me about; the assembly of the wicked laid siege against me. And elsewhere, My heritage hath become to me as a lion in a forest, and hath sent forth her voice against me. Pilate, therefore, disgracing his authority by his pusillanimity, convicteth himself of wickedness, by regarding the multitude more than this just person, and bearing witness to him as innocent, yet delivering him up, as guilty, to the punishment of the cross; although the Romans had made laws that no man unconvicted should be put to death.

But the executioners took the Lord of glory, and nailed him to the cross, crucifying him indeed at the tenth hour, but having received the sentence of his condemnation at the third hour. After this they gave him vinegar to drink, mingled with gall. Then they divided his garments by lot. Then they crucified two malefactors with him, on each side one, that it might be fulfilled which was written, They gave me gall to eat; and when I was thirsty, they gave me vinegar to drink. And again, They divided my garments among themselves, and upon my vesture they have cast lots. And in another place, And I was reckoned with the transgressors. Then there was darkness for three hours, from the sixth to the ninth, and again light in the evening; as it is written, It shall not be day nor night; and at the evening there shall be light.

All which things when those malefactors saw that were crucified with him, one of them reproached him, as though he was weak, and unable to deliver himself; but the other rebuked the ignorance of his companion, and, turning to the Lord, as being enlightened by him, and acknowledging who he was that suffered, he prayed that he would remember him in his kingdom hereafter. The Lord then immediately granted him the forgiveness of his former sins, and brought him into Paradise to enjoy the mystical good things. He also, about the ninth hour, cried out and said to his Father, My God, my God, why hast thou forsaken me? And a little afterwards, when he had cried with a loud voice, Father, forgive them, for they know not what they do; and had added, Into thy hands I commend my spirit, he gave up the ghost; and, before sunset, he was buried in a new sepulchre.

But when the first day of the week dawned, he arose from the dead, and fulfilled those things which before his passion he foretold to us, saying, The Son of Man must continue in the heart of the earth three days and three nights. And when he was risen from the dead, he appeared first to Mary Magdalen, and Mary the mother of James; then to Cleopas in the way; and, after that, to us his disciples, who had fled away for fear of the Jews, but privately were very inquisitive concerning him. But these things are also written in the Gospel. Of the Great Week; and on what account they enjoin us to fast on Wednesday and Friday.

He therefore himself charged us to fast these six days, on account of the impiety and transgression of the Jews; commanding us to mourn over them, and lament for their perdition. For even he himself wept over them, because they knew not the time of their visitation. But he commanded us to fast on the fourth day of the week (Wednesday), and on the Preparation (Friday), the former on account of his being betrayed, and the latter on account of his Passion. But he appointed us to break our fast on the seventh day at the cock-crowing, but to fast during the Sabbath itself; not that the Sabbath is a day of fasting, it being the rest from the creation, but because we ought to fast this one Sabbath only, while on this day the Creator was yet under the earth. For on their very Feast day they apprehended the Lord, that that oracle might be fulfilled which saith, They placed their signs in the middle of their feast, and knew them not. Ye ought, therefore, to mourn over them, because when the Lord came they did not believe on him, but rejected his doctrine, judging themselves unworthy of salvation.

Consequently, ye are blessed, who once were not a people, but are now a holy nation, delivered from the deceit of idols, from ignorance, from impiety; who once had not obtained mercy, but now have obtained mercy, through your hearty obedience. For to you, the converted Gentiles, is opened the gate of life, who formerly were not beloved, but are now beloved; a people ordained for the possession of God, to show forth his virtues; concerning whom our Saviour said, I was found of them that sought me not; 1 was made manifest to them that asked not after me. I said, Behold me, to a nation that did not call upon my name. For when they did not seek after him, then were they sought for by him; and ye who have believed in him have hearkened to his call, and have left the madness of polytheism, and have fled to the true monarchy, to Almighty God, through Christ Jesus, and are become the completion of the number of the saved, Ten thousand times ten thousand, and thousands of thousands; as it is written in David, A thousand shall fall at thy side, and ten thousand at thy right hand. And again, The chariots of God are by tens of thousands, and thousands of the prosperous. But to unbelieving Israel he saith, All the day long have I stretched out my hands to a disobedient and gainsaying people, which go in a way that is not good, hit after their own sins; a people provoking me before my face.

Chapter XVI – An enumeration of the prophetical predictions which declare Christ; whose completion though the Jews saw, yet, out of the evil temper         of their mind, they did not believe he was the Christ of God, and condemned the Lord of glory to the cross

See how the people provoked the Lord by not believing in him. Therefore he saith, They provoked the Holy Spirit, and he was turned to be their enemy. For blindness is cast upon them by reason of the wickedness of their mind; because, when they saw Jesus, they did not believe him to be the Christ of God, who was before all ages begotten of him, his only-begotten Son, God the Word, whom they did not own, through their unbelief, neither on on account of his mighty works, nor yet on account of the prophecies which were written concerning him. For that he was to be born of a virgin, they read this prophecy, Behold a virgin shall be with child, and shall bring forth a son, and they shall call his name Immanuel. For to us a child is born, to us a son is given, whose government is upon his shoulders; and his name is called the Angel of the great Council, the Wonderful Counsellor, the Mighty God, the Potentate, the Prince of Peace, the Father of the future age. Moreover, that through their exceedingly great wickedness, they would not believe in him, the Scripture saith, Lord, who hath believed our report? And to whom hath the arm of the Lord been revealed? And afterwards, Hearing ye shall  hear, and shall not understand; and seeing ye shall see, and shall not perceive; for the heart of this people is waxed gross.

Wherefore knowledge was taken from them, because seeing, they overlooked; and hearing, they heard not. But to you, the converted of the Gentiles, is the kingdom given, because ye, who knew not God, have believed by preaching, and have known him, or rather are known of him, through Jesus, the Saviour and Redeemer of those that hope in him. For ye are translated from your former vain and tedious customs, and have contemned the lifeless idols, and despised the demons which are in darkness, and have hastened to the true light, and by it have known the one and only true God and Father, and so are owned to be heirs of his kingdom. We have been baptized into the Lord’s death, and into his resurrection, as new-born babes, ye ought to be icon, wholly free from all sinful actions. For ye are not your own, but his that bought you with his own blood. For concerning the formar Israel, the Lord said, on account of their unbelief, that the kingdom of God shall be taken from them, and given to a nation bringing forth the fruits thereof; that is to say, that, having given the kingdom to you who were once for estranged from him, he expecteth the fruits of your gratitude and probity. For ye are those that were once sent into the vineyard, and did not obey, but these they that did obey; but ye have repented of your denial, and ye work therein now. But they, being uneasy on account of their own covenants, have not only left the vineyard uncultivated, but have also killed the stewards of the lord of the vineyard; one with stones, another with the sword; one they sawed asunder, another they slew in the holy place, between the temple and the altar; nay,  at last they cast the heir himself out of the vineyard, and slew him. And by them he was rejected as an unprofitable stone; but by you he was received as a corner-stone. Wherefore he saith concerning you, A people whom I knew not have served me; and at the hearing of the ear they obeyed me.

Chapter XVII – How the Passover ought to be celebrated

Therefore, brethren, ye, who are redeemed by the precious blood of Christ, ought diligently to celebrate the days of the Passover, with all carefulness, after the equinox, that ye keep not the memorial of the one passion twice in a year, but once only in a year for him that died but once; no longer indeed scrupulously caring to celebrate the feast with the Jews; for with them we now have no fellowship. For they are deceived in respect to the computation itself, which they think to carry into effect; as on every side they are deceived, and are separated from the truth. But do ye regard attentively the vernal equinox, which occurreth on the twenty-second day of the twelfth month (which is March) , watching carefully until the twenty-first day of the moon, lest the fourteenth day of the moon fall on another week; and, an error being made, ye through ignorance celebrate the Passover twice in the year; or keep the feast commemorative of the resurrection of our Lord Jesus, on some other than the Lord’s day.

Chapter XVIII – A Constitution concerning the great Passover Week

In the days, therefore, of the Passover, fast, beginning from the second day of week until the Preparation and the Sabbath, six days; making use of only bread, and salt, and herbs, and water for your drink; but abstain from wine and flesh on these days; for they are days of lamentation, and not of feasting. Do ye who are able fast the day of the Preparation and the Sabbath entirely, tasting nothing till the cock-crowing of the night; but if anyone is not able to join them both together, at least let him retain the Sabbath; for the Lord saith somewhere, speaking of himself, When the bride-groom shall be taken away from them, in those days shall they fast. In these days, therefore, he was taken from the Jews, falsely so named, and fastened to the cross, and was numbered among the transgressors.

Chapter XIX – Concerning the watching all the night of the great Sabbath, and concerning the day of the Resurrection

Wherefore we exhort you to fast on those days, till the evening, as we also fasted when he was taken away from us. But on the rest of the days, before the day of the Preparation, let every one eat at the ninth hour, or at the evening, or as every one is able.

But on the Sabbath, extending the fast till cock-crowing, discontinue it at the dawning of the first day of the week, which is the Lord’s day. From the evening till cock-crowing keep awake, and assemble together in the church; watch, praying and entreating God; reading, when ye sit up all night, the Law, the Prophets, and the Psalms, until cock-crowing; and baptizing your catechumens, and reading the gospel with fear and trembling, and speaking to the people such things as tend to their salvation, put an end to your sorrow, and beseech God that Israel may be converted, and that he will allow them place of repentance, and the remission of their impiety. For the judge, who was a foreigner, washed his hands, and said, I am innocent of the blood of this just person: see ye to it. But Israel cried out, His blood be on us, and on our children. And when Pilate said, Shall I crucify your king? they cried We have no king but Caesar; crucify him, crucify him; forevery one that maketh himself a king, speaketh against Caesar. And, If thou let this man go, thou art not Caesar’s friend. And Pilate the governor, and Herod the king, commanded him to be crucified; and that oracle was fulfilled which saith, Why did the Gentiles rage, and the people imagine vain things? The kings of the earth set themselves, and the riders were gathered together against the Lord, and against his Christ. And, They cast away the beloved, as a dead man, who is abominable.

And since he was crucified on the day of the Preparation, and rose again at the break of day on the Lord’s day, the Scripture was fulfilled which saith, Arise, God, judge the earth; for thou shalt have an inheritance in all the nations. And again, I will arise, saith the Lord; I will put him in safety; I will wax bold through him. And, But thou, Lord, have mercy upon me, and raise me up again, and I shall requite them. For this reason do ye also, now the Lord is risen, offer your sacrifice, concerning which he made a constitution by us, saying, This do in remembrance of me; and thenceforward leave off your fasting, and rejoice, and keep a festival, because Jesus Christ, the pledge of our resurrection, is risen from the dead. And let this be an everlasting ordinance till the consummation of the world, until the Lord come. For to the Jews the Lord is still dead, but to Christians he is risen: to the former, by their unbelief; to the latter, by their full assurance of faith. For the hope in him is immortal and eternal life.

After eight days, let there be another feast observed with honor, the eighth day itself, on which he gave me, Thomas, who was hard of belief, full assurance, by showing me the print of the nails, and the wound made in his side by the spear.

And again, from the first Lord’s day count forty days, from the Lord’s day till the fifth day of the week; and celebrate the Feast of the Ascension of the Lord, in which he finished all his dispensation and constitution, and returned to the God and Father who had sent him; sitting down at the right hand of power, and  remaining there until his enemies be put under his feet. He  will also come at the end of the world, with power and great glory, to judge the living and the dead, and to recompense every one according to his works. And then shall they see the beloved Son of God, whom they pierced; and when they know him, they shall mourn for themselves, tribe by tribe,  and their wives apart.

Chapter XX – A Prophetic Prediction concerning Christ Jesus

For even now, on the tenth day of the month September, when they assemble together, they read the Lamentations of Jeremiah, in which it is said, The spirit before our face, Christ the Lord  was taken in their destructions; and Baruch, in whom it is written, This is our God; no other shall be esteemed with him. He  found out every way of knowledge, and showed it to Jacob his son, and Israel his beloved. Afterwards he was seen upon earth, and conversed with men. And when they read them, they lament and bewail, as themselves suppose, that desolation which happened by Nebuchadnezzar; but, as the truth showeth, they unwillingly make a prelude to that lamentation which will overtake them.

But after ten days from the ascension, which, from the first Lord’s day, is the fiftieth day, let there be to you a great festival. For on that day, at the third hour, the Lord Jesus sent on us the gift of the Holy Ghost, and we were filled with his energy, and we spake with new tongues, as that Spirit suggested to us; and we preached both to Jews and Gentiles, that he is the Christ of God, who is determined by him to be the Judge of the living and the dead. To him did Moses bear witness, saying, The Lord received fire from the Lord, and rained it down. Him Jacob saw as a man, and said, I have seen God face to face, and my soul is preserved. Him Abraham entertained, and acknowledged to be the Judge and his own Lord. Him Moses saw in the bush. Concerning him he said in Deuteronomy, A Prophet will the Lord your God raise up unto you out of your brethren, like unto me. Him shall ye hear in all things, whatsoever he shall say unto you. And it shall be, that every soul that will not hear that Prophet shall be destroyed from among his people. Him did Joshua, the son of Nun, see, as the captain of the Lord’s host, in armor, for his assistance against Jericho; to whom he fell down and worshipped, as a servant doth to his master. Him Samuel knew, as the anointed of God, and thence named the priests and the kings the anointed. Him David knew, and sung a hymn concerning him, saying, A song concerning the Beloved; and,  addressing it to his person, he said, Gird thy sword upon thy thigh, thou who art mighty, in thy beauty and renown. Go on and prosper, and reign, for the sake of truth, and meekness, and righteousness; and thy right hand shall guide thee after a wonderful manner. Thy darts are sharp, thou that art mighty, the people shall fall under thee, in the heart of the King’s enemies. Wherefore God, thy God, hath anointed thee with the oil of gladness above thy fellows. Concerning him spake Solomon, as in his person: The Lord created me the beginning of his ways, for his glorics. Before the world he founded me; in the beginning, before he made the earth, before the fountains of waters came, before the mountains were fastened, before all the hills, he begat me.

And again, Wisdom built herself a house. Concerning him also Isaiah said: A branch shall come out of the root of  Jesse; and a flower shall spring out of his root. And there shall be a root of Jesse, and he that is to rise to reign over the Gentiles; in him shall the Gentiles trust. And Zechariah saith, Behold thy king cometh unto thee, just, and having salvation, meek, and riding upon an ass, even a colt, the foal of an ass. Him Daniel describeth as the Son of Man coming to the Father, and receiving all judgment and honor from him; and as the stone cut out of the mountain without hands, and becoming a great mountain, and filling the whole earth, dashing to pieces the many governments of the smaller countries, and the polytheism of the gods; but preaching the one God, and ordaining the monarchy of the Romans.

Concerning him also prophesieth Jeremiah, saying, The Spirit before his face, Christ the Lord, was taken in their snares, of whom we said, Under his shadow we shall live among the Gentiles. Ezekiel also, and the subsequent prophets, affirm everywhere that he is the Christ, the Lord, the King, the Judge, the Lawgiver, the Angel of the Father, the only-begotten God.

Him, therefore, do we also preach to you, and declare to be God the Word, who ministered to his God and Father for the creation of the universe. Believing in him, ye shall live; but not believing, ye shall be punished. For he that is disobedient to the Son  shall not see life, but the wrath of God abideth on him.

Therefore, after ye have kept the festival of the Pentecost, keep festival one week more; and after that, fast one; for it is reasonable to rejoice for the gift of God, and to fast after that relaxation. For both Moses and Elias fasted forty days; and Daniel for three weeks of days did not eat desirable bread, and flesh and wine did not enter into his mouth; and blessed Hannah, when she asked for Samuel, said, I have not drunk wine, nor strong drink, and I pour out my soul before the Lord; and the Ninevites, when they fasted three days and three nights, escaped the execution of wrath. And Esther, and Mordecai, and Judith, by fasting escaped the insurrection of the ungodly Holofernes and Haman. And David saith, My knees are weak through fasting, and my flesh faileth for want of oil.

Do ye, therefore, fast, and ask your petitions of God. We enjoin you to fast every fourth day of the week, and every day of the Preparation; and what is saved by your fasting bestow upon the needy. Every Sabbath except one, and every Lord’s day, hold your religious assemblies, and rejoice; for he will be guilty of sin who fasteth on the Lord’s day, it being the day of the resurrection, or during the time of Pentecost, or, in general, who is sad on a festival day to the Lord; for then we ought to rejoice, and not to mourn.

END OF BOOK V

BOOK VI  – CONCERNING SCHISMS.

Chapter I – Who they were that ventured to make Schisms, and did not escape punishment

ABOVE all things, Bishops, avoid the sad, and dangerous, and lawless heresies, eschewing them as fire that burneth those who come near it. Avoid also schisms; for it is neither lawful to turn one’s mind towards wicked heresies, nor, out of ambition, to separate from the men who agree with you in sentiment. For, in ancient times, certain persons who ventured to do thus, did not escape punishment. Dathan and Abiram, who set up in opposition to Moses, were swallowed down into the earth. And Corah, and those two hundred and fifty who with him raised a sedition against Aaron, were consumed by fire. Miriam also, who reproached Moses, was cast out of the camp for seven days; for she alleged that Moses had married an Ethiopian woman. Nay, there is the case of Azariah and Uzziah; the latter of whom was king of Judah, but, venturing to usurp the priesthood, and desiring to offer incense, which it was not lawful for him to do, was forbidden by Azariah, the high priest, and the fourscore priests; and when he would not obey, he perceived the leprosy to rise in his forehead; and he hastened to go out, because the Lord had reproved him.

Chapter II – That it is not lawful to rise up against either the kingly or the priestly office

Let us, therefore, beloved, consider what sort of glory that of the seditious is, and what their condemnation. For if he that riseth up against kings is worthy of punishment, even though he be a son or a friend; how much more he that riseth up against the priests!

For by how much the priesthood is more noble than the royal power, as having its concern about the soul, so much hath he a greater punishment who ventureth to oppose the priesthood, than he who ventureth to oppose the royal power, although neither of them goeth unpunished. For neither did Absalom and Abedadan escape without punishment; nor Corah and Dathan. The former two rose against David, and strove concerning the kingdom; the latter, against Moses, concerning preeminence. And they spake evil, Absalom of his father David, as of an unjust judge, saying to every one, Thy words are good; but there is no one that will hear thee, and do thee justice. Who will make me a ruler? and Abedadan said, I have no part in David, nor any inheritance in the son of Jesse. It is plain that he could not endure to be under David’s government, of whom God spake: I have found David the son of Jesse, a man after my heart, who will do all my commands. But Dathan and Abiram, and the followers of Corah, said to Moses, Is it a small thing that thou hast brought us out of the land of Egypt, out of a land flowing with milk and honey? And why hast thou put out our eyes? And wilt thou rule over us? And they gathered together against him a great congregation; and the followers of Corah said, Hath God spoken alone to Moses? Why is it that he hath given the high priesthood to Aaron alone? Is not all the congregation of the Lord holy? And why is Aaron alone possessed of the priesthood? And, before this, one said, Who made thee a ruler and a judge over us?

Chapter III – Concerning the virtue of Moses, and the incredulity of the Jewish nation, and what wonderful works God did among them

And they raised a sedition against Moses, the servant of God, the meekest of all men, and faithful, and affronted so great a man with the highest ingratitude; him who was their lawgiver, and guardian, and high priest, and king, the administrator of divine things; one that showed, as a creator, the mighty works of the Creator; the meekest man, freest from arrogance, and full of fortitude, and most benign in his temper; one who had delivered them from many dangers, and freed them from several deaths by his holiness; who had done so many signs and wonders from God before the people, and had performed glorious and wonderful works for their benefit; who had brought the ten plagues upon the Egyptians; who had divided the Red Sea, and had separated the waters as a wall on this side and on that side, and had led the people through them, as through a dry wilderness, and had drowned Pharaoh and the Egyptians, and all that were in company with them, and had made the fountain sweet for them with wood, and had brought water out of the abrupt rock for them when they were thirsty, and had given them manna out of heaven, and had distributed flesh to them out of the air, and had afforded them a pillar of fire in the night to enlighten and conduct them, and a pillar of a cloud to shadow them in the day, on account of the violent heat of the sun, and had exhibited to them the Law of God, engraven from the mouth, and hand, and writing of God, in tables of stone, the perfect number of ten commandments; to whom God spake face to face, as if a man spake to his friend; of whom he said, And there arose not a Prophet like unto Moses. Against him arose the followers of Corah, and the Reubenites, and threw stones at Moses, who prayed and said, Accept not thou their offering. And the glory of God appeared, and sent some down into the earth, and burnt up others with fire; and so as to those ringleaders of this schismatical error, who said, Let us make ourselves a leader, the earth opened its mouth, and swallowed them up, and their, tents, and what appertained to them; and they went down alive into hell. Moreover, he destroyed the followers of Corah with fire.

Chapter IV – That he maketh schism, not who separateth himself from the wicked, but who departeth from the godly

If, therefore, God inflicted punishment immediately on those that made a schism on account of their ambition, how much rather will he do it upon those who are the leaders of impious heresies! Will he not inflict severer punishment on those that blaspheme his providence or his creation? But do ye, brethren, who are instructed out of the Scripture, take care not to make divisions in opinion, nor divisions in your unity. For those who set up unlawful opinions are harbingers of perdition to the people. In like manner, ye of the laity, come not near such as advance doctrines contrary to the mind of God, nor be ye partakers of their impiety. For, saith God, Separate yourselves from the midst of these men., lest ye perish together with them. And again, Depart from the midst of them, and separate yourselves, saith the Lord, and touch not the unclean thing, and I will receive you.

Chapter V – On what account Israel, falsely so named, is rejected, a demonstration from the prophetic predictions

For those most certainly are to be avoided who blaspheme God. The greatest part of the ungodly, indeed, are ignorant of God; but these men, as fighters against God, are possessed with a wilful, evil disposition, as with a disease. For from the wickedness of the heretics, Pollution is gone out upon all the land, as saith the prophet Jeremiah. Accordingly, the wicked synagogue is now cast off by the Lord God, and his house is rejected by him, as he somewhere saith, I have forsaken my house; I have left mine inheritance. And again, saith Isaiah, I will neglect my vineyard, and it shall not be pruned nor digged, and thorns shall spring up upon it, as upon a desert; and I will command the clouds to send no rain upon it. He hath therefore left his people, as a tent in a vineyard, and as a lodge in a garden of cucumbers, and as a besieged city. He hath taken away from them the Holy Spirit, and the prophetic rain, and hath replenished his church with spiritual grace, as the river of Egypt in the time of first-fruits; and hath exceedingly exalted it, as a house upon a hill, or as a high mountain; as a mountain swelling into eminences, and fertile; in which it hath pleased God to dwell; yea, the Lord will establish his habitation there forever. And he saith in Jeremiah, Our sanctuary is an exalted throne of glory; and he saith in Isaiah, And it shall come to pass in the last days, that the mountain of the Lord shall be glorious; and the house of the Lord shall be upon the top of the mountains, and shall be exalted above the hills.

Since, therefore, he hath forsaken his people, he hath also left his temple desolate, and rent the veil of the temple, and took from them the Holy Spirit. For saith he, Behold, your house is left unto you desolate; and he hath bestowed upon you, the converted of the Gentiles, spiritual grace; as he saith by Joel, And it shall come to pass, after these things, saith Crod, that I will pour out of my Spirit upon all flesh; and your sons shall prophesy, and your daughters shall see visions, and your old men shall dream dreams. For God hath taken away all the power and efficacy of his word, and such like visitations, from that people, and hath transferred them to you, the converted of the Gentiles. On this account, the devil, being very angry at the holy church of God, hath betaken himself to you, and hath raised against you afflictions, persecutions, seditions, reproaches, schisms, heresies. For he had before subdued that people to himself, by their slaying of Christ. But you, who have left his vanities, he tempteth in different ways, as he did the blessed Job. And, indeed, he opposed that great high priest, Joshua, the son of Josedek; and he sometimes sought to sift us, that our faith might fail. But our Lord and Master, having brought him to trial, said to him, The Lord rebuke thee, Satan, even the Lord who hath chosen Jerusalem, rebuke thee. Is not this plucked out of the fire, as a brand? And he who then said to those that stood by the high priest, Take away his ragged garments from him, and added, Behold, I have taken thine iniquities away from thee, he will now say, as he formerly said of us, when we were assembled together, I have prayed that your faith may not fail.

Chapter VI – That even among the Jews there arose the doctrine of several heresies, hateful to God

Verily, even the Jewish nation had wicked heresies; for of them were the Sadducees, who do not confess the resurrection of the dead; and the Pharisees, who ascribe the practice of sinners to fortune and fate; and the Hasmotheans, who deny Providence, and say, that the world is made by spontaneous motion, and take away the immortality of the soul; and the Hemerobaptists, who, every day, unless they bathe, do not eat; nay, unless they cleanse their couches, and tables, or platters, and cups, and seats, do not make use of any of them; and those who have recently appeared in our time, the Ebionites, who will have the Son of God to be a mere man, begotten by human pleasure and the conjunction of Joseph and Mary. There are also the Essenes, who separate themselves from all these, and observe the laws of their fathers.

The sects, then, which have been mentioned, arose among the former people. And now, the evil one, who is wise to do mischief, and never knoweth to do any good whatever, hath overcome some from among us, and by them hath wrought heresies and schisms.

Chapter VII – Whence the heresies sprang, and who was the ringleader of their impiety

Now, the origin of the new heresies was thus: The devil entered into one Simon, of the village called Gitthae, a Samaritan, by profession a magician, and made him the minister of his wicked design. For when Philip, our fellow-apostle, by the gift of the Lord, and the energy of his Spirit, performed the miracles of healing in Samaria, so that the Samaritans were astonished, and embraced the faith of the God of the universe, and of the Lord Jesus, and were baptized into his name; and when already Simon, also himself, seeing the signs and wonders which were done without any magic ceremonies, fell into admiration, and believed, and was baptized, and continued in fasting and prayer, we heard of the grace of God, which was among the Samaritans, by Philip, and came down to them; and, enlarging much upon the word of doctrine, we laid our hands upon all that were baptized, and we conferred upon them the participation of the Spirit.

But when Simon saw that the Spirit was given to believers by the imposition of our hands, he took money, and offered it to us, saying, Give me also the power, that on whomsoever I also shall lay my hand, he may receive the Holy Ghost; being desirous that, as the devil deprived Adam, by the tasting of the tree, of that immortality which was promised, so also he might entice us by the receiving of money, and thereby cut us off from the gift of God, that so by exchange we might give away to him, for money, the inestimable gift of the Spirit. But, as we were all troubled at this offer, I, Peter, with a fixed attention on that malicious serpent which was in him, said to Simon, Let thy money go with thee to perdition, because than hast thought to purchase the gift of God with money. Thou hast no part in this matter, nor lot in this faith; for thy heart is not right in the sight of God. Repent, therefore, of this thy wickedness, and pray to the Lord, if perhaps the thought of thy heart may be forgiven thee. For I perceive that thou art in the gall of bitterness, and in the bond of iniquity. But then Simon was terrified, and said, I entreat you, pray ye to the Lord for me, that none of those things which ye have spoken come upon me.

Chapter VIII – Who were the successors of Simon’s impiety, and what heresies they set up

But when we went forth among the Gentiles, to preach the word of life, then the devil wrought in the people to send after us false apostles, to the corrupting of the word; and they sent forth one Cleobius, and joined him with Simon; and these became disciples to one Dositheus, whom they, having surpassed, thrust away from being the leader. Afterwards, also, others were the authors of absurd doctrines: Cerinthus, and Marcus, and Menander, and Basilides, and Saturnilus. Of these, some own the doctrine of many gods; some, only of three, but contrary to each other, without beginning, and ever with one another; and some, of gods infinite in number, and unknown. And some reject marriage, thinking that it is not the appointment of God; others abhor some kinds of food; and some are impudent in uncleanness, such as those who are falsely called Nicolaitans.

But Simon, indeed, meeting me, Peter, first at Caesarea of Strato (where the faithful Cornelius, a Gentile, believed on the Lord Jesus by me), endeavored to pervert the word of God; there being with me the holy children, Zaccheus, who was once a publican; and Barnabas, and Nicetas, and Aquila, who were brethren, and Clement, the Bishop and citizen of Rome, who was the disciple of Paul, our fellow-apostle and fellow-helper in the Gospel. I thrice discoursed before them, with him, concerning the true prophet, and concerning the monarchy of God; and when I had overcome him by the power of the Lord, and had put him to silence, I drove him away into Italy.

Chapter IX – How Simon, desiring to fly by some magical arts, fell down head long from on high, at the prayers of Peter, and broke his feet, and hands, and ankle-bones

Now, when he was in Rome, he mightily disturbed the church, and subverted many, and brought them over to himself, and astonished the Gentiles with his skill in magic; insomuch that once, in the middle of the day, he went into their theatre, and commanded the people that I also be brought into the theatre, and promised that he would fly in the air. And when all the people were insus pense at this, I prayed by myself. And indeed he was carried up into the air by demons, and flew on high in the air, saying that he was returning into heaven, and that he would supply them with good things from thence. And the people making acclamations to him, as to a god, I stretched out my hands to heaven, with my mind, and besought God, through the Lord Jesus, to throw down this pestilent fellow, and to destroy the power of those demons who made use of it for the seduction and perdition of men; to dash him against the ground, and bruise him, but not to kill him. And then, fixing my eyes on Simon, I said to him, If I be a man of God, and a real apostle of Jesus Christ, and a teacher of piety, and not of deceit, as thou art, Simon, I command those wicked powers of the apostate from piety, by which Simon the magician is carried, to let go their hold, that he may fall down headlong from his height, and be exposed to the laughter of those who have been seduced by him.

When I had said these words, Simon was deprived of his powers, and fell down headlong with a great noise, and was violently dashed against the ground, and had his hip and ankle-bones broken. And the people cried out, saying, There is one God only, whom Peter rightfully preacheth in truth. And many left him; but some, who were worthy of perdition, continued in his wicked doctrine. And thus this most atheistical heresy was fixed in Rome. The devil wrought also by the rest of the false apostles.

Chapter X – How the Heresies differ from each other, and from the truth

But all these had one and the same design of atheism, to blaspheme Almighty God, to spread their doctrine, that he is an unknown Being, and not the Father of Christ, nor the Creator of the world; but one who cannot be spoken of, ineffable, not to be named, and begotten by himself; that we are not to make use of the Law and the Prophets; that there is no Providence; that we are not to believe in a resurrection; that there is no judgment nor retribution; that the soul is not immortal; that we must indulge only our pleasures, and turn to any sort of worship without distinction. Some of them say that there are many gods; some, that there are three gods without beginning; some, that there are two unbegotten gods; some, that there are innumerable aeons. And some of them teach that men are not to marry, and must abstain from flesh and wine, affirming that marriage, and the begetting of children, and the eating of certain foods, are abominable; that so, as sober persons, they may make their wicked opinions to be received as worthy of belief. But some of them prohibit the eating of flesh, as being the flesh, not of irrational animals, but of creatures that have a rational soul, and as if those that ventured to slay them would be charged with the crime of murder. Others of them, however, affirm that we must abstain only from swine’s flesh, but may eat such kinds as are clean by the Law; and that we ought to be circumcised, according to the Law, and to believe in Jesus, as in a holy man and a prophet. But others teach men to be impudent in uncleanness, and to abuse the flesh, and to go through all unholy practices, as if this were the only way for the soul to avoid the rulers of this world. Now all these are the instruments of the devil, and the children of wrath.

Chapter XI – An exposition of Apostolic preaching

But we, who are the children of God and the sons of peace, preach the holy and right word of piety, and declare one God only, the Lord of the Law and of the Prophets, the Maker of the world, the Father of Christ; not a being that caused himself or begat himself, as they suppose, but eternal, and without origin, and dwelling in light inaccessible; not second, or third, or one of many, but the only one eternally; not unknown, or that must not be spoken of, but that was preached by the Law and the Prophets; the Almighty, the Supreme Governor of all things, having authority over all; the God and Father of the Only-begotten, and of the First-born of the whole creation; one God, the Father of one Son, not of many; the Source sending forth one Comforter by Christ; the Maker of the other orders, the one Creator of the several creatures by Christ, the same their preserver and legislator by him; the author of the resurrection and of the judgment, and of the retribution which shall be made by him; and that this Son himself was pleased to become man, and lived among men without sin, and suffered, and rose from the dead, and returned to Him that sent him.

We also say that every creature of God is good, and nothing abominable; that everything for the support of life, when partaken of righteously, is excellent. For, according to the Scripture, all things were very good. We believe that lawful marriage, and the begetting of children, is honorable and undefiled; for difference of sexes in Adam and Eve was formed for the increase of mankind. We abhor all unlawful mixtures, and that which is practised by some against nature, as wicked and impious.

We acknowledge a soul within us, incorporeal and immortal; not corruptible, as bodies are, but immortal, as being rational and free. We profess that there will be a resurrection, both of the just and of the unjust, and a retribution. We profess that Christ is not a mere man, but God the Word and man, the Mediator between God and man, the High Priest of the Father. Nor are we circumcised with the Jews; since we know that he is come to whom it was reserved, and on whose account the families were kept distinct, the expectation of the Gentiles, Jesus Christ, who sprang out of Judah, the Son from the Branch, the Flower from Jesse, whose government is upon his shoulder.

Chapter XII – To those that confess Christ, but are desirous to Judaize

But because this heresy seemed then to be the more powerful to seduce men, and the whole church was in danger, we, the Twelve, being assembled at Jerusalem (for Matthias was chosen to be an apostle, in the room of the betrayer, and took the lot of Judas, as it is said, His bishopric let another take), deliberated, together with James the Lord’s brother, what was to be done; and it seemed good to him, and to the elders, to speak to the people words of doctrine. For certain men went down from Judea to Antioch, and taught the brethren who were there, saying, Unless ye be circumcised after the manner of Moses, and walk according to the other customs which he ordained, ye cannot be saved.

There having been, therefore, no small dissension and disputation, the brethren who were at Antioch, when they knew that we were all met together about this question, sent forth unto us men who were faithful and understanding in the Scriptures, to learn concerning this question. And these, when they were come to Jerusalem, declared to us what questions had arisen in the church of Antioch; namely, that some said, Men ought to be circumcised, and to observe the other purifications.

And when some said one thing, and some another, I, Peter, stood up, and said to them, Men and brethren, ye know how that from ancient days God made choice among you that the Gentiles should hear the Word of the Gospel by my mouth, and believe; and God, who knoweth the hearts, bare them witness. For an angel of the Lord appeared on a certain time to Cornelius, who was a centurion of the Roman government, and spake to him concerning me, that he should send for me, and hear the word of life from my mouth. He therefore sent for me from Joppa to Caesarea of Strato; and when I was ready to go to him, I would have eaten; and while they made ready, I was in the upper room praying, and I saw heaven opened, and a vessel, knit at the four corners like a splendid sheet, let down to the earth, wherein were all manner of four-footed beasts, and creeping things of the earth, and fowls of the heaven. And there came a voice out of heaven to me, saying, Arise, Peter, kill and eat. And I said, By no means, Lord; for I have never eaten anything common or unclean. And there came a voice a second time, saying, What God hath cleansed, that call not thou common. And this was done thrice; and the vessel was received up again into heaven. But as I doubted what this vision should mean, the spirit said to me, Behold, men seek thee. But rise up, and go with them, nothing doubting; for I have sent them.

These men were those who came from the centurion, and so by reasoning I understood the word of the Lord, which is written, Whosoever shall call on the name of the Lord shall be saved. And again, All the ends of the earth shall remember, and turn unto the Lord, and all the families of the Heathen shall worship before him; for the kingdom is the Lord’s, and he is the Governor of the nations. And observing that there were expressions everywhere concerning the calling of the Gentiles, I rose up, and went with them, and entered into the man’s house. And while I was Preaching the word, the Holy Spirit fell on him, and on those that were with him, as it did on us at the beginning; and he put no difference between us and them, purifying their hearts by faith. And I perceived that God is no respecter of persons, but that in every nation he that feareth him, and worketh righteousness, will be accepted with him. But even the believers, who were of the circumcision, were astonished at this. Now, therefore, why tempt ye God to lay a heavy yoke upon the neck of the disciples, which neither we nor our fathers were able to bear? But we believe that, through the grace of the Lord, we shall be saved even as they. For the Lord hath loosed us from our bonds, and hath made our burden light, and hath loosed the heavy yoke from us by his clemency.

While I spake these things, the whole multitude kept silence. But James, the Lord’s brother, answered and said, Men and brethren, hearken unto me. Simeon hath declared how God at first visited to take out a people from the Gentiles to his name. And to this agree the words of the prophets, as it is written, Afterwards I will return, and will raise again and rebuild the tabernacle of David, which is fallen down; and I will rebuild its ruins, and will again set it up, that the residue of men may seek after the Lord, and all the nations upon whom my name is called, saith the Lord, who doeth these things. Known unto God are all his works from the beginning of the world. Wherefore my sentence is, that we do not trouble those who from among the Gentiles turn unto God; but that we write to them that they abstain from the pollutions of the Gentiles, and from what is sacrificed to idols, and from blood, and from things strangled, and from fornication. Which laws were given to the ancients, who lived before the Law, under the law of nature, Enos, Enoch, Noah, Melchisedek, Job, and if there be any other of the same sort.

Then it seemed good to us, the apostles, and to James the bishop, and to the elders, with the whole church, to send men chosen from among our own selves, with Barnabas and Paul of Tarsus, the apostle of the Gentiles, and Judas, who was called Barsabbas, and Silas, chief men among the brethren; and we wrote by their hand as followeth: The Apostles and Elders to the brethren who are of the Gentiles in Antioch, and Syria, and Cilicia, send greeting. Since we have heard that some from us have troubled you with words, subverting your souls, to whom we gave no such commandment, it hath seemed good to us, when we were met together with one accord, to send chosen men to you, with our beloved Barnabas and Paul, men who have hazarded their lives for our Lord Jesus Christ, and by whom ye sent unto us. We have sent also with them Judas and Silas, who shall themselves declare the same things by mouth. For it seemed good to the Holy Ghost and to us to lay no other burden upon you than these necessary things: that ye abstain from things offered to idols, and from blood, and from things strangled, and from fornication. From which things, if ye keep yourselves, ye shall do well. Fare ye well.

We accordingly sent this epistle; but we ourselves remained in Jerusalem many days, consulting together for the public benefit, for the well ordering of all things.

Chapter XIII – That we must separate from Heretics

But after a long time we visited the brethren, and confirmed them with the word of piety, and charged them to avoid those who, under the name of Christ and Moses, war against Christ and Moses, and in the clothing of sheep hide the wolf. For these are false Christs, and false prophets, and false apostles; deceivers and corrupters, portions of foxes, the destroyers of the herbs of the vineyards; for whose sake the love of many will wax cold. But he that endureth steadfast to the end, the same shall be saved. Concerning whom, that he might secure us, the Lord declared, saying, There will come to you men in sheep’s clothing, but inwardly they are ravening wolves. Ye shall know them by their fruits. Beware of them. For false Christs and false prophets shall arise, and shall deceive many.

Chapter XIV – Who were the preachers of the Catholic Doctrine, and which are the commandments given by them

On whose account, also, we who are now assembled in one place, Peter and Andrew, James and John, sons of Zebedee, Philip and Bartholomew, Thomas and Matthew, James the son of Alpheus, and Lebbeus who was surnamed Thaddeus, and Simon the Cananite, and Matthias, who, instead of Judas, was numbered with us; James the brother of the Lord, and Bishop of Jerusalem, and Paul the teacher of the Gentiles, the chosen vessel, all being present, have written to you this Catholic Doctrine, for the confirmation of you to whom the oversight of the church universal is committed; wherein we declare to you that there is only one God Almighty, besides whom there is no other; and that ye must worship and adore him only, through Jesus Christ our Lord, in the most Holy Spirit; that ye are to make use of the Sacred Scriptures, the Law and the Prophets; to honor your parents; to avoid all unlawful actions; to believe in the resurrection and the judgment, and to expect the retribution; and to use all his creatures with thankfulness, as the works of God, and having no evil in them; and to marry after a lawful manner, for such marriage is unblamable. For the woman is suited to the man by the Lord. And the Lord saith, He that made them from the beginning made them male and female, and said, For this cause shall a man leave his father and his mother, and shall cleave to his wife, and they two shall be one flesh. Nor let it be esteemed lawful after marriage to put her away who is without blame. For, saith he, Thou shalt take heed to thy spirit, and shalt not forsake the wife of thy youth; for she is the partner of thy life, and the remains of thy spirit. I, and no other, have made her. For the Lord saith, What God hath joined together let not man put asunder.

For the wife is the partner of life, united by God into one body from two. But he that divideth that again into two, which is become one, is the enemy of the creation of God, and the adversary of his providence. In like manner, he that retaineth her that is corrupted, is a transgressor of the law of nature; since he that retaineth an adulteress is foolish and wicked. For the Scripture saith, Cut her off from thy flesh; for she is not a help, but a snare, bending her mind from thee to another.

Nor be ye circumcised in your flesh; but let the circumcision which is of the heart by the spirit suffice for the faithful. For the Scripture saith, Be ye circumcised to your God; and circumcise the foreskin of your hearts.

XV – That we ought neither to rebaptize, nor to receive that baptism which is given by the wicked; which is not baptism, but pollution

Be ye likewise contented with one baptism alone, that which is into the death of the Lord; not that which is conferred by wicked heretics, but that which is conferred by unblamable priests in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost; and let not that which cometh from the ungodly be received by you, nor let that which is done by the godly be annulled by a second. For as there is one God, one Christ, and one Comforter, and one death of the Lord in the body, so let the baptism which is given into that death be one. But those that receive polluted baptism from the ungodly, will become partners in their opinions. For they are not priests; for God saith to them, Because thou hast rejected knowledge, I will also reject thee from the office of a priest to me. Nor indeed are those that are baptized by them initiated, but polluted; not receiving the remission of sins, but the bond of impiety. And besides, they that attempt to rebaptize those who are already initiated, crucify the Lord afresh; slay him a second time; laugh at divine and ridicule holy things; affront the Spirit; dishonor the sacred blood of Christ, as common blood; are impious against Him that sent, Him that suffered, and Him that witnessed.

But also he that, out of contempt, will not be baptized, shall be condemned as an unbeliever, and shall be reproached as ungrateful and foolish. For the Lord saith, Except a man be baptized of water and of the Spirit, he shall by no means enter into the kingdom of heaven. And again, He that believeth, and is baptized, shall be saved; but he that believeth not shall be damned.: But he that saith, When I am dying, I will be baptized, lest I should sin, and defile my baptism, is ignorant of God, and forgetful of his own nature. For, Delay not to turn unto the Lord; for thou knowest not what the next day will bring forth.

Moreover, baptize your children, and bring them up in the nurture and admonition of God. For the Saviour saith, Suffer the  little children to come unto me, and forbid them not.

Chapter XVI – Concerning books with false inscriptions

We have written all these things to you, that ye may know our decree, what it is; and that ye may not receive those books which have been fabricated in our name by the ungodly. For ye are not to attend to the names of the apostles, but to the nature of the things, and the correct decision. For we know that Simon and Cleobius, and their followers, have compiled poisonous books under the name of Christ and of his disciples, and carry them about in order to deceive you who love Christ and us his servants. And among the ancients, also, some have written apocryphal books of Moses, and Enoch, and Adam, and Isaiah, and David, and Elias, and of the three patriarchs; pernicious, and repugnant to the truth. And such things now have the wicked heretics done; reproaching the creation, marriage, providence, the begetting of children, the law, and the prophets; inscribing certain barbarous names, and, as they think, of angels, but, to speak the truth, of demons, who suggest things to them: whose doctrine eschew, that ye may not be partakers of the punishment due to those who write such things for the seduction and perdition of the faithful and unblamable disciples of the Lord Jesus.

Chapter XVII – Matrimonial precepts concerning Clergymen

We have said that a Bishop, and a Presbyter, and a Deacon, when they are constituted, must be but once married. whether their wives be alive, or whether they be dead; and that it is not lawful for them, if they be unmarried when they are ordained, to be married afterwards; or if they be then already married, to be married a second time; but that they should be content with the wife whom they had when they came to ordination.

We also command that the Attendants, and the Singers, and the Readers, and the Porters, be only once married. But if they entered into the clergy before they were married, we permit them to marry, if they have an inclination thereto, lest they sin, and incur punishment.

But we do not permit anyone of the clergy to marry a prostitute, or a slave, or a widow, or one that is divorced; as also saith the Law.

Let the Deaconess be a pure virgin, or, at the least, a widow who hath been but once married, faithful, and well-esteemed.

Chapter XVIII – An exhortation commanding to avoid the communion of the impious Heretics

Receive ye the penitent; for this is the will of God in Christ. Instruct the catechumens in the elements of religion, and then baptize them. Eschew the atheistical Heretics, who are past repentance, and separate them from the faithful, and excommunicate them from the church of God; and charge the faithful to abstain entirely from them, and not to partake with them either in sermons or in prayers. For these men are enemies to the church, and lay snares for it; men who corrupt the flock, and defile the heritage of Christ; pretenders only to wisdom, and wholly depraved: concerning whom Solomon the Wise said, The wicked doers pretend to act piously. For, saith he, There is a way which seemeth right to some, but the ends thereof look to the bottom of hell. These are they concerning whom the Lord declared his mind with bitterness and severity, saying that they are false Christs and false prophets, who have blasphemed the Spirit of grace, and done despite to the gift from him, after the grace [of baptism]; to whom forgiveness shall not be granted, neither in this world, nor in that which is to come; who are both more wicked than the Jews, and more atheistical than the Gentiles; who blaspheme the God over all, and tread under foot his Son, and do despite to the doctrine of the Spirit; who deny the words of God, or pretend hypocritically to receive them, to the affronting of God, and the deceiving of those that come among them; who abuse the Holy Scriptures, and, as for righteousness, know not what it is; who spoil the church of God, as the little foxes do the vineyards; whom we exhort you to avoid, lest ye lay traps for your own souls.

Indeed, He that walketh with wise men shall be wise; but he that walketh with the foolish shall be known. For we ought neither to run along with a thief, nor put in our lot with an adulterer; since holy David saith, Lord, I have hated them that hate thee; and I am withered away on account of thine enemies. I hated them with a perfect hatred: they were to me as enemies. And God reproacheth Jehosaphat with his friendship towards Ahab, and his league with him, and with Ahaziah, by the prophet Jehu, the son of Hanani, saying, Art thou in friendship with a sinner? or dost thou aid him that is hated by the Lord? For this cause the wrath of the Lord would be upon thee suddenly, but that thy heart is found perfect with the Lord. For this cause the Lord hath spared thee. Yet are thy works shattered, and thy ships broken to pieces.

Eschew, therefore, their fellowship, and be estranged from peace with them. For concerning them the prophet declared, saying, it is not lawful to rejoice with the ungodly, saith the Lord. For these are hidden wolves, dumb dogs that cannot bark; who at present are but few, but in process of time, when the end of the world draweth nigh, they will be more in number and more troublesome; concerning whom the Lord said, Will the Son of man, when he comeih, find faith on the earth? And, Because iniquity shall abound, the love of many shall wax cold. And, There shall come false Christs and false prophets, and shall show signs in heaven, so as, if it were possible, to deceive even the elect; but from their deceit God, through Jesus Christ, who is our hope, will deliver us.

And indeed, as we passed through the nations and confirmed the churches, curing some with much exhortation and with healing discourse, we brought them back when they were in the certain way to death. But those that were incurable we cast out from the flock, that they might not infect with their scabby disease the lambs which were sound; but that these might continue before the Lord God pure and undefiled, sound and unspotted. And this we did in every city, everywhere through the whole world, and have left to you the Bishops, and to the rest of the Priests, this catholic doctrine worthily and righteously, as a memorial of confirmation to those who have believed in God; and we have sent it by our fellow-minister Clement, our most faithful and like-minded son in the Lord, together with Barnabas, and Timothy our most dearly beloved son, and the genuine Mark. Together with whom we recommend to you also Titus, and Luke, and Jason, and Lucius, and Sosipater; by whom also we exhort you in the Lord to abstain from your old manner of life, vain bonds, separations, observances, distinction of meats, and daily washings. For old things are passed away; behold, all things are become new.

Chapter XIX – To those who speak evil of the Law

For since ye have known God, through Jesus Christ, and all his dispensation, as it hath been from the beginning; that he gave a plain Law to assist the law of nature, such a one as is pure, salutary, and holy, in which he inscribed his own name; perfect, unfailing, complete in ten commands, unspotted, converting souls; which when the Hebrews forgot, he put them in mind of it by the prophet Malachi, saying, Remember ye the Law of Moses, the man of God, who gave you in charge commandments and ordinances. Which Law is so very holy and righteous, that even our Saviour, when on a certain time he healed one leper, and afterwards nine, said to the first, Go, show thyself to the high priest, and offer the gift which Moses commanded, for a testimony unto them; and afterwards to the nine, Go, show yourselves to the priests.

For nowhere hath he abrogated the Law, as Simon pretendeth, but he hath fulfilled it; for he saith, One jot or one tittle shall not pass from the law, until all be fulfilled. For, saith he,  I came not to destroy the law, but to fulfil it. And indeed Moses himself, who was at once the lawgiver and the high priest, and the prophet and the king, and Elias, the zealous follower of the prophets, were present at our Lord’s transfiguration on the mountain, and witnesses of his incarnation and of his sufferings, as the friends and familiars of Christ, but not as enemies and strangers. Whence it is manifest that the Law is good and holy, as also the prophets.

Chapter XX – Which is the Law of Nature, and which is that afterwards introduced; and why it was introduced

Now the Law is the Decalogue, which the Lord promulgated to them with an audible voice, before the people made that calf which represented the Egyptian Apis. And the Law is righteous, and therefore is called the Law because its judgments are rightly made, according to nature; but the followers of Simon despise it, supposing that they shall not be judged thereby, and so shall escape punishment. This Law is good, holy, not forced; for it saith, If If thou wilt, make me an altar, thou shalt make it of earth. It doth not say, Make one; but, If thou wilt make. It doth not impose a necessity, but gave leave to their power as being free. For God needeth not sacrifices, since he is by nature above all want. But knowing that, as of old, Abel, beloved of God, and Noah, and Abraham, and those that succeeded, without being required, but only moved of themselves by the law of nature, offered sacrifice to God, out of a grateful mind; so he now permitted the Hebrews, not commanding, but if they chose, permitting them; and, if they offered from a right intention, showing himself pleased with their sacrifices. Therefore he saith, If thou desirest to offer, do not offer to me as to one that needeth, for I stand in need of nothing; for the world is mine, and the fulness thereof.

But when the people became forgetful of this, and called upon a calf as God, instead of the true God, and to him ascribed the cause of their coming out of Egypt, saying, These are thy gods, Israel, who have brought thee out of the land of Egypt; and when these men had committed wickedness with the similitude of a calf that eateth hay, and denied God, who had visited them by Moses, in their afflictions, and had done signs with his hand and rod, and had smitten the Egyptians with ten plagues; who had divided the waters of the Red Sea into two parts; who had led them in the midst of the water, as a horse upon the plain; who had drowned their enemies, and those that lay in wait for them; who, at Marah, had made sweet the bitter fountain; who had brought water out of the abrupt rock, till they were satisfied; who had overshadowed them with a pillar of a cloud, on account of the immoderate heat, and with a pillar of fire, which enlightened and guided them, when they knew not which way they were to go; who gave them manna from heaven, and gave them quails for flesh, from the sea; who gave them the Law in the mountain; whose voice they were deemed worthy to hear.

Him they denied, saying to Aaron, Make us gods who shall go before us. And they made a molten calf, and sacrificed to an idol. Then God was angry, as being ungratefully treated by them; and he bound them with bonds which could not be loosed, with a mortifying burden and a hard collar, and no longer said, If thou makest, but Make an altar, and sacrifice perpetually; for thou art forgetful and ungrateful. Offer burnt-offerings, therefore, continually, that thou mayest be mindful of me. For since thou hast wickedly abused thy power, I lay a necessity upon thee for the time to come; and I command thee to abstain from certain meats; and I ordain thee the distinction of clean and unclean creatures, although every creature is good, as being made by me. And I appoint thee several separations, purgations, frequent washings and sprinklings, and several times of rest; and if thou neglect any of them, I determine that punishment which is proper to the disobedient; that, being pressed and galled by thy collar, thou mayest depart from the error of polytheism, and, laying aside the declaration, These are thy gods, Israel, mayest be mindful of this, Hear, Israel, the Lord our God is one Lord; and mayest hasten back again to that law which is imparted by me to all men naturally, That there is only one God in heaven and on earth; and that it is thy duty to love him with all thy heart, and all thy might, and all thy mind; and to fear none but him, nor to admit the names of other gods into thy mind, nor to let thy tongue utter them out of thy mouth.

On account of the hardness of their hearts, he bound them, that by sacrificing, and by resting, and by purifications, and the like, they might come to the knowledge of God, who ordained these things for them.

Chapter XXI – That we, who believe in Christ, are under grace, and not under the

servitude of that additional Law

Blessed are your eyes, for they see; and your ears, for they hear; ye who have believed in the one God, not by necessity, but by a sound understanding, in obedience to Him that called you. For ye are released from the bonds, and freed from the servitude. For, saith he, I call you no longer servants, but friends; for all things that I have heard of my Father, have I made known unto you. For to them that would not see nor hear, not for the want of those senses, but for the excess of their wickedness, have statutes that were not good, and judgments whereby they should not live; “not good,” however, in their view: as instruments for burning, and the knife, and medicines, are esteemed enemies by the sick; and “impossible to be observed,” on account of their obstinacy. Whence also those statutes brought death upon them, being not obeyed.

Chapter XXII – That the Law for sacrifices is additional, which Christ, when he came, took away

Ye, therefore, are blessed, who are delivered from the curse; for Christ, the Son of God, by his coming, hath strengthened and completed the Law. He hath taken away the additional precepts, although not all of them, yet, at least, the more grievous ones; having confirmed the Law, and having caused these to cease; and he hath again set free the self-government of men, not subjecting it to the punishment of a temporal death, but requiring an account in another state. Wherefore he saith, If any man will come after me, let him.  And again, Will ye also go away?

And, besides, before his coming, he refused the sacrifices of the people, while they frequently offered them, when they sinned against him, and thought that he was to be appeased by sacrifices, and not by repentance. For he saith thus, Why dost thou bring to me frankincense from Saba, and cinnamon from a remote land? Your burnt-offerings are not acceptable, and your sacrifices are not sweet to me. And afterwards, Gather your burnt-offerings together, with your sacrifices, and eat flesh; because I did not command you, when I brought you out of the land of Egypt, concerning burnt-offerings and sacrifices. And he saith by Isaiah, To what purpose do ye bring me a multitude of sacrifices? I am full of the burnt-offerings of rams, and I will not accept the fat of lambs, and the blood of bulls and of goats. Nor come ye to appear before me; for who hath required these things at your hands? Tread my courts no more. If ye bring me fine flour, it is vain. Incense is an abomination unto me. Your new moons, and your Sabbaths, and your great day, I cannot endure. Your fasts, and your rests, and your feasts, my soul hateth. I am overfull of them. And he saith by another, Depart from me. The sound of thy hymns, and the psalms of thy musical instruments, I will not hear. And Samuel said to Saul, when he thought to sacrifice, Obedience is better than sacrifice; and hearkening, than the fat of rams. For, behold, the Lord doth not so much delight in sacrifice, as in obeying him. And he saith by David, I will take no calves out of thy house, nor he-goats out of thy flock. If I should be hungry, I would not tell thee; for the whole world is mine, and the fulness thereof. Shall I eat the flesh of bulls, or drink the blood of goats? Sacrifice to God the sacrifice of praise, and pay thy vows to the Most High.

And in all the Scriptures, in like manner, he refuseth their sacrifices on account of their sinning against him. For the sacrifices of the wicked are an abomination with the Lord, since they offer them in an unlawful manner. And again, Their sacrifices are to them as bread of lamentation. All that eat of them shall be defiled. If, therefore, before his coming, he sought for a clean heart and a contrite spirit, more than sacrifices, much rather did he abrogate those sacrifices, we mean those by blood, when he came.

Yet he so abrogated them, as that he first fulfilled them. For he was both circumcised and sprinkled; and he offered sacrifices and whole burnt-offerings, and made use of the rest of the customs. And he that was the lawgiver became himself the fulfilling of the Law, not taking away the natural law, but abrogating those additional precepts that were afterwards introduced, although not all of them.

Chapter XXIII  – How Christ became a Fulfiller of the Law; and what parts of it he caused to cease, or changed, or transferred

For he did not take away the law of nature, but confirmed it. For he that said in the Law, The Lord thy God is one Lord, the same said in the Gospel, That they might know thee the only true God. And he that said, Thou shalt love thy neighbor as thyself, saith in the Gospel, renewing the same precept, A new commandment I give unto you, that ye love one another. He who then forbade murder, now forbiddeth causeless anger. He that forbade adultery, now forbiddeth all unlawful lust. He that forbade stealing, now pronounceth him most happy who, out of his own labors, supplieth the needy. He that forbade hatred, now requireth love, even towards enemies. He that limited retaliation, now requireth long-suffering, not as if just retaliation were an unjust thing, but because long-suffering is better. Nor did he make laws to destroy our natural passions, but only to forbid the excess of them. He who had commanded to honor parents, was himself subject to them. He who commanded to keep the Sabbath, by resting thereon, for the sake of meditating on the laws, hath now commanded us to consider the law of creation and of providence every day, and give thanks to God. He abrogated circumcision, when he had himself fulfilled it. For he it was to whom the inheritance was reserved, who was the expectation of the nations.

He who made a law for swearing rightly, and forbade perjury, hath now charged us not to swear at all. He hath in several ways changed baptism, sacrifice, the priesthood, and the divine service, which was confined to one place. For, instead of daily baptisms, he hath given only one, which is that into his death. Instead of one tribe, he hath appointed that, out of every nation, the best be ordained for the priesthood; and that not their bodies be examined for blemishes, but their religion and their lives. Instead of a bloody sacrifice, he hath appointed that reasonable, and unbloody, and mystical one of his body and blood, which is performed to represent by symbols the death of the Lord. Instead of the divine service confined to one place, he hath commanded and deemed it fitting that he should be glorified from the rising of the sun even unto the going down of the same, in every place of his dominion.

He did not, therefore, take away the Law from us, but the bonds. For concerning the Law, Moses saith, Thou shalt meditate on the word which I command thee, when thou sittest in thy house, and when thou risest up, and when thou walkest in the way. And David saith, His delight is in the law of the Lord, and in  his law will he meditate day and night. Foreverywhere would he have us subject to his laws, but not transgressors of them. For saith he, Blessed are the undefiled in the way, who walk in the law of the Lord. Blessed are they that search out his testimonies; with their whole heart shall they seek him. And again, Blessed are we, Israel, because those things that are pleasing to God are known to us. And the Lord saith, If ye know these things, happy are ye if ye do them.

Chapter XXIV – That it pleased the Lord that the law of righteousness should be manifested also by Romans

Nor doth he desire that the law of righteousness should be exhibited through us only; but he is pleased that through Romans also it should appear and shine. For these also, when they have believed on the Lord, have withdrawn both from polytheism and from injustice; and they approve the good, and punish the bad. But they hold the Jews under tribute, and do not suffer them to make use of their own ordinances .

Chapter XXV – How God, on account of their impiety towards Christ, made the Jews captives , and placed them under tribute

Because, indeed, they drew servitude upon themselves voluntarily, wnen they said, We have no king but Ccesar. And, If we do not slay Christ, all men will believe on him; and the Romans will come, and will take away both our place and nation. And so they prophesied unwittingly; for, indeed, the Gentiles have believed on him; and they themselves have been deprived by the Romans of their power and of their legal worship. They are also forbidden to slay whom they please, and to sacrifice when they will. Wherefore they are accursed, not being able to perform the things commanded. For saith the Scripture, Cursed is he that continueth not in all things which are written in the book of the law to do them. Now, it is impossible for them, in their dispersion, while they are among the heathen, to perform all things in their law. For the divine Moses forbiddeth both to rear an altar out of Jerusalem, and to read the law out of the bounds of Judea.

Let us therefore follow Christ, that we may inherit his blessings. Let us walk after the Law and the Prophets, by the Gospel. Let us eschew the worshippers of many gods, and the murderers of Christ, and the murderers of the prophets, and the wicked and atheistical heretics. Let us be obedient to Christ, as to our king, as having authority to change various constitutions, and having, as a legislator, wisdom to make new constitutions in different circumstances; yet so that everywhere the laws of nature be immutably preserved.

Chapter XXVI – That we ought to avoid the heretics, as the corrupters of souls

Therefore, Bishops, and ye of the laity, avoid all heretics, who abuse the Law and the Prophets. For they are enemies to Almighty God, and disobey him, and do not confess Christ to be the Son of God. For they also deny his generation according to the flesh; they are ashamed of his cross; they abuse his passion and death; they know not his resurrection; they take away his generation before all ages. Besides, some of them are impious after another manner, imagining the Lord to be a mere man; supposing him to consist of a soul and a body. But others of them suppose that Jesus himself is the God over all, and glorify him as being his own Father, and suppose him to be both the Son and the Comforter; than which doctrines what can be more impious? Others, again, of them refuse certain meats, and say that marriage, with the procreation of children, is evil, and the contrivance of the devil; and, being ungodly themselves, they are not willing to rise again, on account of their wickedness. Wherefore also they ridicule the resurrection, and say, “We are holy people,” unwilling to eat and to drink; and they fancy that from the dead they shall arise, spirits without flesh, who shall be condemned forever in eternal fire. Fly, therefore, from them, lest ye perish with them in their impieties.

Chapter XXVII – Of some Jewish and Gentile observances

Now if any persons keep to the Jewish observances concerning gonorrhoeas and nocturnal pollutions, and the lawful conjugal acts; let them tell us whether, in those hours or days when they undergo any such thing, they observe not to pray, or to touch a sacred book, or to partake of the Eucharist? And if they own it to be so, it is plain that they are void of the Holy Spirit, which always continueth with the faithful. For concerning holy persons Solomon saith, That every one may prepare himself, that so when he sleepeth, it may keep him; and when he ariseth, it may talk with him.

For if thou thinkest, woman, when thou art seven days in thy separation, that thou art void of the Holy Spirit, then, if thou die suddenly, thou wilt depart void of the Spirit, and without assured hope in God. Or indeed thou hast the Spirit altogether inseparable, as not being in a place. And it is suitable for thee to offer prayer, and receive the Eucharist, and enjoy the coming of the Holy Spirit, as having been guilty of no fault in this matter. For neither lawful mixture, nor child-bearing, nor the menstrual purgation, nor nocturnal pollution, can defile the nature of a man, or separate the Holy Spirit from him. Nothing but wickedness and unlawful practice can do that. For the Holy Spirit always abideth with those who are possessed of it, so long as they are worthy; and those from whom it is departed, it leaveth desolate, and exposed to the wicked spirit.

Now every man is filled either with the Holy or with the Unclean Spirit; and it is not possible to avoid both the one and the other, unless they can receive opposite spirits. For the Comforter hateth every lie, and the devil hateth all truth. But every one that is baptized agreeably to the truth is separated from the Diabolical Spirit, and is under the Holy Spirit; and the Holy Spirit remaineth with him, so long as he is doing good, and filleth him with wisdom and understanding, and suffereth not the wicked spirit to approach him, but watcheth over his goings.

If, therefore, woman, as thou sayest, thou art, in the days of thy separation, void of the Holy Spirit, thou art filled with the unclean one; for, by neglecting to pray and to read, thou wilt invite him to thee, though he were unwilling. For this spirit, if any other, loveth the ungrateful, the slothful, the careless, and the drowsy, since he himself by ingratitude was distempered with an evil mind, and was deprived by God of his dignity; having chosen to be a devil, instead of an archangel. Wherefore, woman, eschew such vain words, and be ever mindful of God that created thee, and pray to him. For he is thy Lord, and the Lord of the universe; and meditate on his laws, observing nothing superstitiously, neither the natural purgation, nor lawful mixture, nor childbirth, nor a miscarriage, nor a blemish of the body; since such observances are the vain and unreasonable inventions of foolish men.

Neither the burial of a man, nor a dead man’s bone, nor a sepulchre, nor any particular sort of food, nor nocturnal pollution, can defile the soul of man; but only impiety towards God, and transgression and injustice towards one’s neighbor; I mean rapine, violence, or if there be anything contrary to his righteousness, as adultery or fornication.

Wherefore, beloved, avoid and eschew such observances; for they are heathenish. For we do not abominate a dead man as the heathen do, since we hope that he will live again. Nor do we hate lawful mixture; for it is their practice to be wicked in such things. For the conjunction of man and wife, if it be with righteousness, is agreeable to the mind of God. For he that made them at the beginning made them male and female; and he blessed them, and said, Increase and multiply, and fill the earth. If, therefore, the difference of sexes was made by the will of God for the generation of multitudes, then must the conjunction of male and female be also agreeable to his mind.

Chapter XXVIII – Of the love of boys, adultery, and fornication

But we do not say so of that mixture which is contrary to nature, or of any unlawful practice; for such are enmity to God. For the sin of Sodom is contrary to nature, as is also that with irrational animals; but adultery and fornication are against the Law. Of which vices the first-mentioned are impieties; one of the others is an injustice, and the last is a sin. But none of them is without its punishment according to its own nature.

For the practisers of the first sort of lewdness attempt the dissolution of the world, and endeavor to make the natural course of things change for one that is unnatural. But those of the second sort, the adulterers, are unjust, by corrupting others’ marriages, and dividing into two what God hath made one, rendering the children suspected, and exposing the true husband to the snares of others. And fornication is the destruction of one’s own flesh, as it is done not for the procreation of children, but entirely for the sake of pleasure; which is a mark of incontinency, and not a sign of virtue.

Moreover, all these things are forbidden by the Law; for thus say the oracles: Thou shalt not lie with mankind as with womankind; for such a one is accursed; and ye shall stone them with stones. They have wrought abomination. Everyone  that lieth with a beast, slay ye him. He hath wrought wickedness in his people. And if anyone defile a married woman, slay ye them both. They have wrought wickedness; they are guilty; let them die. And afterwards, There shall not be a fornicator among the sons of Israel, and there shall not be a fornicatress among the daughters of Israel. Thou shalt not offer the hire of a harlot to the Lord thy God upon the altar, nor the price of a dog. For the vows arising from the hire of a harlot are not clean.

These things the laws have forbidden; but they have honored marriage, and have called it blessed; since God hath blessed it, who joined male and female together. And wise Solomon somewhere saith, A wife is suited to her husband by the Lord; and David saith, Thy wife is like a flourishing vine by the sides of thy house; thy children, like olive branches round about thy table. Behold, thus shall the man be blessed that feareth the Lord.

Wherefore marriage is honorable, and comely, and the begetting of children pure; for there is no evil in that which is good. Therefore neither is the natural purgation abominable before God, who hath ordered it to happen to women within the space of thirty days for their advantage and healthful state, who are more confined than men, as keeping usually at home in the house. Nay more, in the Gospel, where the woman with the perpetual purgation of blood touched the saving border of the Lord’s garment, in hope of being healed, he was not angry at her, nor did he complain of her at all. But, on the contrary, he healed her, saying, Thy faith hath saved thee. When the natural purgations appear in the wives, let not their husbands approach them, out of regard to the children to be begotten; for the Law hath forbidden it. For it saith, Thou shalt not come near your wife when she is in her separation, or indeed let them frequent their wives’ company when they are with child. For they do this, not for the begetting of children, but for the sake of pleasure. Now a lover of God ought not to be a lover of pleasure.

Chapter XXIX – How Wives ought to be subject to their own Husbands, and Husbands to love their own Wives

Ye wives, be subject to your own husbands, and have them in esteem, and serve them with fear and love, as holy Sarah honored Abraham. For she could not endure to call him by his name; but called him Lord, when she said My Lord is old. In like manner, ye husbands, love your own wives, as your own members, as partners in life, and fellow-helpers for the procreation of children. For the Scripture saith, Rejoice with the wife of thy youth. Let her conversation be to thee as a loving hind, and a pleasant foal; let her alone guide thee, and be with thee at all times. For if thou be every way encompassed with her friendship, thou wilt be happy in her society. Love them, therefore, as your own members, as your very bodies; for so it is written, Ttie Lord hath testified between thee and between the wife of thy youth. And she is thy partner; and another hath not made her; and she is the remains of thy spirit. And, Take ye heed to your spirit; and forsake not thou the wife of thy youth.

A husband, therefore, and a wife, when they company together in lawful marriage, and rise from one another, may pray without any observances; and, without washing, are clean. But whoever corrupteth and defileth another man’s wife, or is defiled with a harlot; when he ariseth up from her, though he wash himself in the entire ocean and all the rivers, cannot be clean.

Chapter XXX – That it is the custom of Jews and , Gentiles to observe natural purgations, and to abominate the remains of the dead; but that all this is contrary to Christianity

Be not scrupulous, therefore, about things ceremonial and natural, as thinking that ye are defiled by them. Nor seek after Jewish separations, nor perpetual washings, nor purifications upon the touch of a dead body. But, without such observances, assemble in the cemeteries, reading the holy books, and singing for the martyrs who are fallen asleep in the Lord, and for all the saints from the beginning of the world, and for your brethren that are asleep in the Lord; and offer the acceptable Eucharist, the representation of the royal body of Christ, both in your churches and in the cemeteries; and, at the funerals of the departed, accompany them forth with songs if they were faithful in Christ. For, Precious in the sight of the Lord is the death of his saints. And again, my soul,  return unto thy rest; for the Lord hath done thee good. And elsewhere, The memory of the just is with encomiums. And, The souls of the righteous are in the hands of God. For those that have believed in God, although they are asleep, are not dead. For our Saviour saith to the Sadducees, But concerning the resurrection of the dead, have ye not read that which is written, I am the God of Abraham, and the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob? God, therefore, is not the God of the dead, but of the living; for all live to him. Wherefore of those that live with God, even the very relics are not without honor. For even Elisha the prophet, after he was fallen asleep, raised up a dead man who had been slain by the pirates of Syria. For his body touched the bones of Elisha, and he arose and lived. Now this would not have happened, unless the body of Elisha were holy. And chaste Joseph embraced Jacob after he was deceased, upon his bed. And Moses and Joshua the son of Nun, carried away the relics of Joseph, and did not esteem this a defilement. Whence ye also, Bishops, and the rest, who, without such observances, touch the departed, ought not to think yourselves defiled. Nor abhor the relics of these persons; but avoid such observances, for they are foolish. And adorn yourselves with holiness and chastity, that ye may become partakers of immortality, and partners of the kingdom of God, and may receive the promise of God, and may rest forever, through Jesus Christ our Saviour.

To him, therefore, who is able to open the ears of your hearts to the receiving of the oracles of God administered to you, both by the Gospel, and by the doctrine of Jesus Christ of Nazareth, who was crucified under Pontius Pilate and Herod, and died, and rose again from the dead; and will come again at the end of the world with power and great glory, and will raise the dead, and put an end to this world, and distribute to everyone according to his deserts; to him who hath given us himself for an earnest of the resurrection; who was taken up into the heavens by the power of his God and Father, in our sight, we having eaten and drunk with him for forty days after he arose from the dead; who is sat down on the right hand of the throne of the majesty of Almighty God upon the cherubim; to whom it was said, Sit thou on my right hand, until I make thine enemies thy footstool; whom the most blessed Stephen saw standing at the right hand of power, and cried out and said, Behold I see the heavens opened, and the Son of Man standing at the right hand of God, as the High Priest of all the rational orders; through him, worship, and majesty, and glory, be given to Almighty God, both now and forever. Amen.

END OF  BOOK VI

BOOK VII – Concerning Deportment, And The Eucharist, And Initiation Into Christ.

Chapter I – That there are two ways; the one natural, of life, and the other introduced afterwards, of death; and that the former is from God, and the latter of error, from the snares of the adversary

THE lawgiver Moses said to the Israelites, Behold, I have set before your face the way of life and the way of death; and added, Choose life, that thou mayest live. Elijah the prophet also said to the people, How long will ye halt with  both your legs? If the Lord be God, follow him. The Lord Jesus also said justly, No one can serve two masters; for  either he will hate the one, and love the other; or else he will hold to the one, and despise the other. We also, following our Master Christ, who is the Saviour of all men, especially of those that believe, are obliged to say that there are two ways, the one of life, the other of death: which have no comparison one with another; for they are very different, or rather entirely separate. And the way of life is natural, but that of death was afterwards introduced; it not being according to the mind of God, but from the snares of the adversary.

Chapter II – Moral exhortations of the Lord’s constitutions agreeing with the ancient prohibitions of the divine Law; The prohibition of anger, corruption, adultery, and every forbidden action

The first way, therefore, is that of life, and is this, which the Law also appointeth, To love the Lord God with all thy mind, and with all thy soul, who is the one and only God, besides whom there is no other; and thy neighbor as thyself. And whatsoever thou art unwilling to have done to thee, that do not thou to another. Bless them that curse you; Pray for them that despitefully use you. Love your enemies . For what thanks is it if ye love those that love you? For even the Gentiles do the same. But love ye those that hate you, and ye shall have no enemy. For it saith, Thou shalt not hate any man, no, not an Egyptian, nor an Edomite. For they are all the workmanship of God. Avoid not the persons, but the sentiments, of the wicked. Abstain from fleshly and worldly lusts.

If  anyone smite thee on thy right cheek, turn to him the other also. Not that retaliation is evil, but that patience is more honorable. For David saith, If I have made returns to them that repaid me evil. If anyone compel thee to go a  mile, go with him twain. And he that will sue thee at the law, and take away thy coat, let him have thy cloak also. And from him that taketh thy goods require them not again.

Give to him that asketh thee, and from him that would borrow of thee turn not thou away and shut thy hand. For the righteous man is compassionate, and lendeth. For your Father would have you give to all, who himself  maketh his sun to rise on the evil and on the good, and sendeth his rain on the just and on the unjust. It is therefore reasonable to give to all out of thine own labors. For the Scripture saith,  Honor the Lord out of thy righteous labors; but so that the saints be preferred.

Thou shalt not kill; that is, thou shalt not destroy a man like thyself; for thou dissolvest what was well made. Not as if all killing were wicked, but only that of the innocent; but the killing which is just, is reserved to the magistrates alone.

Thou shalt not commit adultery; for thou dividest one flesh into two. They two shall be one flesh. For the husband and  wife are one in nature, in consent, in union, in disposition, and the conduct of life. But they are separated in sex and in number.

Thou shalt not corrupt boys; for this wickedness is contrary to nature, and arose from Sodom, which was consumed with fire sent from God. Let such a one be accursed; and all the people shall say, So be it.

Thou shalt not commit fornication. For the Scripture saith, There shall not be a fornicator among the sons of Israel.

Thou shalt not steal. For Achan, when he had stolen in Israel at Jericho, was stoned to death; and Gehazi, who stole, and told a lie, inherited the leprosy of Naaman; and Judas, who stole the money of the poor, betrayed the Lord of glory to the Jews, and repented, and hanged himself, and burst asunder in the midst, and all his bowels gushed out; and Ananias and Sapphira his wife, who stole their own goods, and tempted the Spirit of the Lord, were immediately, at the sentence of Peter our fellow-apostle, struck dead.

 Chapter III – Prohibition of conjuring, murder of infants, perjury, and false witness

Thou shalt not use magic. Thou shalt not use witchcraft. For the Scripture saith, Ye shall not suffer those to live who practise sorcery.

Thou shalt not slay thy child by causing abortion, nor kill that which is begotten. Foreverything that is shaped, and hath received a soul from God, if it be slain, shall be avenged, as being unjustly destroyed.

Thou shalt not covet the things that belong to thy neighbor, as his wife, or his servant, or his ox, or his field.

Thou shalt not forswear thyself; for it is said, Swear not at all. But if that cannot be, thou shalt swear piously and truly. Everyone that sweareth by him shall be commended.

Thou shalt not bear false witness. For he that falsely accuseth the needy provoketh to anger him that made him.

Chapter IV – Prohibition of evil speaking, and wrath, of deceitful conduct, idle words, falsehood, covetousness, and hypocrisy  

Thou shalt not speak evil. For the Scripture saith, Love not to speak evil, lest thou be taken away. Nor shalt thou be mindful of  injuries; for the ways of those that remember injuries are unto death.

Thou shalt not be double-minded nor double-tongued. For a man’s own lips are a strong snare to him; and a talkative person shall not be prospered upon the earth.

Thy words shall not be vain. For ye shall give account of every idle word.

Thou shalt not lie. For the Scripture saith, Thou wilt destroy all those that speak lies.

Thou shalt not be covetous nor rapacious. For it saith, Woe to him that is covetous towards his neighbor, with an evil covetousness.

Thou shalt not be a hypocrite, lest thy portion be with them.

Chapter V – Prohibition of malignity, acceptation of persons, prolonged anger, and detraction

Thou shalt not be ill-natured nor proud. For God resisteth the proud.

Thou shalt not accept persons in judgment; for the judgment is the Lord’s.

Thou shalt not hate any man; thou shalt surely reprove thy brother, and not become guilty on his account. And, Reprove a wise man, and he will love thee. Eschew all evil, and all that is like it. For, saith the Scripture, Abstain from injustice, and trembling shall not come nigh thee.

Be not soon angry, nor spiteful, nor passionate, nor furious, nor daring, lest thou undergo the fate of Cain, and of Saul, and  of Joab; for the first of these slew his brother Abel, because Abel was found to be preferred before him with God, and because Abel’s sacrifice was preferred; the second persecuted holy David, who had slain Goliath the Philistine, being envious upon the praises of the women who danced; the third slew two generals of armies, Abner of Israel, and Amasa of Judah.

Chapter VI – Concerning augury and enchantments

Be not a diviner; for that leadeth to idolatry. Besides, Divination, saith Samuel, is a sin. And, There shall be no divination in Jacob, nor soothsaying in Israel. Thou shalt not use enchantments or purifications for thy child. Thou shalt not be a soothsayer, nor a diviner by great or little birds. Nor shalt thou learn wicked arts. For all these things the law hath forbidden.

Long not for what is evil; for thou wilt be led into much sin.

Speak not obscenely, nor use wanton glances, nor be a drunkard. For from such causes arise whoredoms and adulteries.

Be not a lover of money, lest thou serve mammon, instead of God.

Be not vain-glorious, nor elated, nor haughty; for hence spring manifestations of arrogance. Remember him who said, Lord, my heart is not haughty, nor mine eyes lofty; I have not exercised myself in great matters, nor in things too high for me. Surely I was humble.

Chapter VII – Prohibition of murmuring, arrogance, pride, and audacity

Be not a murmurer, remembering the punishment which they underwent who murmured against Moses. Be not self-willed; be not malicious; be not hard-hearted; be not passionate; be not pusillanimous. For all these things lead to blasphemy. But be meek, as were Moses and David; since the meek shall inherit the earth.

Chapter VIII – Of  Long-suffering , simplicity, meekness, and patience

Be slow to wrath; for such a one is very prudent; since he that is hasty of spirit is a very fool.

 Be merciful; for blessed are the merciful, for they shall obtain mercy.

Be sincere, quiet, good, trembling at the word of God.

Thou shalt not exalt thyself, as did the Pharisee; foreveryone that exalteth himself shall be abased. And that which is highly esteemed among men is abomination with God.

Thou shalt not entertain temerity in thy soul; for a rash man shall fall into mischief.

Thou shalt not go along with the foolish; but with the wise and righteous. For he that walketh with wise men shall be wise; but he that walketh with the foolish shall be known.

Receive the afflictions that befall thee, with an even mind; and reverses, without overmuch sorrow; knowing that a reward shall be given to thee from God, as was given to Job and to Lazarus.

Chapter IX – That it is our duty to esteem our Christian teachers above our parents; the former being the means of our well-being, the other only of our being.

Thou shalt honor him that speaketh to thee the Word of God, and be mindful of him, day and night; and thou shalt reverence him, not as the cause of thy being, but as the cause of thy well-being. For where the doctrine concerning God is, there God is present. Thou shalt every day seek the face of the saints, that thou mayest acquiesce in their words.

Chapter X – That we ought not to separate ourselves from the saints, but to make peace between those that quarrel, to judge righteously, and not to accept persons

Thou shalt not make schisms among the saints, but be mindful of the followers of Corah.

Thou shalt make peace between those that are at variance, as Moses did, when he persuaded them to be friends.

Thou shalt judge righteously; for the judgment is the  Lord’s. Thou shalt not accept persons when thou reprovest for sins; but do as Elijah and Micaiah did to Ahab; and Ebedmelech the Ethiopian to Zedekiah, and Nathan to  David, and John to Herod.

Chapter XL – Concerning him that is double-minded, or of little faith

Be not of a doubtful mind in thy prayer, whether it shall be granted or not. For the Lord said to me, Peter, upon the sea, thou of little faith, wherefore didst thou doubt? Be  not thou ready to stretch out thy hand to receive, and to shut it when thou shouldst give.

Chapter XII – Of doing good

If thou hast by the work of thy hands, give, that thou mayest labor for the redemption of thy sins. For by alms and acts of faith, sins are purged away. Thou shalt not grudge to give to the poor; nor, when thou hast given, shalt thou murmur. For thou shalt know who will repay thee thy reward; for the Scripture saith, He that hath pity on the poor, lendeth to the Lord; and according to his gift so it shall be repaid him again. Thou shalt not turn away from him that is needy. For it saith, He that stoppeth his ears, that he may not hear the cry of the needy, himself also shall call, and there shall be none to hear him. Thou shalt communicate in all things to thy brother, and shalt not say that they are thine own. For the common participation of the necessaries of life is prepared by God for all men. Thou shalt not take off thy hand from thy son, or from thy daughter, but shalt teach them the fear of God from their youth. For it saith, Correct thy son; so shall he afford thee good hope.

Chapter XIII – How masters ought to behave themselves to their servants; and how

servants ought to be subject

Thy man-servant or thy maid-servant, who trust in the same God, thou shalt not command with bitterness of spirit; lest they groan against thee, and wrath be upon thee from God. And ye servants, be subject to your masters, as to the representatives of God, with attention and fear, as to the Lord, and not to men.

Chapter XIV – Concerning hypocrisy, and obedience to the laws, and confession of sins

Thou shalt hate all hypocrisy; and thou shalt do whatsoever is pleasing to the Lord. By no means forsake the commands of the Lord; but observe the things which thou hast received from him, neither adding to them, nor taking away from them. For  thou shalt not add unto his words, lest he convict thee, and thou become a liar.

Thou shalt confess thy sins to the Lord thy God; and thou shalt not add to them anymore, that it may be well with thee from the Lord thy God, who willeth not the death of a sinner, but his  repentance.

 Chapter XV – Concerning the regard due to parents

Thou shalt be observant to thy father and mother, as the causes of thy being born; that thou mayest live long on the earth, which the Lord thy God giveth thee. Overlook not thy brethren and thy kindred. For thou shalt not overlook those who are nearly related to thee.

Chapter XVI – Concerning the subjection due to the king and to rulers

Thou shalt fear the king, knowing that his appointment is of the Lord. His rulers thou shalt honor, as the ministers of  God; for they are the avengers of all unrighteousness; to whom pay taxes, tribute, and every oblation, with a willing mind.

Chapter XVII – Concerning the pure conscience of those that pray

Thou shalt not proceed to thy prayer in the day of thy wickedness, before thou hast laid aside thy bitterness. This is the way of life; in which may ye be found, through Jesus Christ our Lord.

Chapter XVIII – That the way which was afterwards introduced by the snares of the adversary, is full of impiety and wickedness

But the way of death is known by its wicked practices; for in it are ignorance of God, and the introduction of many evils, and disorders, and disturbances; through which come murders, adulteries, fornications, perjuries, unlawful lusts, thefts, idolatries, magic arts, witchcrafts, rapines, false testimonies, hypocrisies, double-heartedness, deceit, pride, malice, insolence, covetousness, obscene talk, jealousy, rashness, haughtiness, arrogance, impudence, persecution of the good, enmity to truth, love of lies, ignorance of righteousness. For they who do such things adhere not to goodness, nor to righteous judgment. They watch not for good, but for evil; from whom meekness and patience are far off; who love vain things, pursuing after reward, having no pity on the poor, not laboring for him that is in misery, nor knowing Him that made them; murderers of infants, destroyers of the workmanship of God; who turn away from the needy, adding affliction to the afflicted; the flatterers of the rich; the despisers of the poor; full of sin.

May you, children, be delivered from all these.

Chapter XIX – That we must not turn from the way of piety, either to the right nor to the left

See that no one seduce thee from piety. For, saith God, Thou mayest not turn aside from it, to the right hand nor to the left; that thou mayest have understanding in all that thou doest. For if thou turn not out of the right way, thou wilt not be wicked.

Chapter XX – That we ought not to despise any of the sorts of food that are set before us, but gratefully and orderly to partake of them

Now, concerning the several sorts of food, the Lord saith  to thee, Ye shall eat the good things of the earth. And  all sorts of flesh shall ye eat, as the green herb; but thou  shalt pour out the blood. For not those things that go into  the mouth, but those that come out of it, defile a man: I mean blasphemies, evil-speaking, and if there be any other thing of the like nature. But do thou eat the fat of the land, with righteousness.

For if there be anything pleasant, it is His; and if there be anything good, it is His: wheat for the young men, and wine to cheer the maids. For who shall eat, or who shall drink, without him? And wise Ezra admonisheth thee, saying, Go your way, and eat the fat, and drink the sweet, and be not sorrowful.

Chapter XXI – That we ought to avoid the eating of things offered to idols

But abstain from things offered to idols, that ye may not  become partners with demons; for the Gentiles offer those things in honor of demons, that is, to the dishonor of the one God.

Chapter XXII – A constitution of our Lord, how we ought to baptize, and into whose death

Now, concerning baptism, bishop or presbyter, we have already given direction; and we now say that thou shalt so baptize as the Lord commanded us, saying, Go ye, and teach all nations; baptizing them in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost; teaching them to observe all things whatsoever I have commanded you: of the Father who sent; of Christ who came; of the Comforter who testified.

But thou shalt first anoint the person with the holy oil, and afterwards thou shalt baptize him with water, and in the conclusion thou seal him with ointment; that the anointing with oil may be the participation of the Holy Spirit, and the water the symbol of the death of Christ, and the ointment the seal of the covenants. But if there be neither oil nor ointment, water is sufficient, both for the anointing and for the seal, and for the confession of him that is dying, namely, dying together with [Christ] .

Moreover, before baptism, let him that is to be baptized, fast. For even the Lord, when he was first baptized by John, and abode in the wilderness, afterwards fasted forty days and forty nights. But he was baptized, and then fasted, not having himself any need of cleansing, or of fasting, or of purification, who was, by nature, pure and holy; but that he might both testify the truth to John, and afford to us an example. Wherefore our Lord was not baptized into his own passion, or death, or resurrection; for none of those things had then happened; but for another purpose. On which account he, by his own authority, fasted after his baptism, as being the Lord of John.

But he who is to be initiated into his death, ought first to fast, and then to be baptized. For it is not reasonable that he who has been buried with Christ, and is risen again with him, should appear dejected at his very resurrection. For man is not Lord of our Saviour’s constitution, since one is the Master, and the other the servant.

 

Chapter XXIII – Which days of the week we ought to fast, and which not, and for what reasons

But let not your fasts be with the hypocrites; for they fast on the second and fifth days of the week. But do ye fast either the five days, or the fourth day and the day of the Preparation, because on the fourth day the condemnation went out against the Lord, Judas then promising to betray him for money; and ye must fast the day of the Preparation, because on that day the Lord suffered the death of the cross, under Pontius Pilate. Yet the Sabbath and the Lord’s day keep as festivals, because the former is the memorial of the creation, and the latter of the resurrection. And in the whole year there is only one Sabbath to be otherwise observed by you, that of our Lord’s burial, on which men ought to keep a fast, but not a festival. For inasmuch as the Creator was then under the earth, the sorrow for him is more forcible than the joy for the creation; because the Creator is more honorable by nature and dignity than his own creatures.

Chapter XXIV – What sort of people they ought to be who offer the prayer that was given by the Lord

Now when ye pray, be not as the hypocrites; but as the  Lord hath appointed us in the Gospel, so pray ye: Our Father who art in heaven; hallowed be thy name; thy kingdom come; thy will be done on earth as it is in heaven. Give us this day our daily bread. And forgive us our debts, as we forgive our debtors. And lead us not into temptation, but deliver us from evil. For thine is the kingdom forever. Amen.

Pray thus thrice in a day, preparing yourselves beforehand, that ye may be worthy of the adoption of the Father, lest, when ye call him Father unworthily, ye be reproached by him, as Israel once his first-born son was told, If I be a Father, where is my glory?

And if I be a Lord, where is my fear? For the glory of fathers is the holiness of their children, and the honor of masters is the fear of their servants; as the contrary is dishonor and confusion. For saith he, Through you my name is blasphemed among the Gentiles.

Chapter XXV – A Mystical Thanksgiving

But be ye always thankful, as faithful and honest servants; and, in respect to the Eucharist, say thus:

We thank thee, our Father, for that life which thou hast made known to us by Jesus thy Son, by whom thou madest all things, and takest care of the whole world; whom thou hast sent to become man for our salvation; whom thou hast permitted to suffer and to die; whom thou hast raised up, and been pleased to glorify, and hast seated at thy right hand; by whom also thou hast promised us the resurrection of the dead. Do thou, Lord Almighty, everlasting God, so gather together thy church from the ends of the earth into thy kingdom, as THIS was once scattered, and is now become one loaf. We also, our Father, thank thee for the precious blood of Jesus Christ, which was shed for us, and for his precious body, of which we celebrate these representations, as he himself appointed us, to shoiv forth his death. For through him glory shall be given to thee forever. Amen.

Let no one eat of them that is not initiated; but those only who have been baptized into the death of the Lord.

But if anyone that is not initiated conceal himself, and partake, he eateth eternal condemnation; because, being not of the faith of Christ, he hath partaken of such things as it is not lawful for him to partake of, to his own punishment. But if anyone be a partaker through ignorance, instruct him quickly, and initiate him, that he may not go out a despiser.

XXVI – A Thanksgiving at the divine participation

After the participation, give thanks in this manner: We thank thee, God and Father of Jesus our Saviour, for thy holy name which thou hast caused to dwell among us, and for the knowledge, faith, love, and immortality, which thou hast given us through thy Son Jesus. Thou, Almighty Lord, the God of the universe, hast by him created the world, and the things that are therein; and hast planted a law in our souls, and beforehand hast prepared things for the convenience of men. God of our holy and blameless fathers, Abraham, and Isaac, and Jacob, thy faithful servants; thou, God, who art powerful, faithful, and true, and without deceit in thy promises; who didst send upon earth Jesus thy Christ to converse with men, as a man, when he was God the Word, and Man, to take away error by the roots; do thou thyself even now through him be mindful of this thy holy church, which thou hast purchased with the precious blood of thy Christ, and deliver it from all evil, and perfect it in thy love and thy truth, and gather us all together into thy kingdom which thou hast prepared. Maranatha: Our Lord is come. Hosanna to the Son of David, Blessed be he that cometh in the name of the Lord (God the Lord, who was manifested to us in the flesh.) If anyone be holy, let him draw near; but if anyone be not such, let him become such by repentance. Permit also your Presbyters to give thanks.

XXVII – A Thanksgiving in respect to the mystical ointment

Concerning the ointment, give thanks in this manner:

We give thee thanks, God, the Creator of the whole world, both for the fragrancy of the ointment, and for the immortality which thou hast made known to us by thy Son Jesus; since thine are the glory and the power, forever. Amen.

Whosoever cometh to you, and giveth thanks in this manner receive him as a disciple of Christ. But if he preach another doctrine, different from that which Christ by us hath delivered to you, ye must not permit him to give thanks; for such a one insulteth God rather than glorifieth him.

Chapter XXVIII – That we ought not to be indifferent about fellowship

But whosoever cometh to you, let him be first examined, and then received; for ye have understanding, and are able to know the right hand from the left, and to distinguish false teachers from the true. But when a teacher cometh to you, supply him cordially with what he needeth. And even when a false teacher cometh, ye shall give him for his necessity, but shall not receive his error. Nor indeed may ye pray together with him, lest ye be polluted with him.

Every true prophet or teacher that cometh to you is worthy of his maintenance, as being a laborer in the word of righteousness.

Chapter XXIX – A constitution concerning oblations

All the first-fruits of the wine-press, the threshing-floor, the oxen, and the sheep, thou shalt give to the Priests, that thy store houses and garners, and the products of thy land, may be blessed; and that thou mayest be strengthened with corn, and wine, and oil; and that the herds of thy cattle, and the flocks of thy sheep, may be increased. Thou shalt give the tenth of thine increase to the orphan, and to the widow, and to the poor, and to the stranger. All the first-fruits of thy hot bread, of thy barrels of wine or oil, or honey, or nuts, or grapes, or the first-fruits of other things, thou shalt give to the Priests; but those of silver, and of garments, and of every kind of possessions, to the orphan and to the widow.

Chapter XXX – How we ought to assemble together, and celebrate the festival day of

our Saviour’s resurrection

On the day of the resurrection of the Lord, that is, the Lord’s day, assemble yourselves together, without fail; giving thanks to God, and praising him for those mercies which God hath bestowed upon you, through Christ, in delivering you from ignorance, error, and bondage; that your sacrifice may be unspotted, and acceptable to God, who hath said concerning his church universal, In every place shall incense and a pure sacrifice be offered unto me;  for l am a great king, saith the Lord Almighty, and my  name is Wonderful among the heathen.

Chapter XXXI – Priesthood Holders – What qualifications they ought to have, who are to be ordained

Moreover, elect Bishops worthy of the Lord, and Presbyters, and Deacons, pious men, righteous, meek, free from the love of money, lovers of truth, approved, holy, impartial, able to teach the word of piety, and rightly dividing the doctrines of the Lord. And honor ye them as your fathers, as your lords, as your benefactors, as the causes of your well-being. Reprove ye one another, not in anger, but in mildness, with kindness and peace.

Observe all things that are commanded you by the Lord. Be watchful for your life. Let your loins be girded about, and your lights burning; and ye yourselves like unto men who wait for their Lord, when he will come; at even, or in the morning, or at cock-crowing, or at midnight. For at what hour they think not the Lord will come. And if they open to him, blessed are those servants, because they were found watching. For he will gird himself, ,and make them to sit down to meat, and will come forth, and serve them.

Watch, therefore, and pray, that ye do not sleep unto death. For your former good deeds will not profit you, if at the last part of your life ye go astray from the true faith.

Chapter XXXII – A Prediction concerning events which are to occur

For in the last days false prophets shall be multiplied, and such  as corrupt the word; and the sheep shall be changed into wolves, and love into hatred; for, through the abounding of iniquity, the love of many shall wax cold. For men shall hate, and persecute and betray one another. And then shall appear the deceiver of the world, the enemy of the truth, the prince of lies, whom the Lord Jesus shall destroy with the Spirit of his mouth; who taketh away the wicked with his lips. And many shall be offended at him. But they that endure to the end, the same shall be saved. And then shall appear the sign of the Son of man in heaven. Thereupon shall be the voice of a trumpet by the archangel, and immediately the revival of those that were asleep. And then shall the Lord come, and all his saints with a great concussion above the clouds, with the angels of his power, on the throne of his kingdom, to condemn the deceiver of the world, and to render to every one according to his deeds. Then shall the wicked go away into everlasting punishment,  but the righteous shall go into life eternal, to inherit those things which eye hath not seen, nor ear heard, nor have entered into the heart of man such things as God hath prepared for them that love him; and they shall rejoice in the kingdom of God, which is in Christ Jesus.

Since now we have been honored with so great blessings from him, let us become his supplicants, and call upon him by continual prayer, saying:

Chapter XXXIII – A Prayer declarative of God’s various providence

Eternal Saviour, the king of gods, who alone art almighty, and the Lord, the God of all beings, and the God of our holy and blameless fathers, and of those before us; the God of Abraham, and of Isaac, and of Jacob; who art merciful and compassionate, long-suffering, and abundant in mercy; to whom every heart is naked, and by whom every heart is seen, and to whom every secret thought is revealed: to thee do the souls of the righteous cry aloud; upon thee do the hopes of the godly trust, thou Father of the blameless, thou hearer of the supplications of those that call upon thee with uprightness, and who knowest the supplications that are not uttered. For thy providence reacheth to the inmost parts of men, and by thy knowledge thou searchest the thoughts of every one; and in every region of the whole earth the incense of prayer and supplication is sent up to thee.

Thou who hast appointed this present world as a place of combat to righteousness, and hast opened to all the gate of mercy, and hast shown to every man, by implanted knowledge, and natural judgment, and the admonitions of the Law, that the possession of riches is not everlasting, the ornament of beauty is not perpetual, our strength and force are easily dissolved; all indeed is vapor and vanity; and nothing but consciousness of faith unfeigned passeth through the midst of the heavens, and, returning with truth, taketh hold of the right hand of the joy which is to come. And, withal, before the promise of the restoration of all things is accomplished, the soul itself exulteth in hope, and is joyful. For from the beginning, when our forefather Abraham was laboring after the way of truth, thou, by a vision, didst guide him, teaching him what kind of a state this world is; and knowledge went before his faith, and faith ensued upon his knowledge, and the covenant was a consequence of his faith. For thou saidst, I will make thy seed as the stars of heaven, and as the sand which is by the sea-shore. Still further, when thou hadst, given him Isaac, and knewest him to be similar in his character, thou wast called also his God, saying, I will be a God to thee, and to thy seed after thee.

And when our father Jacob was sent into Mesopotamia, thou showedst him Christ, and by him spakest, saying, Behold, I am with thee, and I will increase thee, and multiply thee exceedingly. And thus spakest thou to Moses, thy faith ful and holy servant, at the vision of the bush, I am he that is. This is my name forever, and this is my memorial unto all generations. thou Protector of the posterity of Abraham, blessed art thou forever.

XXXIV – A Prayer declarative of God’s various creation

Blessed art thou, Lord, the King of ages, who, through Christ, hast made the whole world, and through him, in the beginning, didst reduce into order the disordered parts; who didst divide the waters from the waters by a firmament, and didst put into them a spirit of life; who didst fix the earth, and stretch out the heaven, and didst dispose every creature by an accurate constitution. For by thy power, Lord, the world is beautified; the heaven is fixed as an arch over us, and is rendered illustrious with stars, for our comfort in the darkness. The light, also, and the sun, were produced for days, and for the production of fruits; and the moon for the change of seasons, by its increase and diminutions; and night and day received their respective names. The firmament, moreover, was exhibited in the midst of the abyss; and thou didst command the waters to be gathered together, and the dry land to appear. But, as for the sea itself, who can possibly describe it? which cometh with fury from the ocean, yet runneth back again from the sand of the shore, being stopped at thy command; for thou hast said, Thereby shall her waves be broken. Thou hast also made it capable of supporting little and great creatures, and made it navigable for ships.

Then did the earth become green, and was planted with all sorts of flowers, and the variety of different trees; and the shining luminaries, the nourishers of those plants, preserve their unchangeable course, and in nothing depart from thy command. But where thou biddest them, there they rise and set, for signs of the seasons, and of the years, making a constant return of the work of men.

Afterwards the kinds of the several animals were created: those belonging to the land, to the water, to the air, and both to air and water; and the skilful wisdom of thy providence bestoweth upon each a suitable provident care. For as it was not unable to produce various kinds, so neither hath it disdained to provide variously for each.

And at the conclusion of the creation, thou gavest direction to thy Wisdom, and formedst a rational living creature, as the citizen of the world, saying, Let us make man after our image, and  after our likeness; and hast exhibited him as the ornament of the world, and formed him a body out of the four elements, those primary bodies, but hast prepared a soul out of nothing, and hast bestowed upon him his five senses, and set over his sensations a mind, as the conductor of the soul.

And besides all these things, Lord God, who can worthily declare the motion of the rainy clouds, the shining of the lightning, the noise of the thunder, in order to the supply of proper food, and the most agreeable temperature of the air?

But, when man was disobedient, thou didst deprive him of the life proposed for his reward; yet thou didst not utterly destroy him, but laidest him to sleep for a time; and thou hast by oath called him to a resurrection, and hast loosed the bond of death, thou Reviver of the dead, through Jesus Christ, who is our hope.

XXXV – Prayer with thanksgiving, declarative of God’s care over the beings he hath made

Great art thou, Lord Almighty, and great is thy power; and to thine understanding there is no limit; our Creator and Saviour, rich in benefits, long-suffering, and the Bestower of mercy, who dost not take away thy salvation from thy creatures; for thou art good by nature, and sparest sinners, and invitest them to repentance; for admonition is the effect of thy bowels of compassion. For how should we abide if we were required to come to judgment immediately, when, after so much long-suffering, we hardly emerge from our miserable condition!

The heavens declare thy dominion, and the earth shaketh with earthquakes, and, hanging upon nothing, declare thine unshaken steadfastness. The sea, raging with waves, and feeding a flock of ten thousand creatures, is bounded with sand, as standing in awe at thy will; and it compelleth all men to cry out, How great are thy works, Lord! In wisdom hast Thou made them all. The earth is full of what thou hast created.

And the bright host of angels, and the intellectual spirits, say to Him, One is holy! And the holy seraphim, together with the six-winged cherubim, who sing to thee their triumphal song, cry never-ceasing voices, Holy, holy, holy, is the Lord of hosts. Heaven and earth are full of thy glory. And the other multitudes of the orders, angels, archangels, thrones, dominions, principalities, authorities, and powers, cry aloud, and say, Blessed be the glory of the Lord out of his place. But Israel, thy church on earth, taken out of the Gentiles, emulating the heavenly Powers, night and day, with a full heart and a willing soul, singeth, the chariot of God is ten thousand fold, thousands of them that rejoice. The Lord is among them in Sinai, in the holy place.

The heaven knoweth Him who fixed it as a cube of stone, in the form of an arch, upon nothing; who united the land and the water to one another, and scattered the vital air all abroad, and conjoined fire therewith for warmth, and for the mitigation of darkness. The choir of stars striketh us with admiration, declaring Him that numbereth them, and showing Him that nameth them; the animals declare Him that putteth life into them; the trees, Him that maketh them grow; all which creatures, being made by thy word, show forth the greatness of thy power. Wherefore, every man, since by thine appointment he hath power over them all, ought, from his very soul, to send up a hymn to thee, through Christ, in the name of them all.

For thou art kind in thy benefits, and beneficent in thy bowels of compassion; who alone art almighty; for when thou willest, to be able is present with thee. For thine eternal power quencheth flame, and stoppeth the mouths of lions, and tameth whales, and raiseth up the sick, and over-ruleth the power of all things, and overturneth the host of enemies, and casteth down a people numbered in their arrogance. Thou art He who art in heaven, He who art on earth, He who art in the sea, He who art in finite things, thy self unconfined by anything. For of thy majesty there is no boundary; for it is not ours, Lord, but the oracle of thy servant, who said, And thou shalt know in thy heart that the Lord thy God is God in heaven above, and upon the earth beneath; and there is none other besides him. For there is no God besides thee alone; there is none holy besides thee, the Lord, the God of knowledge, the God of the saints, holy above all holy beings; for they are sanctified by thy hands.

Thou art glorious, and highly exalted, invisible by nature, and unsearchable in thy judgments; whose life is without want; whose duration can never fail; whose operation is without toil; whose greatness is unlimited; whose excellency is perpetual; whose habitation is inaccessible; whose dwelling is unchangeable; whose knowledge is without beginning; whose truth is immutable; whose work is without assistant; whose dominion cannot be taken away; whose monarchy is without succession; whose kingdom is without end; whose strength is irresistible; whose army is most numerous. For thou art the Father of wisdom, the Creator, as the primary Author, of the creation, by a Mediator; the Bestower of providence; the Giver of laws; the Supplier of want; the Punisher of the wicked, and the Rewarder of the righteous; the God and Father of Christ, and the Lord of those that are pious towards him, [thine anointed One;] whose promise is infallible; whose judgment is without bribes; whose sentiments are immutable; whose piety is incessant; whose thanksgiving is perpetual; and through whom worthy adoration is due to thee from every rational and holy nature.

XXXVI – A Prayer commemorative of the Incarnation of Christ; and his various providence to the saints

Lord Almighty, thou hast created the world by Christ, and hast appointed the Sabbath in memory thereof; since thou hast made us rest on that day from our works, for meditation upon thy laws. Thou hast also appointed festivals for the rejoicing of our souls, that we might come into the remembrance of the Wisdom that was created by thee; how he, for our sake, submitted to be born of a woman. He appeared in life, manifesting himself in his baptism, that he who thus came forth is God and man. He suffered and died for us by thy permission, and rose again by thy power; on which account, we, solemnly assembling to celebrate the festival of the Resurrection on the Lord’s day, rejoice concerning Him who hath conquered death, and hath brought life and immortality to light. For by him thou hast brought home the Gentiles to thyself, for a peculiar people, the true Israel, beloved of God, and seeing God. For thou, Lord, broughtest our fathers out of the land of Egypt, and didst deliver them out of the iron furnace, from clay and brick-making, and didst redeem them out of the hands of Pharaoh, and of those under him; and didst lead them through the sea, as through dry land; and didst bear their manners in the wilderness, and bestow on them all sorts of good things. Thou didst give them the Law, or Decalogue, which was pronounced by thy voice, and written with thy hand. Thou didst enjoin the observance of the Sabbath, not affording them an occasion of idleness, but an opportunity of piety, for their knowledge of thy power, and the restraint of evils; having enclosed the people, as within a holy circuit, for the sake of instruction, so that they might  rejoice on the seventh day. On this account were appointed one week, and seven weeks, and the seventh month, and the seventh year; and the sevenfold revolution of this, the jubilee, which is the fiftieth year, for remission; that men might have no occasion to pretend ignorance.

(For this purpose he permitted men, every Sabbath, to rest, that no one might be disposed to utter a word out of his mouth in anger on the day of the Sabbath. For the Sabbath is the ceasing of the creation, the completion of the world, the inquiry after laws, and the grateful praise to God for the blessings he hath bestowed upon men.)

All which appointed times the Lord’s day excelleth, and showeth the Mediator himself, the Provider, the Lawgiver, the Author of the Resurrection, the First-born of the whole creation, God the Word, and Man; who was born of Mary alone, without a man; who lived a holy life; who was crucified under Pontius Pilate, and died, and rose again from the dead; so that the Lord’s day commandeth us to offer unto thee, Lord, thanksgiving for all. For thus is the grace afforded by thee, which, on account of its greatness, hath obscured all other blessings.

Chapter XXXVII – A Prayer containing a memorial of providence, and an enumeration of the various, benefits afforded to the saints by the providence of God through Christ

Thou who hast fulfilled thy promises made by the prophets, and hast had mercy on Zion, and compassion on Jerusalem, by  exalting the throne of David, thy servant, in the midst of her, by the birth of Christ, who was born of his seed, according to the flesh, of a virgin alone; do thou now, Lord God, accept the prayers which proceed from the lips of thy people, who are of the Gentiles, who call upon thee in truth, as thou didst accept of the gifts of the righteous in their generations. In the first place, thou didst respect the sacrifice of Abel, and accept it, as thou  didst accept the sacrifice of Noah, when he went out of the  ark; of Abraham, when he went out of the land of the  Chaldeans; of Isaac, at the well of the oath; of Jacob, in Bethel; of Moses, in the desert; of Aaron, between the  dead and the living; of Joshua, the son of Nun in Gilgal; of Gideon, at the rock, and the fleeces, before his sin;  of Manoah and his wife, in the field; of Samson, in his  thirst, before his transgression; of Jephthah, in the war,  before his rash vow; of Barak and Deborah, in the days of Sisera; of Samuel, in Mizpeh; of David, in the threshing-floor of Oman the Jebusite; of Solomon, in Gibeon, and in Jerusalem; of Elijah, in Mount Carmel;  of Elisha, at the barren fountain; of Jehosaphat, in war; of Hezekiah, in his sickness, and concerning Sennacherib; of Manasseh, in the land of the Chaldeans, after  his transgression; of Josiah, in his Passover; of Ezra, at the return; of Daniel, in the den of lions; of Jonah, in  the whale’s belly; of the three children in the fiery furnace; of Hannah, in the tabernacle before the ark; of Nehemiah, at the rebuilding of the walls; of Zerubbabel;  of Mattathias and his sons, in their zeal; of Jael, in  blessings. And now, therefore, accept the prayers of thy people, which are offered to thee with knowledge, through Christ, in the Spirit.

Chapter XXXVIII – A Prayer for the assistance of the righteous

We give thee thanks for all things, Lord Almighty, that thou hast not taken away from us thy mercies and thy compassions; but in every succeeding generation thou dost save, and deliver, and assist, and protect. For thou didst assist in the days of Enos and Enoch; in the days of Moses and Joshua; in the days of the judges; in the days of Samuel, and of Elijah, and of the prophets; in the days of David, and of the kings; in the days of Esther and Mordecai; in the days of Judith; in the days of Judas Maccabeus and his brethren. And in our days thou hast assisted us by thy great High Priest, Jesus Christ, thy Son. For he hath delivered us from the sword, and hath freed us from famine, and sustained us; hath delivered us from sickness, and hath preserved us from an evil tongue. For all which things we give thee thanks, through Christ, who hath given us an articulate voice for confession, and added to it a suitable tongue, as an instrument to modulate withal, and a proper taste, and a well-adapted feeling, and sight for seeing, and the hearing of sounds, and the smelling of exhalations, and hands for work, and feet for walking. And all these members thou formest from a little drop in the womb; and, after the formation, thou bestowest on it an immortal soul, and bringest it forth into the light. The rational creature, man, thou hast instructed by thy laws, thou hast purified by thy statutes; and though thou bringest on a dissolution for a little while, thou hast promised a resurrection.

Wherefore, what life is sufficient, what length of ages will be long enough, for men to render thanks? To do it worthily is impossible; but to do it according to our ability, is just and right. For thou hast delivered us from the impiety of polytheism, and from the heresy of the murderers of Christ. Thou hast delivered us from error and ignorance. Thou hast sent Christ among men, as a man, being the only-begotten God. Thou hast sent the Comforter to dwell in us. Thou hast set angels over us. Thou hast put the devil to shame. Thou hast brought us into being when we were not; thou takest care of us when made; thou measurest out life to us; thou suppliest us with food; thou hast promised repentance.

Glory and worship be to thee, for all these things, through Jesus Christ, now and ever, and throughout all ages. Amen.

Meditate on these things, brethren; and the Lord be with you upon earth, and in the kingdom of his Father, who both sent him, and hath delivered us, by him, from the bondage of corruption into his glorious liberty; and hath promised life to those who, through him, have believed in the God of the universe.

Now, after what manner those ought to live that are initiated into Christ, and what thanksgivings they ought to send up to God through Christ, have been mentioned in the foregoing directions. But it is reasonable not to leave, without assistance, even those who are not yet initiated.

Chapter XXXIX – How the Catechumens are to be instructed in the elements

He, therefore, who is to be catechized in the word of piety, let him be instructed before his baptism in the knowledge of the unbegotten God, in the understanding of his only-begotten Son, in the assured acknowledgment of the Holy Spirit. Let him learn the order of the several parts of the creation, the series of providence, the different dispensations of the laws. Let him be instructed why the world was made, and why man was appointed to be a citizen therein. Let him also know his own nature; of what sort it is. Let him be taught how God punished the wicked with water; and how he glorified the saints in each generation; I mean Seth, and Enos, and Enoch, and Noah, and Abraham and his posterity, and Melchisedek, and Job, and Moses, and Joshua, and Caleb, and Phineas the priest, and those that were holy in each generation; and how God still took care of and did not reject mankind, but, at various times, called them from their error and vanity to the acknowledgment of the truth; bringing them back from bondage and impiety to liberty and piety, from injustice to righteousness, from death eternal to everlasting life.

Let him who is coming to baptism learn these and the like things, in his catechetical instruction; and let him who layeth his hands upon him, adore God, the Lord of the universe, and thank him in behalf of his creature, for sending Christ, his only-begotten Son, that he might save man, blotting out his transgressions; and that he might remit ungodliness and sins, and might purify him from all filthiness of flesh and spirit, and sanctify man according to the good pleasure of his kindness, that he might inspire him with the knowledge of his will, and enlighten the eyes of his heart to consider of his wonderful works, and make known to him the judgments of righteousness; that so he might hate every way of iniquity, and walk in the way of truth; that he might be thought worthy of the laver of regeneration, to the adoption of sons, which is in Christ; that, being planted together in the likeness of the death of Christ, in hope of a glorious participation, he may be dead to sin, and may live to God, as to his mind, and word, and deed, and may be numbered together in the book of the living.

And, after this thanksgiving, let him instruct him in the doctrines concerning our Lord’s incarnation, and in those concerning his passion, and his resurrection from the dead, and his assumption.

 

Chapter XL – A constitution how the Catechumens are to be blessed by the Priests, in their initiation; and what things are to be taught them

And when the catechumen is just at the point of being baptized, let him learn what concerneth the renunciation of the devil, and the joining himself with Christ. For it is fit that he should first abstain from things contrary, and then be admitted to the mysteries. He must, beforehand, purify his heart from all wickedness of disposition, from all spot and wrinkle, and then partake of the holy things. For as the most skilful husbandman first cleareth his ground of the thorns which are grown up therein, and then soweth his wheat, so ought ye also to take away all impiety from them [the catechumens]; and then to sow the seeds of piety in them, and bestow baptism. For thus our Lord exhorted us, saying, first, Make disciples of all nations; and then he added this, and baptize them into the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost.

Let, therefore, the candidate for baptism declare, in his renunciation,

Chapter XLI – The renunciation of the adversary, and the dedication to the Christ of God

I renounce Satan, and his works, and his pomps, and his worship, and his angels, and his inventions, and all things that are under him.

And, after this renunciation, let him, in his dedication, say, And I associate myself with Christ, and believe in and am baptized into one unbegotten Being, the only true God Almighty, the Father of Christ, the Creator and Maker of all things, from whom are all things; and into the Lord Jesus Christ, his only-begotten Son, the First-born of the whole creation, who, before the ages, was, by the good pleasure of the Father, begotten, not created; through whom all things were made, both those in heaven and those on earth, visible and invisible; who, in the last days, descended from heaven, and took flesh, and was born of the holy virgin Mary, and lived a holy life, according to the laws of his God and Father, and was crucified under Pontius Pilate, and died for us; and rose again from the dead, after his Passion, the third day, and ascended into the heavens, and sitteth at the right hand of the Father; and again is to come at the end of the world, with glory, to judge the living and the dead; of whose kingdom there shall be no end. I am baptized also into the Holy Ghost, that is, the Comforter, who wrought in all the saints from the beginning of the world, but was afterwards sent to the apostles by the Father, according to the promise of our Saviour and Lord Jesus Christ, and, after the apostles, to all who believe, in the holy Catholic church; into the resurrection of the flesh, and into the remission of sins, and into the kingdom of heaven, and into the life of the world to come.

And, after this declaration, he cometh in order to the anointing with oil.

Chapter XLII – A Thanksgiving in respect to the anointing with the mystical oil

Now this is blessed by the high priest for the remission of sins and the preparative for baptism. For he invoketh the unbegotten God, the Father of Christ, the King of all sensible and intelligent natures, that he would sanctify the oil in the name of the Lord Jesus, and bestow spiritual grace, and efficacious strength, the remission of sins, and the preparation for the confession of baptism; that so the candidate for baptism, when he is anointed, may be freed from all ungodliness, and may become worthy of initiation, according to the command of the Only-begotten.

Chapter XLII – A Thanksgiving concerning the mystical water

After this, he cometh to the water. The priest blesseth and glorifieth the Lord God Almighty, the Father of the only-begotten God; returning thanks, that he sent his Son to become man on our account, that he might save us; that he permitted him to become obedient, in all things, to the laws of that incarnation, to preach the kingdom of heaven, the remission of sins, and the resurrection of the dead.

Moreover, he adoreth the only-begotten God himself (after the Father, and for him), giving him thanks that he undertook to suffer death by the cross for all men; an emblem of which death he hath appointed to be the baptism of regeneration.

He giveth glory also, that, in the name, of Christ, God, the Lord of the universe, in the Holy Spirit, hath not cast off mankind, but hath suited his providence to the difference of times; first giving to Adam himself, with a regard to his enjoyment, Paradise, as a habitation; then, with a regard to provident care, delivering to him a command, but justly expelling him when he had transgressed; yet not utterly casting him off, but instructing his posterity, in succeeding ages, in various ways; and, on his account, towards the conclusion of the world, he hath sent his Son to become man for man’s sake, and to be subject to all human affections without sin. Him, therefore, let the priest even now implore at the baptism, and let him say, Look down from heaven, and sanctify this water; and bestow grace and power, so that he who is to be baptized, according to the command of thy Christ, may be crucified with him, and may die with him, and may be buried with him, and may rise with him to the adoption which is in him, by being made dead indeed unto sin, but alive unto righteousness.

And after this, when he hath baptized him in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost, he shall anoint him with ointment, and shall add as followeth:

Chapter XLIV – A Thanksgiving concerning the, mystical ointment

Lord God, who art without generation, and without a superior. the Lord of the universe, who hast scattered the fragrance of the knowledge of the Gospel among all nations, do thou grant, at this time, that this ointment may be efficacious upon him that is baptized, so that the sweet odor of thy Christ may continue upon him firm and fixed, and that, having died with him, he may rise with him, and live with him.

Let him say these and the like things; for this is the efficacy of the laying of hands on each. For, unless there be such an invocation made by a pious priest over every one of these, the candidate for baptism only descendeth into the water, as do the Jews; and he putteth off only the filth of the body, not the filth of the soul.

After this, let him stand up, and pray that prayer which the Lord taught us; for, of necessity, he who is risen again ought to stand up and pray; because he that is raised up standeth upright. Let him, therefore, who hath been dead with Christ, and is raised up with him, stand up. But let him pray towards the east. For this also is written in the second book of the Chronicles, that, after the temple of the Lord was finished by king Solomon, in the very Feast of Dedication, the priests, and the Levites, and the singers, stood up towards the east, praising and thanking God, with cymbals and  psalteries, and saying, Praise the Lord, for he is good; for his mercy endureth forever.

Chapter XLV – A Prayer of the newly initiated

Moreover, let him pray thus after the foregoing prayer, and say, God Almighty, the Father of thy Christ, thine only-begotten Son, give me a body undefiled, a heart pure, a mind watchful, an unerring knowledge, the influence of the Holy Spirit for the obtaining and the full assurance of the truth, through thy Christ; by whom glory be to thee, in the Holy Spirit, forever. Amen.

These constitutions we have thought it right to make concerning the catechumens.

Chapter XLVI – Who they were whom the holy apostles sent and ordained

Now concerning those Bishops who have been ordained in our lifetime, we make known to you that they are these: Of Jerusalem, James, the brother of our Lord; upon whose death the second was Symeon, the son of Cleopas; after whom, Judas, the son of James. Of Caesarea in Palestine, the first was Zaccheus, who was once a publican; after whom was Cornelius; and the third, Theophilus. Of Antioch, Euodius, by me, Peter; and Ignatius, by Paul. Of Alexandria, Annianus was the first, by Mark the Evangelist; the second, Avilius, by Luke, who also was an evangelist.

Of the church of Rome, Linus, the son of Claudia, was the first, by Paul; and Clement, after Linus’s death, the second, by me, Peter. Of Ephesus, Timothy, by Paul; and John, by me, John. Of Smyrna, Aristo was the first; after whom, Strataeas, the  son of Lois; and the third, Aristo. Of Pergamos, Gaius. Of Philadelphia, Demetrius, by me [John]. Of Cenchrea, Lucius, by Paul. Of Crete, Titus. Of Athens, Dionysius. Of Tripoli in Phoenicia, Marathones. Of Laodicea in Phrygia, Archippus of Colosse, Philemon. Of Beroea in Macedonia, Onesimus, once the servant of Philemon. Of the churches of Galatia, Crescens. Of the parishes of Asia, Aquila and Nicetas. Of the church of Egina, Crispus.

These are the Bishops who have been intrusted by us with the parishes in the Lord; whose doctrine keep ye always in mind, and observe our words. And may the Lord be with you now, and to endless ages; as he himself said to us, when he was about to be taken up to his own God and Father. For, Lo (he saith), I am with you all the days, until the end of the world. Amen.

Chapter XLVII – A Morning Prayer

Glory be to God in the highest; and upon earth, peace, good will among men. We praise thee, we sing hymns to thee, we bless thee, we glorify thee, we worship thee, by thy great High Priest; thee, who art the true God, who art the One unbegotten, the only inaccessible Being. For thy great glory, Lord and heavenly King, God, the Father Almighty, Lord God, the Father of Christ, the immaculate Lamb, who taketh away the sin of the world, receive our prayer, thou that sittest upon the cherubim; since thou only art holy. Thou only, Jesus, art our Lord, the Christ of the God of all that hath been brought forth, of the God our King. Through this our Lord, glory be to thee, and honor, and worship.

Chapter XLVIII – An Evening Prayer

Ye children, praise the Lord; praise the name of the Lord. We praise thee, we sing hymns to thee, we bless thee for thy great glory, Lord, our King, the Father of Christ, the immaculate Lamb, that taketh away the sin of the world. Praise becometh thee, hymns become thee, glory becometh thee, the God and Father, through the Son, in the most Holy Spirit, forever and ever. Amen.

Now, Lord, lettest thou thy servant depart in peace, according to  thy word; for mine eyes have seen thy salvation, which thou hast prepared before the face of all people; a light to enlighten the Gentiles, and the glory of thy people Israel.

Chapter XLIX – A Prayer at Dinner

Blessed art thou, Lord, who dost nourish me from my youth; who givest food to all flesh. Fill our hearts with joy and gladness, that, having always what is sufficient for us, we may abound to every good work, in Christ Jesus, our Lord; through whom glory, honor, and power, be to thee forever. Amen.

End of Book VII


BOOK VIII – Concerning Gifts, And Ordinations, And Ecclesiastical Canons.

Chapter I – On whose account the miraculous powers are put forth

JESUS CHRIST, our God and Saviour, having delivered to us the great mystery of godliness, and called both Jews and Gentiles to the acknowledgment of the one and only true God his Father, as he himself somewhere saith, when he was giving thanks for the  salvation of those that had believed, I have manifested thy  name to men; I have finished the work which thou gavest me; and having said concerning us to his Father, Holy Father, although the world hath not known thee, yet I have known thee; and these have known thee; he with good reason said to all of us together, when we were perfected, concerning those gifts which were given from him by the Spirit, Now these signs shall follow them that have believed in my name: They shall cast out demons; they shall speak with new tongues; they shall take up serpents; and if they drink any deadly thing, it shall not hurt them. They shall lay their hands on the sick, and they shall recover.

These gifts were first bestowed on us the apostles, when we were about to preach the Gospel to every creature; but afterwards they were of necessity afforded to those who through us had believed, not for the advantage of those who perform them, but for the conviction of the unbelievers; that those whom the word did not persuade, the power of signs might put to shame. For signs are not for us who believe, but for the unbelievers, both of the Jews and of the Gentiles. For neither is it any profit to us to cast out demons, but to those who are so cleansed by the power of the Lord; as the Lord himself somewhere instructeth us, and showeth, saying, Rejoice not that the spirits are subject unto you; but rejoice  that your names are written in heaven: since the former is done by his power, but this by our good will and diligence; we, it is evident, being assisted by him.

It is not therefore necessary, that every one of the faithful should cast out demons, or raise the dead, or speak with tongues; but that he should, on whom this gift has been bestowed for some useful object, in respect to the salvation of the unbelievers, who are often put to shame, not by the convincing proof of words, but by the power of signs; that is, such as are worthy of salvation. For all the ungodly are not converted by miracles; and this God himself testifieth, as when he saith in the Law, With other tongues will I speak to this people, and with other lips, and yet they will not believe. For neither did the Egyptians believe in God, when Moses had done so many signs and wonders; nor did the multitude of the Jews believe in Christ (who was like Moses), when he healed every sickness and every disease among them; nor were the former shamed by the rod which was turned into a living serpent, nor by the hand which was made white with leprosy, nor by the river Nile turned into blood; nor the latter by the blind who recovered their sight, nor by the lame who walked, nor by the dead who were raised. Jannes and Jambres withstood Moses; Annas and Caiaphas, Christ. Thus signs do not shame all into belief, but only those of a good disposition; for whose sake also it is that God is pleased, as a wise superintendent, to appoint miracles to be wrought, not by the power of men, but by his own will.

Now we say these things, that those who have received such gifts may not exalt themselves against those who have not received them; such gifts, we mean, as are for the working of miracles; since there is no man who hath believed in God, through Christ, that hath not received some spiritual gift. For this very thing, to have been delivered from the impiety of Polytheism, and to have believed in God the Father, through Christ, is a gift of God; as also it is to have cast off the veil of Judaism, and to have believed that, by the good pleasure of God, his only-begotten Son, who was before all ages, was in the later time born of a virgin, without the company of a man; , and that he lived as a man, yet without sin, and fulfilled all that righteousness which is of the law; and that, by the permission of God, he who was God the Word endured the cross, and despised the shame; and that he died, and was buried, and rose within three days; and that, after his resurrection, having continued forty days with his apostles, and completed his whole constitutions, he was taken up in their sight to his God and Father who had sent him. He who hath believed these things, not at random, nor irrationally, but with judgment and full assurance, hath received a gift from God. So also hath he who is delivered from every heresy.

Let not, therefore, anyone that worketh signs and wonders judge anyone of the faithful who is not honored with the gift of working them. For the gifts of God which are bestowed by him through Christ, are various. And thou, indeed, hast received this gift, but that man, some other: for perhaps one hath the word of wisdom; another, the word of knowledge; another, discerning of spirits; another, foreknowledge of things to come; another, the word of teaching; another, patience; another, continence according to the law. For even Moses, the man of God, when he wrought signs in Egypt, did not exalt himself against the men of his nation; and when he was called a god, he did not arrogantly despise his own prophet Aaron. Nor did Joshua, the son of Nun, who was the leader of the people after him, though, in the war with the Jebusites, he had made the sun stand still over against Gibeon, and the moon over against the valley of Ajalon, because the day was not long enough for the victory, insult over Phineas or Caleb. Nor did Samuel, who had done so many surprising things, disregard David, the beloved of God; yet they were both prophets, and the one was high priest, and the other was king.

And when there were only seven thousand holy men in Israel who had not bowed the knee to Baal, Elijah alone among them, and his disciple Elisha, were workers of miracles; yet neither did Elijah despise Abdiah the steward, who feared God, but wrought no signs; nor did Elisha despise his own disciple, when he trembled at the enemies. Moreover,  neither did the wise Daniel, who was twice delivered from the mouths of the lions, nor the three children who were delivered from the furnace of fire, despise the rest of their nation. For they knew that they had not escaped these terrible miseries by their own might, but that they both performed miracles, and were delivered from miseries, by the power of God.

Therefore let none of you exalt himself against his brethren, though he be a prophet, or though he be a worker of miracles. For if it happen that there be no longer an unbeliever, all the power of signs will thenceforward be superfluous; and to be pious is from one’s good will, but to work wonders is from the power of Him that worketh them by us; the first of which respecteth ourselves, but the second respecteth God that worketh them, for the reasons which we have already mentioned.

Therefore, neither let a king despise the officers that are under him; nor rulers, their subjects. For where there are none to be ruled over, rulers are superfluous; and where there are no officers, the kingdom will not stand.

Moreover, let not a Bishop be exalted against the Deacons and the Presbyters; nor the Presbyters against the people; for from each and all of these is the composition of the congregation; for the Bishops and the Presbyters are Priests of certain persons, and the Laity are laymen of certain persons. And, indeed, to be a Christian is in our own power; but to be an Apostle, or a Bishop, or in any other such office, is not in our own power, but at the disposal of God who bestoweth the gifts.

Thus much on account of those who have been deemed worthy of gifts and dignities.

Chapter II – Concerning unworthy Bishops and Presbyters

But to our discourse we add, that neither is every one that prophesieth holy, nor every one that casteth out demons, religious; for even Balaam the son of Beor, the prophet, prophesizes, though he was himself wicked; as also did Caiaphas, the falsely named high priest. Indeed, even the devil foretelleth manythings, and the demons about him; and yet, for all that, there is not a spark of piety in them; for they are oppressed with ignorance, by reason of their voluntary wickedness. It is manifest, therefore, that the ungodly, although they prophesy, do not, by their prophesying, cover their own impiety; nor will they who cast out demons be sanctified by the demons’ being made subject to them; for they only mock one another, as they do who play childish tricks for mirth; and they destroy those who give heed to them. Nor is a wicked king any longer a king, but a tyrant; nor is a Bishop oppressed with ignorance or an evil disposition, a Bishop, but falsely so called, being not one sent out by God, but by men, as Hananiah and Shemaiah in Jerusalem, and Zedekiah and Achiah, the false prophets in Babylon. And, indeed, Balaam, when he had corrupted Israel by Baal-Peor, suffered punishment;  and Caiaphas at last was his own murderer; and the sons of Sceva, endeavoring to cast out demons, were wounded by them, and fled away in an unseemly manner; and the kings of Israel and Judah, when they became wicked, suffered many kinds of punishment.

It is therefore evident that Bishops and Presbyters, also, falsely so called, will not escape the judgment of God. For it will be said to them even now, ye Priests that despise my name, will deliver you up to the slaughter, as I did Zedekiah and Achiah, whom the Ung of Babylon fried in a frying-pan, as saith Jeremiah the prophet. We say these things, not in contempt of true prophecies, for we know that they are wrought in holy men by the inspiration of God; but to repress the audacity of vain-glorious men. And we add this withal, that from such as these God taketh away his grace. For God resisteth the proud, but giveth grace to the humble, Indeed, Silas and Agabus have prophesied in our times; yet they have not claimed to be equal to the apostles, nor have they exceeded their own measures, though they are beloved of God. Besides, women also have prophesied: of old, Miriam, the sister of Moses and Aaron; and, after her, Deborah; and, after these, Huldah and Judith; the former under Josiah, the latter under Darius. The mother of our Lord, likewise, prophesied, and her kinswoman Elizabeth, and Anna; and, in our times, the daughters of Philip. Yet these were not elated against their husbands, but preserved their own measures. Therefore, if among you also there be a man or a woman, and such a one obtain any gift, let him be humble, that God may be pleased with him. For, saith he, Upon whom will I look, but upon him that is humble and quiet, and trembleth at my words?

Chapter III – That to make constitutions concerning those things which are to be performed in the churches, is of great consequence

We have indeed set forth the first part of this discourse concerning gifts, whatever they may be, which God hath bestowed upon men, according to his own will; and how he rebuked the ways of those who either attempted to speak lies, or were moved by the spirit of the adversary; and that, from the wicked, God often taketh away his grace, both as to prophecy and as to the performance of miracles.

But now our discourse hasteneth us to the principal part of the portraiture of ecclesiastical affairs, that so, when ye have learned this constitution from us, ye who have been ordained Bishops by us, conformably to the will of Christ, may perform all things according to the commands delivered to us; knowing that he who heareth us heareth Christ, and he who heareth Christ heareth his God and Father; to whom be glory forever. Amen.

Chapter IV – Concerning Ordinations

Wherefore, we the Twelve Apostles of the Lord, who are now together, give you in charge these our Divine Constitutions concerning every ecclesiastical form; there being present with us Paul the chosen vessel, our fellow-apostle, and James the Bishop, and the rest of the Presbyters, and the seven Deacons.

In the first place, therefore, I Peter say, that a Bishop to be ordained is to be, as we have already all of us appointed, unblamable in all things, a select person, chosen by the whole people. And when he is named and approved, let the people assemble, with the Presbytery and Bishops that are present, on the Lord’s day; and let them give their consent. And let him who is preferred among the rest ask the Presbytery and the people, whether this is the person whom they desire for their ruler. And if they give their consent, let him ask further, whether he hath a good testimony from all men, as to his worthiness for so great and glorious an authority; whether all things relating to his piety towards God are right; whether justice towards men hath been observed by him; whether the affairs of his family have been well ordered by him; whether he hath been unblamable in the course of his life.

And if all the assembly together do, according to truth and not according to prejudice, testify that he is such a one, let them, the third time, as before God the Judge, and Christ, the Holy Ghost also assuredly being present, and all the holy ministering spirits, ask again, whether he is truly worthy of this ministry; that so, if in the mouth of two or three witnesses, every word may be established. And if they agree, the third time, that he is worthy, let them all be demanded their vote; and when they all give it willingly, let them be heard. And, silence being made, let one of the principal Bishops, together with two others, stand near the altar; the rest of the Bishops and Presbyters praying silently, and the Deacons holding the holy Gospels open upon the head of him that is to be ordained; and say to God,

Chapter V – Form of Prayer for the ordination of a Bishop

Thou the Great Being, thou Supreme Ruler, Lord, God Almighty, who alone art unbegotten and independent; who always art, and wast before the worlds; who needest nothing, and art above all cause and beginning; who only art true, who only art wise; who only art Most High; who art by nature invisible; whose knowledge is without beginning; who only art good and incomparable; who knowest all things before they are; who art acquainted with the most secret things; who art inaccessible, and without a superior; the God and Father of thine only-begotten Son, of our God and Saviour; the Creator of the universe by him; the Provider, the Guardian; the Father of mercies, and God of all consolation; who dwellest in the highest heavens, and yet lookest down on things below; thou who didst appoint the rules of the church by the coming of thy Christ in the flesh, under the Comforter as witness, by thine apostles, and by us the Bishops, who by thy grace are here present; who hast foreordained priests from the beginning, for the government of thy people; Abel in the first place, Seth and Enos, and Enoch and Noah, and Melchisedek and Job; who didst appoint Abraham, and the rest of the patriarchs, with thy faithful servants Moses and Aaron, and Eleazar and Phineas; who didst choose from among them rulers and priests in the tabernacle of thy testimony; who didst choose Samuel for a priest and a prophet; who didst not leave thy sanctuary without ministers; who didst delight in those whom thou chosest to be glorified in; do thou thyself, by the mediation of thy Christ, through us, pour down at this time the influence of thy free Spirit, which is administered by thy beloved Son, Jesus Christ; which he bestowed, according to thy will, on the holy apostles of thee, the eternal God. Grant by thy name, God, who searchest the hearts, that this thy servant, whom thou hast chosen to be a Bishop, may feed thy holy flock, and discharge the office of a high priest to thee, and minister to thee unblamably, night and day; that he may appease thee, and gather together the number of those that shall be saved, and may offer to thee the gifts of thy holy church. Grant to him, Lord Almighty, through thy Christ, the communion of the Holy Spirit, that so he may have power to remit sins according to thy command; to distribute clerical offices according to thine ordinance; to loose every bond, according to the power which thou gavest to the apostles; that he may please thee, in meekness and a pure heart, steadfastly, unblamably, irreproachably, while he offereth to thee a pure and unbloody sacrifice, which, by thy Christ, thou hast appointed as the mystery of the new covenant, for a sweet savor, through thy holy child Jesus Christ, our God and Saviour; through whom glory, honor, and worship, be to thee, in the Holy Spirit, now and always, and for all ages.

And when he hath prayed for these things, let the rest of the priests add, Amen; and, together with them, all the people.

And, after the prayer, let one of the Bishops elevate the sacrifice upon the hands of him that is ordained; and early in the morning let him be enthroned, in a place set apart for him, among the rest of the Bishops, they all giving him the kiss in the Lord. And after the reading of the Law and the Prophets, and our Epistles, and Acts, and the Gospels, let him that is ordained salute the church, saying, The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ, the love of our God and Father, and the fellowship of the Holy Ghost, be with you all; and let them all answer, And with thy spirit. And, after the salutation, let him speak to the people the words of exhortation; and when he hath ended his instructive discourse, I Andrew, the brother of Peter, say, that, while all, having risen, are standing up, let the Deacon ascend to some high place and proclaim, Let none of the hearers, let none of the unbelievers stay. And silence being made, let him say,

Chapter VI – The Divine Liturgy, in which is the bidding Prayer for the Catechumens  

Ye catechumens, pray; and let all the faithful pray for them in their mind, saying, Lord, have mercy on them. And let the Deacon bid prayers for them, saying, Let us all implore God for the catechumens, that He that is good, He that is the lover of mankind, may mercifully hear their prayers and supplications, and so accept their petitions as to assist them, and give them those desires of their hearts which are for their advantage; and reveal to them the gospel of his Christ, give them illumination and understanding, instruct them in the knowledge of God, teach them his commands and his ordinances, implant in them his saving and holy fear, open the ears of their hearts, that they may exercise themselves in his law day and night; strengthen them in piety, unite them to and number them with his flock, deeming them worthy of the laver of regeneration, and the garment of incorruption, which is the true life; and deliver them from all ungodliness, and give no place to the adversary against them, but cleanse them from all filthiness of flesh and spirit, and dwell in them, and walk in them by his Christ; bless their coming in and their going out, and order their affairs for their good. Let us still earnestly supplicate for them, that they, obtaining by their initiation the forgiveness of their transgressions, may be esteemed worthy of the holy mysteries, and of continuance with the saints.

Rise up, ye catechumens. Pray ye that ye may have the peace of God through Christ; a peaceful day, and without sin; and that such may be the whole time of your life. Pray that yours may be a Christian death. Seek a compassionate and merciful God, and the forgiveness of your transgressions. Dedicate yourselves to the only unbegotten God, through his Christ. Bow down your heads, and receive the blessing.

But upon the mention of each of these particulars which the Deacon uttereth in bidding to pray, as we said before, let the people say, Lord, have mercy; and let the children say it first.

And as the catechumens have bowed down their heads, let the Bishop who is newly ordained bless them with this blessing:

God Almighty, unbegotten and inaccessible, who only art the true God, the God and Father of thy Christ, thine only-begotten Son; the God of the Comforter, and Lord of the universe; who by Christ didst appoint the disciples to be teachers, that men might learn piety; do thou thyself even now look down upon thy servants who are catechized in the gospel of thy Christ, and give them  a new heart, and renew a right spirit in their inward parts, that they may both know and do thy will with full purpose of heart, and with a willing soul. Account them worthy of the holy initiation, and unite them to thy holy church, and make them partakers of the holy mysteries, through Christ, our hope, who for them suffered death; through whom glory and worship be given to thee in the Holy Spirit, forever. Amen.

And, after this, let the Deacon say, Go out, ye catechumens, in peace.

And after they are gone out, let him say, Ye energumens afflicted with unclean spirits, pray; and let us all earnestly pray for them, that God, the lover of mankind, may by Christ rebuke the unclean and wicked spirits, and deliver his supplicants from the dominion of the adversary. He that rebuked the legion of demons, and the prince of wickedness, the devil, may he himself even now rebuke these apostates from piety, and deliver his own workmanship from their power, and cleanse those whom he hath made with much wisdom. Let us still pray earnestly for them. Save them, God, and raise them up by thy power.

Bow down your heads, ye energumens, and receive the blessing.

And let the Bishop add a prayer, saying,

Chapter VII – Prayer for the Energumens

Thou who hast bound the strong man, and spoiled all that was in his house; who hast given us power over serpents and scorpions to tread upon them, and upon all the power of the enemy; who hast delivered the serpent, the murderer of men, bound, to us, as a parent  to children; thou whom all things dread, trembling before the face of thy power; who hast cast him down as lightning from heaven to earth; not with a fall from a place, but from honor to dishonor, on account of his voluntary evil disposition; thou whose look drieth the abysses, and whose threatening melteth the mountains, and whose truth remaineth forever; whom the infants praise, and sucking babes  whom angels sing hymns to and adore; who lookest upon the earth, and makest it tremble; who touchest the mountains, and they smoke; who threatenest the sea, and  driest it up, and makest all its rivers as a desert, and whose clouds are the dust of thy feet; who walkest upon the sea as upon firm ground; thou only-begotten God, the Son of the great Father, rebuke these wicked spirits, and deliver the works of thy hands from the power of the adverse spirit.

For to thee belong glory, honor, and worship, and through thee to thy Father, in the Holy Spirit, forever. Amen.

And let the Deacon say, Go out, ye energumens; and, after they have gone out, let him cry aloud, Ye that are about to be illuminated, pray. Let all of us the faithful earnestly pray for them, that the Lord may deem them worthy, after being initiated into the death of Christ, to rise with him, and become partakers of his kingdom, and communicants of his mysteries; may unite them to and number them among those that are saved in his holy church. Save them, and raise them up in thy grace.

Having sealed themselves to God through his Christ, and having bowed down their heads, let them receive this blessing from the Bishop:

Chapter VIII  – Prayer for the persons about to be baptized

Thou who hast formerly said by thy prophets to those that were to be initiated, Wash ye, become clean; and hast through Christ appointed the spiritual regeneration; do thou thyself even now look upon these that are about to be baptized, and bless them, and sanctify them, and prepare them, that they may become worthy of thy spiritual gift, and of the true adoption; of thy spiritual mysteries; of being gathered together with those that are saved through Christ our Saviour; through whom glory, honor, and worship, be to thee, in the Holy Spirit, forever. Amen.

And let the Deacon say, Go out, ye that are about to be illuminated.

And, after this, let him proclaim, Ye penitents, pray; and let us all earnestly pray for our brethren in the state of penance; that God, the lover of compassion, may show to them the way of repentance, and accept their return and their confession, and bruise Satan under their feet shortly; and redeem them from the snare of the devil, and the ill-usage of the demons; and free them from every unlawful word, and every absurd practice and wicked thought; forgive them all their offences, both voluntary and involuntary, and blot out the handwriting which is against them, and write them in the Book of Life; cleanse them from all filthiness of flesh and spirit, and restore and unite them to his holy flock. For He knoweth our frame; for who can say that he hath a clean heart? And who can boldly say, that he is pure from sin? For we are all under penalties. Let us still pray for them more earnestly (for there is joy in heaven over one sinner that repenteth); that, being converted from every evil work, they may be joined to all good practice; that God, the lover of mankind, may soon accept their supplications propitiously; restore to them the joy of his salvation, and strengthen them with his free spirit; that they may not be any more shaken, but be admitted to the communion of his most holy things, and become partakers of the divine mysteries; that, appearing worthy of his adoption, they may obtain eternal life. Let us all still earnestly say on their account, Lord, have mercy. Save them, God, and raise them up by thy mercy.

When ye have risen up, bow your heads to God, through his Christ, and receive the blessing.

Let the Bishop then add this prayer:

 

Chapter IX – The imposition of hands, and Prayer for the Penitent

Almighty, eternal God, Lord of the universe, the Creator and Governor of all things; who hast exhibited man as the ornament of the world through Christ, and didst give him a law both naturally implanted and written, that he might live according to law, as a rational creature; and, when he had sinned, thou gavest him thy goodness as a pledge, in order to his repentance. Look upon these persons, who have bowed the neck of their soul and body to thee. You desirest not the death of a sinner, but his repentance, that he turn from his wicked way and live. Thou who didst accept the repentance of the Ninevites; who willest that all men be saved, and come to the acknowledgement of the truth; who didst accept of that son who had consumed his substance in riotous living, with the bowels of a father, on account of his repentance; do thou thyself also now accept of the repentance of thy supplicants; because there is no man that sinneth not; for if thou, Lord, markest iniquities, Lord, who shall stand? because with thee there is propitiation. And do thou restore them to thy holy church, into their former dignity and honor, through Christ, our God and Saviour, through whom glory and adoration be to thee, in the Holy Spirit, forever. Amen.

Then let the Deacon say, Depart, ye Penitents.

And let him add, Let no one of those who have not a right, draw near. All we of the faithful, let us bow the knee. Let us entreat God, through his Christ; let us all earnestly beseech God, through his Christ.

Chapter X – The bidding Prayer for the Faithful

Let us pray for the peace and welfare of the world, and of the holy churches; that the God of the universe may afford us his everlasting peace, and such as may not be taken away from us; that he may preserve us in a full prosecution of such virtue as is according to godliness. Let us pray for the holy Catholic and Apostolic church, which is spread from one end of the earth to the other; that the Lord may preserve and keep it unshaken, and free from the waves of this life until the end of the world, as founded upon a rock; and let us pray for this holy parish, that the Lord of the universe may deem us worthy, without failure, to follow after the heavenly hope, and, without ceasing, to pay him the debt of our prayer. Let us pray forevery Episcopate which is under the whole heaven, of those that rightly divide the word of thy truth. And let us pray for our bishop James, and his parishes. Let us pray for our bishop Clement, and his parishes. Let us pray for our bishop Euodius, and his parishes. Let us pray for our bishop Annianus, and his parishes; that the compassionate God may grant them to continue in his holy churches in health, honor, and long life, and afford them an honorable old age, in godliness and righteousness. And let us pray for our Presbyters, that the Lord may deliver them from every unreasonable and wicked action, and afford them a Presbyterate in health and honor. Let us pray for all the Deacons and subordinate servants of the church, that the Lord may grant them an unblamable reputation. Let us pray for the Readers, Singers, Virgins, Widows, and Orphans.

Let us pray for those that are in marriage and child-bearing; that the Lord may have mercy upon them all. Let us pray for the eunuchs, leading a life of sanctity. Let us pray for those persons that are in a state of continency and religious abstinence. Let us pray for those that bear fruit in the holy church, and give alms to the needy. And let us pray for those who offer sacrifices and oblations to the Lord our God; that God, the fountain of all goodness, may recompense them with his heavenly gifts, and give them in this world a hundred-fold, and in the world to come life everlasting; and bestow upon them, for their temporal things, those that are eternal; for earthly things, those that are heavenly.

Let us pray for our brethren newly enlightened, that the Lord may strengthen and confirm them. Let us pray for our brethren afflicted with sickness, that the Lord may deliver them from every disease and every malady, and restore them sound to his holy church. Let us pray for those that travel by water or by land. Let us pray for those that are in the mines, in banishment, in prisons, and in bonds, for the name of the Lord. Let us pray for those that are worn down with toil in bitter servitude. Let us pray for our enemies, and those that hate us. Let us pray for those that persecute us for the name of the Lord, that the Lord may pacify their anger, and cause their wrath against us to pass away. Let us pray for those that are without, and have wandered out of the way, that the Lord may convert them. Let us be mindful of the infants of the church; that the Lord may perfect them in his fear, and bring them to a complete age. Let us pray one for another; that the Lord may keep us by his grace to the end, and deliver us from the evil one, and from all the scandals of those that work iniquity, and preserve us unto his heavenly kingdom. Let us pray forevery Christian soul.

Save us, and raise us up, God, by thy mercy.

Let us rise up, and let us pray earnestly, and dedicate ourselves and one another to the living God, through his Christ.

Moreover, let the High Priest offer a prayer, and say,

Chapter XI  – Form of Prayer for the Faithful

Lord Almighty, the Most High, who dwellest on high, the Holy One, that restest among the saints, without beginning, the Only Potentate; who hast given to us, through Christ, the preaching of knowledge, to the acknowledgment of thy glory, and of thy name, which he hath made known to us for our comprehension. Do thou thyself even now look down, through him, upon this thy flock; and deliver it from all ignorance and wicked practices; and grant that we may fear thee in earnest, and love thee with affection, and have a due reverence of thy glory. Be gracious and merciful to them, and hearken to them when they pray unto thee, and keep them, that they may be immovable, blameless, and irreproachable; that they may be holy in body and soul, not having spot or wrinkle, or any such thing; but that they may be complete, and no one among them may be defective or imperfect. Thou powerful Defender, who dost not accept persons, be thou the assister of this thy people, which thou hast redeemed with the precious blood of thy Christ; be thou their protector, helper, provider, and guardian, their strong wall of defence, their bulwark and security; because none can snatch out of thy hand; for there is no other God like thee; because on thee is our reliance. Sanctify them through thy truth; for thy word is truth. Thou who doest nothing for favor, thou whom none can deceive, deliver them from every disease and every malady, and every offence, every injury and deceit, from fear of the enemy, from the dart that flieth in the day, from the mischief that walketh about in darkness; and account them worthy of that everlasting life which is in Christ, thine only-begotten Son, our God and Saviour; through whom glory and worship be to thee, in the Holy Spirit, now and always, and forever. Amen.

After this, let the Deacon say, Let us attend. And let the Bishop salute the church and say, The peace of God be with you all. And let the people answer, And with thy spirit. And let the Deacon say to all, Salute ye one another with a holy kiss. And let the clergy salute the Bishop; the men of the laity, the men; the women, the women.

Moreover, let the children stand at the reading-desk; and let another Deacon stand by them, that they may not be disorderly. And let other Deacons walk about, and watch the men and women, that no tumult be made, and that no one nod, or whisper, or slumber; and let the Deacons stand at the doors of the men, and the Subdeacons at those of the women; that no one go out, nor a door be opened, although it be for one of the faithful, at the time of the oblation. And let one of the Subdeacons bring water to wash the hands of the Priests; which is a symbol of the purity of those souls that are devoted to God.

Chapter XII – A constitution of James, the brother of John, the son of Zebedee

Now I also, James, the brother of John, the son of Zebedee, say that the Deacon shall immediately proclaim, Let none of the Catechumens stay here; let none of the Hearers; let none of the Unbelievers; let none of the Heterodox. Ye who have prayed the first prayer, draw near. Let the mothers receive their children. Let no one have anything against anyone; let no one come in hypocrisy; let us stand upright before the Lord with fear and trembling, to offer.

When this is done, let the Deacons bring the gifts to the Bishop at the altar; and let the Presbyters stand on his right hand and on his left, as disciples stand before their master. But let two of the Deacons, on each side of the altar, hold a fan, made of thin membranes, or of the feathers of a peacock, or of fine cloth, and let them silently drive away the small animals that fly about, that so they may not come near to the cups.

Let now the High Priest, simultaneously with the Priests, pray by himself. And let him put on his shining garments, and stand at the altar, and make the sign of the cross upon his forehead, with his hand, before all the people, and say,

The grace of Almighty God, and the love of our Lord Jesus Christ, and the fellowship of the Holy Ghost, be with you all. And let all with one voice say, And with thy spirit.

The high priest, Lift up your mind.

All the people, We lift it up unto the Lord.

The high priest, Let us give thanks to the Lord.

All the people, It is meet and right so to do.

Then let the High Priest say, is very meet and right before all things to sing a hymn to thee, who art the true God, who art before all beings; from whom the whole family in heaven and earth  is named; who only art unbegotten, and without beginning, independent, and without a master; who needest nothing; who art the bestower of everything that is good; who art above all cause and generation; who art always and immutably the same; from whom, as from a grand starting place, all things came into being. For thou art eternal knowledge, everlasting sight, unbegotten hearing, untaught wisdom, the first by nature, and the law to being, and superior to all number; who didst bring all things out of nothing into being, through thine only-begotten Son, but didst before all ages, by thy will, thy power, and thy goodness, without any intermediate agent beget him, the only-begotten Son, God the Word, the living Wisdom, the First-born of every creature, the Angel  of thy great Council; and thy high priest, but the king and Lord of every intellectual and sensible nature; who was before all things, and through whom were all things.

Creation

For thou, eternal God, didst through him make all things, and through him thou dost account the universe worthy of thy suitable providence; for by the very same by whom thou didst bestow being, thou didst also bestow well- being; thou, the God and Father of thine only-begotten Son; who by him didst make, before all things, the cherubim and the seraphim, the aeons and hosts, the powers and authorities, the principalities and thrones, the archangels and angels; and, after all these, didst by him make this visible world, and all things that are therein. For thou art He who didst frame the heaven as an arch, and stretch it out like the covering of a tent, and didst found the earth upon nothing, by thy mere will; who didst fix the firmament, and prepare the night and the day; who didst bring the light out of thy treasures, and on its departure didst bring on darkness, for the rest of the living creatures that move up and down in the world; who didst appoint the sun in heaven to rule over the day, and the moon to rule over the night; and didst inscribe in heaven the choir of stars to praise thy glorious majesty; who didst make the water for drink, and for cleansing; the air in which we live, for respiration, and for the emission of voice, by means of the tongue, which striketh the air, and for hearing, which cooperateth under the impulse of the air, so that, receiving, it perceiveth the speech that falleth upon it; who madest fire for our consolation in darkness, for the supply of our want, and that by it we might be warmed and enlightened; who didst separate the great sea from the land, and didst render the former navigable, and the latter fit for walking; and didst replenish the former with living creatures, small and great, and fill the latter with tame ones and with wild, didst adorn it with various plants, and crown it with herbs, and beautify it with flowers, and enrich it with seeds; who didst ordain the great deep, bestow upon it a mighty amplitude; seas of salt water heaped together, yet didst bound it with barriers of the smallest sand; who sometimes dost raise it to the height of mountains by the winds, and sometimes dost smoothe it into a plain; sometimes dost enrage it into a tempest, and sometimes dost still it with a calm, that it may be easy to seafaring men in their voyages; who didst encompass this world, which was made by thee through Christ, with rivers, and water it with currents, and moisten it with springs that never fail, and didst bind it round with mountains, for the immovable and secure consistence of the earth. For thou hast replenished thy world, and adorned it with sweet-smelling and with healing herbs, with many and various living creatures, strong and weak, for food and for labor, tame and wild, with the noises of creeping things, the sounds of various sorts of flying creatures, with the circuits of the years, the numbers of months and days, the order of the seasons, the courses of the rainy clouds, for the production of the fruits, and the support of living creatures. Thou hast also appointed the station of the winds, which blow when commanded by thee, and the multitude of the plants and herbs.

Adam and Eve in Paradise

And thou hast not only created the world, but hast also made man for a citizen of the world, exhibiting him as its ornament. For thou didst say to thy Wisdom, Let us make man according to our image, and according to our likeness; and let them have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowls of the heaven. Wherefore, also, thou hast made him of an immortal soul, and of a body liable to dissolution; the former out of nothing, the latter out of the four elements; and hast given him, as to his soul, rational discernment, the distinction of piety and impiety, the observing of right and wrong; and, as to his body, thou hast granted him five senses, and progressive motion. For thou, God Almighty, didst, by thy Christ, plant a paradise in Eden, in the East, adorned  with various plants, suitable for food, and didst introduce man into it, as into a rich banquet; and, when thou madest him, thou gavest him a law, implanted within him, that so he might have at home, and within himself, the seeds of the knowledge of God. Moreover, when thou hadst brought him into the delightful paradise, thou allowedst him the privilege of enjoying all things, only forbidding the tasting of one tree, in hope of greater blessings; that, in case he would keep that command, he might receive the reward of it, which was immortality: but when he neglected that command, and tasted of the forbidden fruit, by the seduction of the serpent, and the counsel of his wife, thou didst justly cast him out of paradise; yet, of thy goodness, thou didst not overlook him, nor suffer him to perish utterly; for he was thy creature. But thou didst subject to him the whole creation, and didst grant him liberty to procure himself food by his own sweat and labors; while thou didst cause all the fruits of the earth to spring up, to grow, and to ripen. And when thou hadst laid him asleep for a little while, thou didst with an oath call him to a restoration, didst loose the bond of death, and promise him life after the resurrection. And not this only, but when thou hadst increased his posterity to an innumerable multitude, those that continued with thee thou didst glorify, and those that apostatized from thee thou didst punish; and while thou didst accept the sacrifice of Abel, as of a holy person, thou didst reject the gift of Cain, the murderer of his brother, as of one that was abhorred. And, besides these, thou didst accept of Seth  and Enos, and didst translate Enoch. For thou art the Creator of men, and the giver of life, and the supplier of want, and the giver of laws, and the rewarder of those that observe them, and the avenger of those that transgress them.

Old Testament; Salvation of Righteous, Destruction of Wicked

who didst bring the great flood upon the world, by reason of the multitude of the ungodly, and didst deliver righteous Noah from that flood by an ark, with eight souls, the end of the foregoing generations, and the beginning of those that were to come; who didst kindle a fearful fire against the  five cities of Sodom, and didst turn a fruitful land  into a salt lake, for the wickedness of them that dwelt therein, but didst snatch holy Lot out of the conflagration. Thou art He who didst deliver Abraham from the impiety of his forefathers, and didst appoint him to be the heir of the world, and didst cause thy Christ to appear to him; who didst ordain Melchisedek a high priest for thy worship; who didst render thy patient servant Job the conqueror of that serpent who is the patron of wickedness; who madest Isaac the son of promise, and Jacob the father of twelve sons; and didst increase his posterity to a multitude, and bring him into Egypt with seventy-five souls.

Thou, Lord, didst not overlook Joseph, but didst grant him, as a reward of his chastity for thy sake, the government over the Egyptians. Thou, Lord, didst not overlook the Hebrews when they were afflicted by the Egyptians, but didst deliver them, on account of the promises made to their fathers, and didst punish the Egyptians. And when men had corrupted the law of nature, and had sometimes esteemed the creation the effect of chance, and sometimes honored it more than they ought, and equalled it to the God of the universe, thou didst not suffer them to go astray, but didst raise up thy servant Moses, and by him didst give the written law, for the assistance of the law of nature, and didst show that the creation was thy work, and didst banish away the error of polytheism. Thou didst adorn Aaron and his posterity with the priesthood, and didst punish the Hebrews when they sinned, and receive them again when they returned to thee. Thou didst punish the Egyptians with a judgment of ten plagues, and didst divide the sea, and bring the Israelites through it, and drown and destroy the Egyptians, who pursued them. Thou didst sweeten the bitter water with wood. Thou didst bring water out of the hard rock. Thou didst rain manna from heaven, and quails, for food, out of the air. Thou didst afford them a pillar of fire by night to give them light, and a pillar of a cloud by day, to overshadow them from the heat. Thou didst declare Joshua to be the general of the army, and by him didst overthrow the seven nations of Canaan. Thou didst divide the Jordan, and dry up the rivers of Etham. Thou didst over throw walls without instruments, or the hand of man.

Heavenly Hosts and Choirs

For all these things, glory be to thee, Lord Almighty. Thee do the innumerable hosts of angels, archangels, thrones, dominions, principalities, authorities, and powers, thine everlasting armies, adore. The cherubim, and the six-winged seraphim, with twain covering their feet, with twain their heads, and with twain flying, say, together with thousand thousands of archangels,  and ten thousand times ten thousand of angels, incessantly, and with constant and loud voices, and let all the people say it with them, Holy, holy, holy. Lord of hosts; heaven and earth are full of his glory. Be thou blessed forever. Amen.

And afterwards let the High Priest say, For thou art truly holy, and most holy, the highest and most highly exalted forever.

Life of  Jesus Christ

Holy also is thine only-begotten Son, our Lord and God, Jesus Christ, who in all things ministered to his God and Father, both in thy various creations and in thy suitable providence, and hath not overlooked lost mankind. But after the law of nature, after the admonitions in the positive law, after the prophetical reproofs, and the attentions of the angels, when men had perverted both the positive law and that of nature, and had cast out of their mind the memory of the flood, the burning of Sodom, the plagues of the Egyptians, and the slaughters of the inhabitants of Palestine, and were just ready to perish universally, after an unparalleled manner, he himself was pleased by thy good will to become man, who was man’s Creator; to be under the laws, who was the legislator; to be a sacrifice, who was a High Priest; to be a sheep, who was the shepherd: and he appeased thee, his God and Father, and reconciled thee to the world, and freed all men from the impending wrath, being born of a virgin, and made in flesh, God the Word, the beloved Son, the First-born of the whole creation, according to the prophecies which were foretold concerning him by himself, of the seed of David and Abraham, of the tribe of Judah. And in the womb of a virgin He was made, who formed all mankind that are born into the world. He took flesh, who was without flesh. He who was begotten before time, was born in time. He lived holily, and taught according to the law. He drove away every sickness and every disease from men, and wrought signs and wonders among the people; and He was partaker of meat, and drink, and sleep, who nourisheth all that are in need of food, and filleth every living creature with goodness. He manifested his name to those that knew him not. He banished ignorance; he revived piety; he fulfilled thy will. He finished the work which thou gavest him to do.

Jesus Christ’s Atonement

And when he had set all these things right, he was seized by the hands of the ungodly, of the high priests and priests, falsely so called, and of the disobedient people, through the treachery of him who was possessed with wickedness as with a confirmed disease. He suffered manythings from them, and endured every ignominy, by thy permission. He was delivered to Pilate, the governor; and He who was the Judge, was judged; and He who was the Saviour, was condemned. He who was impassible, was nailed to the cross; and He who was by nature immortal, died; and He who was the Giver of life, was buried: that he might deliver from suffering and death those for whose sake he came, and might break the bonds of the devil, and deliver mankind from his deceit. He rose from the dead, the third day; and when he had continued with his disciples forty days, he was taken up into the heavens, and is seated at the right hand of thee, who art his God and Father.

Christ’s Institution of the Eucharist

Being mindful, therefore, of those things which he endured for our sake, we give thee thanks, Almighty God, not in such a manner as we ought, but as we are able, and fulfil his constitution. For in the same night in which he was betrayed, he took bread in his holy and undefiled hands; and, looking up to Thee, his God and Father, he brake it, and gave it to his disciples, saying, This is the mystery of the new covenant. Take of it, and eat. This is my body, which is broken for many for the remission of sins. In like manner also he took the cup, and mixed it of wine and water, and sanctified it, and delivered it to them, saying, Drink ye all of it; for this is my blood which is shed for many, for the remission of sins. Do this in remembrance of me. For as often as ye eat this bread, and drink this cup, ye do show forth my death till I come.

This Eucharist

Being mindful, therefore, of his Passion, and death, and resurrection from the dead, and return into the heavens, and his future second advent, in which he is to come with glory and power to judge the living and the dead, and to recompense to everyone according to his works, we offer to thee, our King and our God, according to his constitution, this bread and this cup; giving thee thanks, through him, that thou hast thought us worthy to stand before thee, and to sacrifice; and we beseech thee to look propitiously upon these gifts, which are here set before thee, thou God, who needest none of our offerings, and to accept them to the honor of thy Christ, and send down thy Holy Spirit, the Witness of the sufferings of the Lord Jesus, that he may show this bread to be the body of thy Christ, and the cup to be the blood of thy Christ, in order that those who are partakers thereof may be strengthened for piety, may obtain the remission of their sins, may be delivered from the devil and his deceit, may be filled with the Holy Ghost, may be made worthy of thy Christ, and may obtain eternal life upon thy reconciliation to them, Lord Almighty.

We further pray unto thee, Lord, for thy holy church, spread from one end of the world to another, which thou hast purchased with the precious blood of thy Christ; that thou wilt preserve it unshaken, and free from disturbance, until the end of the world; and forevery episcopate that rightly divideth the word of truth.

We further implore thee, for me, who am nothing, who offer to thee; for the whole presbytery, for the deacons, and all the clergy, that thou wilt make them wise, and replenish them with the Holy Spirit.

We further implore thee, Lord, for the king, and all in authority, and for the whole army; that they may be peaceable towards us, that so, leading the whole time of our life in quietness and unanimity, we may glorify thee, through Jesus Christ, who is our hope.

We further offer to thee, also, for all those holy persons who have pleased thee from the beginning of the world, patriarchs, prophets, righteous men, apostles, martyrs, confessors, bishops, presbyters, deacons, subdeacons, readers, singers, virgins, widows, lay persons, and all whose names thou thyself knowest.

We further offer to thee, for this people, that thou wilt render them to the praise of thy Christ, a royal priesthood, a holy nation; for those that are in virginity and purity; for the widows of the church; for those persons who are in honorable marriage and child-bearing; and for the infants of thy people; that thou wilt cast none of us away.

We further beseech thee, also, for this city and its inhabitants; for those that are sick; for those that are in bitter servitude; for those that are in banishment; for those that are in prison; for those that travel by water or by land; that thou, the Helper and Assister of all men, wilt be their Supporter.

We further implore thee, also, for those that hate us and persecute us for thy name’s sake; for those that are without, and wander out of the way; that thou wilt convert them to goodness, and pacify their anger.

We further implore thee, also, for the catechumens of the church; and for those that are vexed by the adversary; and for our brethren, the penitents: that thou wilt perfect the first in the faith; that thou wilt deliver the second from the energy of the evil one; and that thou wilt accept the repentance of the last, and forgive both them and us our offences.

We further offer to thee, also, for the good temperature of the air, and the fertility of the fruits; that so, partaking perpetually of the good things derived from thee, we may praise thee without ceasing, who givest food to all flesh.

We further implore thee, also, for those who are absent on a just cause; that thou wilt keep us all in piety, and gather us together in the kingdom of the Anointed of thee, the God of all nature, perceptible and conceivable, our King; that thou wilt keep us immovable, blameless, irreproachable. For to thee belong all glory, worship, and thanksgiving, honor and adoration, to the Father, and to the Son, and to the Holy Spirit, both now and always, and foreverlasting and endless ages.

And let all the people say, Amen. And let the Bishop say, The peace of God be with you all. And let all the people say, And with thy spirit.

And let the Deacon proclaim again,

XIII – The Bidding Prayer for the Faithful, after the divine Oblation

Let us still further beseech God, through his Christ, for the gift which is offered to the Lord God, that the good God may accept it, through the mediation of his Christ, upon his heavenly altar, for a sweet-smelling savor.

Let us pray for this church and people. Let us pray for every Episcopate, for every Presbytery, for all the Deacons and Ministers in Christ, for the whole body of the church, that the Lord may keep and preserve them all.

Let us pray for kings, and those who are in authority, that they may be peaceable towards us, that so we may have and lead a quiet and peaceable life in all godliness and honesty.

Let us be mindful of the holy martyrs, that we may be thought worthy to be partakers of their trial.

Let us pray for those that are departed in the faith.

Let us pray for the good temperature of the air, and the perfect maturity of the fruits.

Let us pray for those that are newly enlightened, that they may all be strengthened in the faith.

Let us pray for one another. Raise us up, God, in thy grace.

Let us stand up, and dedicate ourselves to God, through his Christ.

And let the Bishop say, God, who art great, and whose name is great, who art great in counsel, and mighty in works, the God and Father of thy holy child Jesus, our Saviour; look upon us, and upon this thy flock, which thou hast chosen through him, to the glory of thy name; and sanctify our body and our soul, and grant us the power to be made pure from all filthiness of flesh  and spirit, and to obtain the good things laid up for us, and account no one of us unworthy; but be thou our Comforter, Helper, and Protector, through thy Christ, with whom glory, honor, praise, doxology, and thanksgiving be to thee, and to the Holy Spirit, forever.

Amen.

And after all have said Amen, let the Deacon say, Let us attend. And let the Bishop speak thus to the people, Holy things for holy persons. And let the people answer, There is One that is holy; there is one Lord, Jesus Christ, blessed forever, to the glory of God the Father. Amen. Glory to God in the highest,  and on earth, peace; good will among men. Hosanna to the Son of David. Blessed be he God the Lord that cometh in the name of the Lord, and hath appeared to us. Hosanna in the highest.

And after that, let the Bishop partake; then the Presbyters, and the Deacons and Subdeacons, and the Readers, and the Singers, and the Ascetics; and, of the women, the Deaconesses, and the Virgins, and the Widows; afterwards the children, and then all the people in order, with reverence and godly fear, without tumult.

And let the Bishop give the oblation, saying, The body of Christ; and let him that receiveth it say, Amen. And let the Deacon take the cup, and when he giveth it, let him say, The blood of Christ, the cup of life; and let him that drinketh say, Amen. And let the thirty-third Psalm be said, while all the rest are partaking.

Psalm 33 (New King James Version)

The Sovereignty of the LORD in Creation and History

 1 Rejoice in the LORD, O you righteous!
For praise from the upright is beautiful.
2 Praise the LORD with the harp;
Make melody to Him with an instrument of ten strings.
3 Sing to Him a new song;
Play skillfully with a shout of joy.

4 For the word of the LORD is right,
And all His work is done in truth.
5 He loves righteousness and justice;
The earth is full of the goodness of the LORD.

6 By the word of the LORD the heavens were made,
And all the host of them by the breath of His mouth.
7 He gathers the waters of the sea together as a heap;[a]
He lays up the deep in storehouses.

8 Let all the earth fear the LORD;
Let all the inhabitants of the world stand in awe of Him.
9 For He spoke, and it was done;
He commanded, and it stood fast.

10 The LORD brings the counsel of the nations to nothing;
He makes the plans of the peoples of no effect.
11 The counsel of the LORD stands forever,
The plans of His heart to all generations.
12 Blessed is the nation whose God is the LORD,
The people He has chosen as His own inheritance.

13 The LORD looks from heaven;
He sees all the sons of men.
14 From the place of His dwelling He looks
On all the inhabitants of the earth;
15 He fashions their hearts individually;
He considers all their works.

16 No king is saved by the multitude of an army;
A mighty man is not delivered by great strength.
17 A horse is a vain hope for safety;
Neither shall it deliver any by its great strength.

18 Behold, the eye of the LORD is on those who fear Him,
On those who hope in His mercy,
19 To deliver their soul from death,
And to keep them alive in famine.

20 Our soul waits for the LORD;
He is our help and our shield.
21 For our heart shall rejoice in Him,
Because we have trusted in His holy name.
22 Let Your mercy, O LORD, be upon us,
Just as we hope in You.

And when all, both men and women, have communicated, let the deacons take what remains and carry it into the sacristy.

And when all, both men and women, have partaken, let the Deacons carry what remaineth into the private apartments of the church.

And when the Singer hath done, let the Deacon say,

Chapter XIV – The Bidding Prayer after the Participation

Having partaken of the precious body and of the precious blood of Christ, let us give thanks to Him who hath thought us worthy to partake of these his holy mysteries; and let us implore him that it may not be to us for condemnation, but for salvation, to the advantage of soul and body, to the preservation of piety, to the remission of sins, and to the life of the world to come. Let us arise. In the grace of Christ let us dedicate ourselves to God, to the only unbegotten God, and to his Christ.

And let the Bishop give thanks:

Chapter XV – Form of Prayer after the Participation

Lord God Almighty, the Father of thy Christ, thy blessed Son, who hearest those that call upon thee with uprightness, who also knowest the supplications of those that are silent; we thank thee that thou hast accounted us worthy to partake of thy holy mysteries, which thou hast bestowed upon us, for the entire confirmation of those things which we have rightly known, for the preservation of piety, for the remission of our offences; because the name of thy Christ is called upon us, and we are joined to thee.

Thou that hast separated us from the communion of the ungodly, unite us with those that are consecrated to thee in holiness; confirm us in the truth by the assistance of thy Holy Spirit. Reveal to us the things of which we are ignorant; supply to us the things in which we are defective; confirm us in the things which we already know. Preserve the priests blameless in thy worship; keep the kings in peace, and the rulers in righteousness; the air, in a good temperature; the fruits, in fertility; the world, in an all-powerful Providence. Pacify the warring nations. Convert those that are gone astray. Sanctify thy people. Keep those that are in virginity. Preserve those in fidelity that are in marriage. Strengthen those that are in purity. Bring to maturity the little ones; confirm the newly perfected; instruct the catechumens, and render them worthy of admission; and gather us all together into thy kingdom of heaven, through Jesus Christ our Lord; with whom glory, honor, and worship, be to thee, and to the Holy Spirit, forever. Amen.

And let the Deacon say, Bow down to God, through his Christ, and receive the blessing.

And let the Bishop add this prayer, and say, God Almighty, the true God, to whom nothing can be compared; who art everywhere, and present in all things, and art in nothing as one of the things themselves; who art not bounded by place, nor grown old by time; who art not terminated by ages, nor deceived by words; who art not subject to generation, and needest no guard; who art above all corruption, free from all change, and invariable by nature; who dwellest in light inaccessible; who by nature art invisible, and yet art known to all reasonable natures who seek thee with a good mind; who art discovered by those that seek after thee with a good mind; the God of Israel, thy people which truly see, and which have believed in Christ. Be gracious to me, and hear me, for thy name’s sake; and bless those that bow down their necks to thee, and grant them the petitions of their hearts, which are for their good, and reject no one of them from thy kingdom. But sanctify, watch over, protect, and assist them; deliver them from the adversary, and every enemy; keep their houses, and guard their coming in and their going out. For to thee belongeth  the glory, praise, majesty, worship, and adoration, and to thy Son Jesus, thy Christ, our Lord and God and King, and to the Holy Spirit, now, and always, and forever. Amen.

And the Deacon shall say, Depart in peace.

These constitutions concerning this mystical worship, we the Apostles ordain for you the Bishops, Priests, and Deacons.

 (End Of Eucharist)

Chapter XVI – Concerning the ordination of Presbyters, a constitution of John who was beloved by the Lord

Concerning the ordination of Presbyters, I, who was beloved by the Lord, make this constitution for you the Bishops:

When thou ordainest a Presbyter, Bishop, lay thy hand upon his head, in the presence of the Presbyters and Deacons, and pray, saying,

Lord Almighty, our God, who hast created all things by Christ, and dost in like manner take care of the universe by him; for he who had power to make different creatures, hath also power to take care of them, according to their different natures. On which account, God, thou takest care of immortal beings by preservation alone, but of those that are mortal, by succession; of the soul, by the provision of laws; of the body, by the supply of its wants. Do thou thyself, therefore, even now look upon thy holy church, aNd increase it, and multiply those that preside in it, and grant them power, that they may labor in word and deed for the edification of thy people. Do thou thyself also now look upon this thy servant, who is put into the Presbytery by the vote and determination of the whole clergy. And do thou replenish him with the spirit of grace and counsel, to assist and govern thy people with a pure heart, in the same manner in which thou didst look upon thy chosen people, and didst command Moses to choose elders, whom thou didst fill with thy Spirit. And now, Lord, bestow and preserve in us the spirit of thy grace, that this person, being filled with the gifts of healing and the word of teaching, may in meekness instruct thy people, and sincerely serve thee with a pure mind and a willing soul; and may fully discharge the holy ministrations for thy people, through thy Christ, with whom glory, honor, and worship, be to thee and to the Holy Spirit forever. Amen.

Chapter XVII – Concerning the ordination of Deacons, a constitution of Philip

Concerning the ordination of Deacons, I Philip make this constitution: Thou shalt ordain a Deacon, Bishop, by laying thy hands upon him in the presence of the whole Presbytery and of the Deacons, and shalt pray, saying,

Chapter XVIII – Form of Prayer for the ordination of a Deacon

God, the Almighty, the true and faithful, who art rich unto all that call upon thee in truth; who art fearful in counsels, and wise in understanding; who art powerful and great; hear our prayer, Lord, and let thine ears receive our supplication, and cause the light of thy countenance to shine upon this thy servant, who is appointed for thee to the office of a Deacon; and replenish him with thy Holy Spirit and with power, as thou didst replenish Stephen, who was thy martyr, and follower of the sufferings of thy Christ. And grant that he may discharge acceptably the ministration of a Deacon, steadily, unblamably, and without reproof, and be accounted worthy of a higher degree; through the mediation of thine only-begotten Son, with whom glory, honor, and worship, be to thee, and to the Holy Spirit, forever. Amen.

Chapter XIX – Concerning a Deaconess, a constitution of Bartholomew

Concerning a Deaconess, I Bartholomew make this constitution: Bishop, thou shalt lay thy hands upon her in the presence of the Presbytery, and of the Deacons and Deaconesses; and shalt say,

Chapter XX – Form of Prayer for the ordination of a Deaconess

Eternal God, the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, the Creator man and woman; who didst with the Spirit replenish Miriam, and Deborah, and Anna, and Huldah; who didst not disdain that thine only-begotten Son should be born of a woman; who also, in the tabernacle of the testimony and in the temple, didst ordain women to be keepers of thy holy gates; do thou thyself also now look upon this thy handmaid, appointed to the office of a Deaconess; and grant her the Holy Spirit, and cleanse her from all filthiness of flesh and spirit; that she may worthily discharge the work which is committed to her, unto thy glory, and the praise of thy Christ; with whom glory and adoration be to thee, and to the Holy Spirit, forever. Amen.

Chapter XXI – Concerning Subdeacons, a constitution of Thomas

Concerning Subdeacons, I Thomas make this constitution for you the Bishops: When thou dost ordain a Subdeacon, Bishop, thou shalt lay thy hands upon him, and say,

Lord God, the Creator of heaven and earth, and of all things that are therein; who also, in the tabernacle of the testimony, didst appoint overseers and keepers of thy holy vessels; do thou thyself also now look upon this thy servant, appointed a Sub- deacon; and grant him the Holy Spirit, that he may worthily handle the vessels consecrated to thy service, and do thy will always, through thy Christ, with whom glory, honor, and worship, be to thee, and to the Holy Spirit, forever. Amen.

Chapter XXII – Concerning Readers, a constitution of Matthew

Concerning Readers, I Matthew, who am also Levi, formerly a publican, make this constitution: Ordain a Reader by laying thy hands upon him, and pray to God, saying,

Eternal God, who art plenteous in mercy and compassions; who hast made manifest the constitution of the world by the things that are effectuated, and keepest the number of thine elect; do thou thyself also now look upon thy servant, intrusted to read thy Holy Scriptures to thy people; and grant to him that Holy Spirit which was in the prophets. Thou who didst instruct Ezra thy servant to read thy laws to thy people, now also instruct thy  servant, in answer to our prayers; and grant that he may without blame perform the work committed to him, and be proved worthy of a higher degree, through Christ; with whom glory and worship be to thee, and to the Holy Spirit, forever. Amen.

Chapter XXIII – Concerning Confessors, a constitution of James the son of Alpheus

And I James, the son of Alpheus, make this constitution concerning Confessors: A Confessor is not appointed. For this is a matter of voluntariness and of patience; and he is worthy of great honor, as having confessed the name of God and of his Christ before nations and kings. If, however, there be occasion, he is to be ordained either a Bishop, or Presbyter, or Deacon. But if anyone of the Confessors, who is not ordained, snatch to himself any such dignity, on account of his confession, let this person be deposed and rejected; for he is not what he pretendeth to be, since he hath denied the constitution of Christ, and is worse than an infidel.

Chapter XXIV – The same apostle’s constitution concerning Virgins

Concerning Virgins, I, the same apostle, make this constitution: A Virgin is not appointed; for we have no such command from the Lord. The prize pertaineth to a voluntary trial, not for the reproach of marriage, but on account of leisure and piety.

Chapter XXV – The constitution of Lebbeus, who was surnamed Thaddeus, concerning Widows

And I Lebbeus, surnamed Thaddeus, make this constitution concerning Widows: A Widow is not appointed; yet if she hath lost her husband a long time, and hath lived soberly and unblamably, and hath taken extraordinary care of her family, as Judith and Anna, those women of great reputation, let her be enrolled in the order of Widows. But if she hath lately lost her companion, let her not be confided in, but let her youth be judged of by time; for the passions sometimes grow aged with persons, if they be not restrained by a better bridle.

Chapter XXVI – The same apostle concerning an Exorcist

Concerning an Exorcist, I, the same apostle, make this constitution: An Exorcist is not appointed; for the prize pertaineth to voluntary goodness and the grace of God, through Christ, by the influence of the Holy Spirit. For he who hath received the gift of healing is declared by revelation from God, the grace that is in him being manifest to all. But if there be need of him for a Bishop, or Presbyter, or Deacon, he is appointed accordingly.

Chapter XXVII – Simon the Cananite, concerning the number necessary for the ordination of a Bishop

And I, Simon the Cananite, make this constitution determining by how many a Bishop ought to be ordained: Let a Bishop be ordained by three Bishops, or by two. But if anyone be ordained by one Bishop, let him be deposed, both himself and the Bishop that ordained him. If, however, there be a necessity that he have only one to ordain him, because more Bishops cannot come together, as in time of persecution, or for other similar cause, let him bring the suffrage of permission from more Bishops.

Chapter XXVIII – The same apostle’s canons concerning Bishops, Presbyters, Deacons,  and the rest of the clergy

In respect to canons, I, the same apostle, make this constitution: A Bishop blesseth, but doth not receive the blessing. He layeth on hands, ordaineth, offereth, receiveth the blessing from Bishops, but by no means from Presbyters. A Bishop deposeth any clerical person deserving to be deposed, except a Bishop; for of himself he hath not power to do that.

A Presbyter blesseth, but doth not receive the blessing; yet he receiveth the blessing from the Bishop, or from a fellow-Presbyter. In like manner he giveth it to a fellow-Presbyter. He layeth on hands, but doth not ordain. He doth not depose; yet he suspendeth from communion those that are under him, if they be liable to such a punishment.

A Deacon doth not bless, doth not give the blessing, but receiveth it from the Bishop and the Presbyter. He doth not baptize; he doth not offer: but, when a Bishop or a Presbyter hath offered, he distributeth to the people, not as a Priest, but as one that ministereth to the Priests. But it is not lawful for anyone of the other clergy to do the work of a Deacon.

A Deaconess doth not bless, nor perform anything belonging to the office of Presbyters or Deacons; but is only to keep the doors, and to minister to the Presbyters in the baptizing of women, on account of decency.

A Deacon suspendeth a Subdeacon, a Reader, a Singer, or a Deaconess, if there be any occasion, in the absence of a Presbyter.

It is not lawful for a Subdeacon to suspend anyone, whether a clerical or a lay person; nor for a Reader, nor for a Singer, nor for a Deaconess; for they are only attendants, ministering to the Deacons.

Chapter XXIX – Concerning the blessing of water and of oil, a constitution of Matthias

Concerning the water and the oil, I, Matthias, make this constitution: Let the Bishop bless the water or the oil. If, however, he be not present, let the Presbyter bless it; the Deacon standing by. But when the Bishop is present, let the Presbyter and the Deacon stand by, and let him say thus:

Lord of hosts, the God of powers, the Creator of the waters, and the Supplier of oil; who art compassionate, and a Lover of mankind; who hast given water for drink and for cleansing, and oil to give man a cheerful and joyous countenance; do thou thyself also now sanctify this water and this oil, through thy Christ, in the name of him or her that hath offered them; and grant them a power to restore health, to drive away diseases, to banish demons, and to disperse all snares, through Christ, our hope; with whom glory, honor, and worship, be to thee, and to the Holy Spirit, forever. Amen.

XXX – The same apostle’s constitution concerning first-fruits and tithes

Concerning first-fruits and tithes, I, the same apostle, further enjoin, that all first-fruits be brought to the Bishop, and to the Presbyters, and to the Deacons, for their maintenance; but let all the tithe be for the maintenance of the rest of the clergy, and of the virgins and widows, and of those under the trial of poverty. For the first-fruits belong to the Priests, and to the Deacons that minister to them.

XXXI – The same apostle’s constitution concerning the remaining oblations

Concerning the residue, I, the same apostle, make this constitution: Those blessed oblations which remain at the Mysteries, let the Deacons distribute among the clergy, according to the mind of the Bishop, or of the Presbyters: to a Bishop, four parts; to a Presbyter, three parts; to a Deacon, two parts; and to the rest, the Sub- deacons, or Readers, or Singers, or Deaconesses, one part. For this is good and acceptable in the sight of God, that every one be honored according to his dignity; for the church is the school, not of confusion, but of good order.

Chapter XXXII – Various canons of Paul the Apostle, concerning those that present themselves to be baptized; whom we are to receive, and whom to reject

And I, Paul, the least of the Apostles, make the following constitutions for you, the Bishops, and Presbyters, and Deacons, in respect to canons: Let those that are beginning to come to the mystery of godliness be brought by the Deacons to the Bishop, or to the Presbyters; and let them be examined as to the causes of their coming to the word of the Lord. And let those that bring them inquire carefully about their character, and give them their testimony. Let their habits and their life be inquired into; and whether they are servants or free persons. And if anyone be a servant, let him be asked who is his master. If he be servant to one of the faithful, let his master be asked if he can give him a good character. If he cannot, let him be rejected, until he show himself to his master to be worthy. But if he give him a good character, let him be admitted. If he be a servant to a heathen, let him be taught to please his master, that the Word be not blasphemed. If, then, he have a wife, or a woman have a husband, let them be taught to be content with each other. But if they be unmarried, let them learn not to commit fornication, but to enter into lawful marriage. But if his master be one of the faithful, and know that he is guilty of fornication, and yet do not give to him a wife, or to the woman a husband, let him be suspended.

Moreover, if anyone have a demon, let him indeed be taught piety, but not received into communion before he be cleansed; yet if death be near, let him be received.

If anyone be a maintainer of harlots, let him either leave off to prostitute women, or let him be rejected. If a prostitute come, let her cease from her lewdness, or let her be rejected. If a maker of idols come, let him either desist from his employment, or let him be rejected. If one belonging to the theatre come, whether it be man or woman; or a charioteer, or a dueller, or a racer, or a superintendent of sports, or an Olympic gamester; or one that playeth on the pipe, or on the lute, or on the harp, at those games; or a pantomimic dancing-master; or a keeper of a grog-shop; let them desist, or them be rejected. If a soldier come, let him be taught to do no injustice, to accuse no man falsely, and to be content with his allotted stipend. If he comply, let him be received; but if he refuse, let him be rejected. He that is guilty of sins not to be named, a sodomite, an effeminate person, a magician, an enchanter, an astrologer, a diviner, a user of magic verses, a juggler, a mountebank, one that maketh amulets, one that goeth round with heathenish ceremonies for purification, a soothsayer, a fortune-teller, an observer of palmistry; he that, when he meeteth another, observeth defects of the eyes or of the feet, an observer of birds, or of cats, or of noises, or of symbolical sounds; let these be proved by time, for the wickedness is hard to be washed away. And if they leave off those practices, let them be received; but, if they do not agree to that, let them be rejected.

Let a concubine, who is servant to an unbeliever, and confineth herself to her master alone, be received; but, if she be incontinent with others, let her be rejected. If one of the faithful have a concubine, if she be a bond-servant, let him leave off that way, and marry lawfully. If she be a free woman, let him marry her lawfully. If he do not, let him be rejected.

He that followeth the Gentile customs, or the Jewish fables, either let him reform, or let him be rejected. If anyone follow the sports of the theatre, or hunting with dogs, or horse-races, or combats, either let him desist, or let him be rejected.

Let him who is to be catechized, be catechized three years. But if anyone be diligent, and have a good will in respect to the business, let him be admitted; for it is not the length of time, but the course of life, that is judged.

He that teacheth, although he be one of the laity, yet, if he be skilful in the Word, and grave in his manners, let him teach. For they shall be all taught of God.

Every one of the faithful, whether male or female, when they rise from sleep, before they go to work, when they have washed themselves, let them pray. If, moreover, any catechetical instruction be held, let the faithful person prefer to his work the word of piety.

Let the believer, whether man or woman, treat servants  kindly, as we have ordained in the foregoing books, and have taught in our Epistles.

Chapter XXXIII – On what days servants are not to work

I Paul, and I Peter, make this constitution: Let the servants work five days; but on the Sabbath, and on the Lord’s day, let them have leisure to go to church, for the doctrine of piety. We have said that the Sabbath is on account of the creation, but the Lord’s day on account of the resurrection. Let servants rest from their work all the Great Week, and that which followeth it; for the one is in memory of the Passion, and the other of the Resurrection. And there is need of their being instructed who it is that suffered, and rose again; and who it is that permitted him to suffer, and raised him again. Let them have rest from their work on the Ascension, because it was the conclusion of the dispensation by Christ. Let them rest at Pentecost, on account of the coming of the Holy Spirit, which was given to those that believed in Christ. Let them rest on the festival of his Birth; for then the unexpected favor was bestowed on men, that the Word of God, Jesus Christ, was born of the virgin Mary, for the salvation of the world. Let them rest on the festival of the Epiphany; for then there was made a manifestation of the divinity of Christ, the Father bearing him testimony at his baptism; and the Comforter, in the form of a dove, indicating to those who were present, the individual respecting whom the testimony was borne. Let them rest on the days of the Apostles; for they were constituted your teachers in respect to Christ, and have deemed you worthy of the Spirit. Let them rest on the day of Stephen, the first martyr; and on the days of the other holy martyrs, who have esteemed Christ more precious than their own life.

Chapter XXXIV – At what hours, and why, we are to pray

Offer up your prayers at the dawn of day, and at the third hour, and the sixth, and the ninth, and at evening, and at cock-crowing: at the dawn, returning thanks, because the Lord hath sent you light, hath led away the night, and brought on the day; at the third hour, because at that hour the Lord received the sentence of condemnation from Pilate; at the sixth, because at that hour he was crucified; at the ninth, because all things were in commotion at the crucifixion of the Lord, as trembling at the bold attempt of the wicked Jews, and not bearing the injury offered to the Lord; at evening, giving thanks, because he hath given you the night, a season of repose from the daily labors; and at cock-crowing, because that hour bringeth the good news of the coming of the day, for the performance of works requiring the light.

But if it be not possible to go to the church, on account of the unbelievers, thou, Bishop, shalt assemble the faithful in some house, that a godly man may not enter into an assembly of the ungodly. For it is not the place that sanctifieth the man, but the man the place. And if the ungodly possess the place, avoid thou it, because it is profaned by them; for as holy priests sanctify a place, so the profane defile it. If it be not possible to assemble either in the church or in a house, let everyone by himself sing, and read, and pray, or two or three together. For where  two or three are gathered together in my name, there am I in the midst of them.

Let not one of the faithful pray with a catechumen; no, not even privately. For it is not reasonable that he who is initiated should be polluted with one not initiated.

Let not one of the godly pray with a heretic; no, not even privately. For what fellowship hath light with darkness?

Let believers, man or woman, connected with servants, withdraw themselves from the illicit intercourse, or be rejected from the church.

Chapter XXXV – A constitution of James, the brother of Christ, concerning Evening Prayer

I James, the brother of Christ according to the flesh, but his servant as the only-begotten God, and one appointed Bishop of Jerusalem by the Lord himself and the apostles, ordain thus:

When it is evening, thou, Bishop, shalt assemble the church; and, after the repetition of the Psalm at the lighting-up of the lights. the Deacon shall bid prayers for the catechumens, the energumens, the persons about to be baptized, and the penitents, as we have before said. But after the dismission of these, the Deacon shall say, So many as are of the faithful, let us pray to the Lord. And after he hath bidden the supplications contained in the first prayer for the faithful, he shall say,

Chapter XXXVI – A bidding Prayer for the Evening

Save us, God, and raise us up by thy Christ.

Let us stand up, and ask for the mercies of the Lord and his compassions; for the angel of peace; for what things are good and profitable; for a Christian departure out of this life; an evening and a night of peace, and free from sin. And let us entreat that the whole course of our life may be unblamable. Let us dedicate ourselves and one another to the living God, through his Christ. And let the Bishop add this prayer, and say,

Chapter XXXVII – A Thanksgiving for the Evening

God, who art without beginning and without end, the Maker of the universe through Christ, and the Provider for it; but, before all, his God and Father; the Lord of the Spirit, and the King of existences conceivable and perceptible; who hast made the day for the works of light, and the night for the refreshment of our infirmity.

 For the day is thine; the night also is thine. Thou hast prepared the light and the sun. Do thou thyself now, Lord, thou lover of mankind, and fountain of all good, mercifully accept this our evening thanksgiving. Thou who hast brought us through the length of the day, and hast brought us to the beginning of the night, preserve us by thy Christ; afford us a peaceful evening, and a night free from sin; and account us worthy of everlasting life, by thy Christ; through whom glory, honor, and worship, be to thee in the Holy Spirit, forever. Amen.

And let th